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Concrete Mix Design

Unit-III
Syllabus
Concrete Mix Design
Mix Design for compressive strength by I.S.
Method, Road Note Method, British method, Mix
Design for flexural Strength

Concrete Mix Design


Concrete mix design may be defines as the art
of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and
determining their relative proportions with the
object of producing concrete of certain minimum
strength & durability as economically as
possible.
Objectives of Mix Design
The purpose of concrete mix design is to ensure the
most optimum proportions of the constituent materials
to fulfill the requirement of the structure being built. Mix
design should ensure following objectives.
To achieve the designed/ desired workability in the
plastic stage
To achieve the desired minimum strength in the
hardened stage
To achieve the desired durability in the given
environment conditions
Basic Considerations
The following point must be considered while designing
concrete mixes
Cost
Specification
Workability
Strength and Durability
Basic Considerations
Cost
The cost of concrete is made up of
Material Cost
Equipment Cost
Labour Cost
The variation in the cost of materials arises from the fact that cement
is several times costlier than aggregates. So it is natural in mix design
to aim at as lean a mix as possible. Therefore, all possible steps should
be taken to reduce the cement content of a concrete mixtures without
sacrificing the desirable properties of concrete such as strength and
durability.
Basic Considerations
Specifications
The following point may be kept in mind while designing
concrete mixes
Minimum Compressive Strength required
Minimum water/ cement ratio
Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracks
Maximum aggregate / cement ratio
Maximum density of concrete in case of gravity dams
Basic Considerations
Basic Considerations
Workability
The following points related to workability shall be kept in mind while
designing concrete mixes.
The consistency of concrete should no more than that necessary for
placing, compacting and finishing.
For concrete mixes required high consistency at the time of placing,
the use of water-reducing and set-retarding admixtures should be
used rather than the addition of more water
Wherever possible, the cohesiveness and finishibility of concrete
should be improved by increasing sand/ aggregate ratio than by
increasing the proportion of the fine particles in the sand.
Workability
Strength and Durability

Strength and durability


Strength and durability require lower w/c ratio. It is
usually achieved not by increasing the cement content,
but by lowering the water at given cement content.
Water demand can by lowered by throughout control of
the aggregate grading and by using water reducing
admixtures.
Strength and Durability
Grade of Concrete
The concrete shall be in grades designated
Group Grade designation Characteristics
compressive strength of
150 mm cube at 28 days,
N/mm2
Ordinary Concrete M10 10
M15 15
M20 20
Standard Concrete M25 25
M30 30
M35 35
M40 40
M45 45
M50 50
M55 55
High Strength Concrete M60 60
M65 65
M70 70
M75 75
M80 80
What is M 20 ?
M refers to Mix
20 refers to characteristic compressive strength
of 150 mm cube at 28 days in N/mm2
The minimum Grade of Plain Concrete (PCC)
shall be 15 N/mm2
The minimum grade of reinforced Concrete
( RCC) shall be 20 N/mm2
Nominal Concrete Mixes
and
Design mix concrete
Nominal Mix Concrete
The wide use of concrete as construction materials has
led to the use of mixes of fixed proportion, which
ensures adequate strength. These mixes are called
nominal mixes.
They offer simplicity and Under normal circumstances,
has margin of strength above that specified.
Nominal mix concrete may be used for concrete of
grades M5, M 7.5, M10, M15 and M20.
Nominal Concrete Mixes
and
Design mix concrete
Proportions of Ingredients in
Nominal Mixes
The proportions of materials for nominal mix shall be in
accordance
Grade Proportions
C: FA: CA
M5 1: 5:10
M 7.5 1:4:8
M 10 1:3:6
M 15 1:2:4
M 20 1:1.5:3
Design Mix Concrete
The concrete mix produced under quality control
keeping in view the strength, durability, and workability
is called the design Mix.
Others factors like compaction equipment's available,
curing method adopted, type of cement, quality of fine
and coarse aggregate etc. have to be kept in mind
before arriving at the mix proportion.
The design mix or controlled mix is being used more
and more in variety of important structures, because of
better strength, reduced variability, leaner mixed with
consequent economy, as well as greater assurance of
Design Mix Concrete
Factors Influencing Choice of
Mix Design
According to IS 456:2000 and IS 1343:1980 the important influencing
the design of concrete mix are
Grade of Concrete
Type of Cement
Maximum nominal Size of Aggregate
Grading of Combined aggregate
Maximum Water/ Cement Ratio
Workability
Durability
Quality Control.
Factors Influencing Choice of
Mix Design
Grade of Concrete
The grade of concrete gives characteristic
compressive strength of concrete. It is one of the
important factor influencing the mix design
The grade M 20 denotes characteristic compressive
strength fck of 20 N/mm2. Depending upon the degree
of control available at site, the concrete mix is to be
designed for a target mean compressive strength (f ck)
applying suitable standard deviation.
Factors Influencing Choice of
Mix Design
Factors Influencing Choice of
Mix Design
Type of Cement
The rate of development of strength of concrete is
influenced by the type of cement.
The higher the strength of cement used in concrete,
lesser will be the cement content. The use of 43 grade
and 53 grade of cement, gives saving in cement
consumption as much as 15 % and 25 % respectively, as
compared to 33 grade of cement. For concrete of grade
M25 it is advisable to use 43 and 53 grade of cement.
Types of Cement
Factors Influencing Choice of
Mix Design
Maximum Nominal Size of Aggregates
The maximum size of C.A is determined by sieve analysis. It is
designated by the sieve size higher than larger size on which 15
% or more of the aggregate is retained. The maximum nominal
size of C.A. should not be more than one-forth of minimum
thickness of the member.
For heavily reinforced concrete members as in the case of ribs of
main beams, the nominal maximum size of the aggregate should
usually be restricted to sum less than the minimum clear
distance between the main bars or 5 mm less the minimum cover
to the reinforcement, whoever is smaller.
The workability of concrete increases with an increase in the
Factors Influencing Choice of
Mix Design
Grading of Combined Aggregates
The relative proportions of the fine and coarse
aggregate in a concrete mix is one of the important
factors affecting the strength of concrete.
For dense concrete, it is essential that the fine and
coarse aggregate be well graded. In the case when
the aggregate available from natural sources do not
confirm to the specified grading, the proportioning of
two or more aggregate become essential
Grading of Combined Aggregates
Factors Influencing Choice of
Mix Design
Maximum Water/ Cement Ratio
Abrams water/Cement ratio states that for any given
condition of test, the strength of a workability concrete
mix is dependent only on water/cement ratio. The lower
the water/Cement ratio, the greater is the compressive
strength
Workability
Workability of fresh concrete determines the case with
which a concrete mixture can be mixed, transported,
placed, compacted and finished without harmful
Factors Influencing Choice of
Mix Design
Durability
Durability require low water/Cement ratio. It is
usually achieved not by increasing the cement
content, but by lowering the water demand at a
given cement content.
Water demand can be lowered by through
control of the aggregate grading and by using
water reducing admixtures
Method of Concrete Mix Design
Some of the commonly used mix design methods are
I.S. Method
A.C.I method
Road Note 4 method ( U.K. Method)
IRC 44 method
Arbitrary method
Maximum Density method
Fineness modulus method
Surface area Method
Nix design for high strength Concrete
Mix design for pumpable Concrete
DOE (British) Mix design method
IS Method of Mix Design
The Bureau of Indian Standards, recommended a set of procedure for design
of concrete mix. The procedure is based on the research work carried out at
national laboratories.
Data for mix design
The following basic data are required to be specified for design a concrete mix
Characteristic Compressive strength only a few specified proportions of test
results are expected to fall of concrete at 28 days (fck)
Degree of workability desired
Limitation on water/Cement Ratio with the minimum cement to ensure
adequate durability
Type and maximum size of aggregate to be used.
Standard deviations of compressive strength of concrete.
IS Method of Mix Design
Target Strength for Mix Design
The target average compressive strength (fck) of concrete at 28 days is given
by

Fck= f ck + t.s
Where,
Fck= target average compressive strength at 28 days
F ck= characteristics compressive strength at 28 days
s= Standard deviation
t= a stastical value, depending upon the accepted proportion of low results
and the number of tests.
IS Method of Mix Design
According to Is 456: 2000 and IS 1343:1980 te
characteristic strength is defined as the value
below which not more than 5 percent of results
are expected to fall. In such cases the above
equation reduced to
Fck= fck + 1.65 s
The value of standard deviation is obtained from
the table
IS Method of Mix Design
IS Method of Mix Design
Step-II
Selection of Water Cement Ratio
Since different cements and aggregates of different
maximum sizes, grading, surface texture shape and
other characteristics may produce concrete of different
compressive strength for the same free water cement
ratio, the relationship between strength and free water
cement ratio should preferable be established for the
material actually to be used. In the absence of such
data, the preliminary free water-cement ratio
corresponding to the target strength at 28 days may be
IS Method of Mix Design
IS Method of Mix Design
Alternatively, the preliminary free water cement
ratio by mass corresponding to the average
strength may be selected from the relationship
shown below using the curve corresponding to
the 28 days cement strength to be used for the
purpose. However, this will need 28 days for
testing of cement.
IS Method of Mix Design
IS Method of Mix Design
The free water-cement ratio thus selected should
be checked against limiting water-cement ratio
for the requirements of durability as per table
5.4 and the lower of the two values should be
adopted.
IS Method of Mix Design
IS Method of Mix Design
Step 3 Estimation of Air Content
Approximate amount of entrapped air to be expected in
normal concrete is given in table 9.6
Nominal Maximum Size of Entrapped Air, as percentage
Aggregates of volume of concrete
10 3%
20 2%
40 1%
IS Method of Mix Design
Selection of Water Content and fine to total
aggregate ratio
For the desired workability the quantity of mixing water
per unit volume of concrete and the ratio of fine
aggregate (sand) to total aggregate by absolute volume
are to be estimated from table below as applicable.
Depending upon the nominal maximum size and type of
aggregate.
IS Method of Mix Design
Approximate Sand and water Content per Cubic Metre of
Concrete for Grades up to M 35 W/C = 0.6 Workability=
0.8 C.F
Nominal Water Content Sand as
Maximum size of per cubic metre percentage of
aggregate (mm) of concrete (kg) total aggregate
by absolute
volume
10 208 40
20 186 35
40 165 30
IS Method of Mix Design
Approximate Sand and Water Content per cubic metre
of concrete for grades above M 35 W/C = 0.35
Workability= 0.8 C.F.
Nominal Maximum Water Content per Sand as
size of Aggregates cubic metre of percentage total
concrete (kg) aggregate by
absolute volume of
(%)
10 200 28
20 180 25
IS Method of Mix Design
Adjustment of values in water content and sand
percentage for other conditions
Change in Adjustment Required
Condition
Water Content Percentage sand in total
aggregate
For sand 0 + 1.5 percent for zone I
confirming to -1.5 percent for zone III
grading Zones I , -3.0 for zone IV
III and IV
Increase or 3% 0
decrease in values
of compacting
factor by 0.1
Each 0.05 0 1%
increase or 3
Calculation of Cement Content
The cement content per unit volume of concrete
may be calculated from the free water-cement
ratio obtained in step- 2, and the quantity of water
per unit volume of concrete obtained in step-4
The cement content so obtained should be checked
against the minimum cement content for the
requirement of durability as per table 5 IS
456:2000 and the greater of the two value is
adopted.
Step -6 Calculation of Aggregate
Content
With the quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete
and the ratio of fine to total aggregate already determined, the total
aggregate content per unit volume of concrete may be calculated from
the following equations
V= [ W + C + 1 x fa ] x 1 for fine aggregate
1
Sc p Sfa 1000
And
V = [ W + C + 1 x Ca ] x 1 for coarse aggregate
..2
Sc (1-p) Sca 1000
Step -6 Calculation of Aggregate
Content
Where,
V= Absolute volume of fresh concrete (m3)
W= Mass of Water (kg) per m3 of concrete
C= Mass of Cement (Kg) per m3 of concrete
Sc= Specific gravity of cement say 3.15
P= ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume
Fa and Ca = Total masses of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate (kg) / m 3
of concrete mass respectively
Sfa, Sca= Specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine aggregate and
coarse aggregate respectively
Normally Sfa= 2.6 and Sca= 2.7
Trial Mixes
The Calculated mix proportions shall be checked
by means of trial batches. The quantity of
material should be sufficient for at least three
150 mm size cube concrete specimens
Example
Using I.S Method design a concrete mix for
reinforced concrete structure for the following
requirement.
Design data
Characteristic compressive strength= 20 N/mm 2

Maximum size of aggregates= 20 mm (angular)


Degree of workability= 0.9 CF
Degree of quality Control= Good
Type of exposure= Mild
Example
Test data for Material
Cement used= Ordinary Portland cement of grade 43 with 28 days strength
51 N/mm2
SG= 3.15
Bulk Density = 1450 kg/m3
Aggregate Fine Aggregate Coarse
Aggregate
SG 2.66 2.75
Bulk Density 1700 1800
Water absorption 1 0.5
Free Moisture 2 Nil
Example
Step-I Target Mean Strength
Fck= fck + ts
fck= 20 N/mm2
T= 1.65
S= 4 from table 9.5 for M 20

Therefore
Fck= 20 + 1.65 x 4
= 26.6 N/mm2 (Mpa)
Example
Step-II
Selection of Water Cement Ratio
From the fig the free water cement ratio required for the target
mean strength of 26.6 N/ mm2 is 0.5
From fig, for 28 days strength of cement 51 N/mm 2, for curve D
the free water cement ratio is 0.52
From table the maximum free water cement ratio for mild
exposure is 0.55
Hence the free water cement ratio is taken as the minimum of
above three values i.e. w/c = 0.5
Example
Step III
Estimation of Air Content
For maximum Size of aggregate of 20 mm, the air
content is taken as 2 %
Example
Step-4 Selection of water and Sand Content
From table 9.7 for 20 mm nominal maximum size
aggregate and sand confirming to grading zone II
water content per cubic metre of concrete = 186 kg and
sand content as percentage of total aggregate by
absolute volume= 35 %
Water= 186 kg/m3 of concrete
Sand= 35 % of total aggregate by absolute volume
Example
For change in values in water cement ratio, compaction
factor and sand belonging to zone III the following
adjustments required.
Change in Condition Water Percentage
Content Sand in total
aggregate
For Decrease in water cement 0 -2.0
ratio
(0.6-0.5) that is 0.1
0.1 x 1 = 2.0
0.05
For increase in compacting factor + 3 0
(0.9 -0.8) = 0.1
0.1 x 3 = 3
0.1
For Sand conforming to Zone III 0 -1.5
Example
Required Water Content = 186 + ( 186 x 3 / 100)
= 186 + 5.58
= 191.6 lit /m3
=
required sand content as percentage of total aggregate
by absolute volume= 35 3.5
=
31.5 %
Example
Determination of Cement Content
Water Cement ratio= 0.5
Water = 191.6 lit= 191.6 kg
Therefore W/c = 0.5
191.6 = 0.5
C
C=383.4 kg/m3
= 383kg/m3 > 300 kg / m3 therefore O.K.
Example
Determination of fine and coarse Aggregates
Consider volume of Concrete= 1 m3
But entrapped air in wet concrete = 2 %
Therefore volume of fresh concrete= 1 2
100
1- 0.02
V= 0.98 m3
Example
With the quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete and
the ratio of fine to total aggregate already determined, the total
aggregate content per unit volume of concrete may be calculated from
the following equations
V= [ W + C + 1 x fa ] x 1 for fine aggregate
1
Sc p Sfa 1000
0.98 = [ 191.6 + 383 + 1 + fa ]x 1
3.15 0.315 2.66 1000
980 = 313.187 + 1.19 fa
fa= 558.75 kg mass of F.A
Example
And
V = [ W + C + 1 x Ca ] x 1 for coarse
aggregate ..2
Sc (1-p) Sca 1000
0.98 = [ 191.6 + 383 x 1 x Ca ]
x 1
3.15 (1-0.315) 2.75
1000
980 = 313.187 + 0.5308 Ca
Example
Water Cement F.A C.A
191.6 li 383 kg 558.75 kg 1256.24 kg
0.5 1 1.46 3.28

Water Cement F.A C.A


383 = 0.264 m 3
558.75 = 0.328 m 1256.24 = 0.698
1450 3
m3
1700 1800
0.5 1.0 1.242 2.644
Example
Water Cement F.A C.A
25 li 50 kg 73 kg 164 kg
Example
Design a Concrete mix for M 25 grade as per IS 10262
for the following data:
Characteristic Compressive Strength in the field at 28
days 25 N/mm2
Maximum Size of Aggregate= 20 mm
Degree of Workability 0.9 CF
Degree of Quality Control= Good
Type of Exposure = Moderate
Example
Test data for Material
Cement Used : Ordinary Portland Cement of Grade 33 satisfying the requirement of IS:
269-1989
Specific Gravity of Cement: 3.15
Specific Gravity;
Coarse Aggregate=2.65
Fine Aggregate= 2.6
Water absorption
Coarse Aggregate 0.6 %
Fine aggregate= 1.2 %
Free moisture
Coarse aggregate Nil
Fine aggregate 2 %
Example
Step-I
Target mean Strength of Concrete
Fck= fck + ts
fck= 25 N/mm2
T= 1.65 from table 9.4
S= 4.0 from table 9.5 for M 25 grade of concrete
Fck= 25 + 1.65 x 4
= 31.6 N/mm2
Example
Step-2
Selection of Water-Cement Ratio
From fig 9.1 the free water cement ratio required for the target mean
strength of 31.6 N/mm 2 is 0.44
Now, from table 5.4 the maximum free water cement ratio for moderate
exposure is 0.5
Hence, the free water cement ratio is taken as the minimum of above two
value i.e

W= 0.44
C
Example
Step III Estimation of air Content
For maximum Size of Aggregate of 20 mm, the air
content is taken as 2.0 %
Example
Step-4
Selection of Water and Sand Content
From table 9.7 for 20 mm nominal maximum size
aggregates and sand confirming to grading Zone-II,
water content per cubic metre of concrete = 186 kg
and sand content as percentage of total aggregate by
absolute volume = 35 % i.e.
Water = 186 kg/m3
Sand = 35 % of total aggregate by absolute Volume.
Example
For Change in values in water-Cement ratio, compaction
factor and sand belonging to zone I the following
adjustments are required.
Change in Condition Adjustment Required
Water Content Percentage Sand in
total Aggregate
(i) For Decrease in Water- 0 -3.2
Cement ratio (0.6 0.44) that
is 0.16
Therefore 0.16 x 1 = 3.2
0.05
(ii) For Increase in Compacting +3 0
factor (0.9 -0.8)= 0.1
Therefore 0.1 x 3 = 3.0
0.1
(iii) For Sand Conforming to 0 +1.5
Zone-I of table 4 of IS 383-1970
Example
Required water Content = 186 + ( 186 x 3 )
100
= 191.6 lit / m3
Required Sand Content as Percentage of Total aggregate
by absoluter Volume
p= 35 1.7
=
33.3 %
Example
Step- V Determination of Cement Content
Water Cement Ratio = 0.44
Water = 191.6 lit = 191.6 kg
Therefore,
W= 0.44
C
191.6 = 0.44
C
C= 435.45 kg/m3 > 300 kg /m3
This cement content is adequate for Moderate Exposure condition, according
to table 5 IS 456-2000)
Example
Determination of fine and Coarse content:
Consider volume of concrete = 1 m3
But, entrapped air in wet concrete= 2 %
Therefore, absolute volume of fresh concrete= 1 2
100
= 1 0.02
V= 0.98 m3
Therefore,
Example
V= [ W + C + 1 x fa ]x 1 for fine aggregate1
Sc p Sfa 1000
And
0.98= [ 191.6 + 436 + 1 + fa ]x 1
3.15 0.33 2.6 1000
980 = 191.6 + 138.41 + 1.15 fa
fa= 562.76 kg
= 563 kg mass of F.A.
Example
Similarly,
V = [ W + C + 1 x Ca ] x 1 for coarse
aggregate..2
Sc (1-p) Sca 1000
0.98 = [ 191.6 + 436 x 1 x Ca ] x 1
3.15 (1-0.333) 2.65 1000
980 = 191.6 + 138.41 + 0.5657 Ca
Ca= 1149 kg/m3 mass of C.A.
Example
Mix Proportions (By Mass)

Water Cement F.A. C.A


191.6 li 436 kg 563 kg 1149 kg
0.44 1 1.29 2.64
Example
Water Cement F.A. C.A
22 li 50 kg 64.5 kg 132 kg
Example
Step 8 Adjustment for water absorption and free surface moisture in
F.A. and C.A
For water Cement ratio of 0.44 quantity of water required = 22 lit
C.A absorbs 0.6 % of water by mass
Therefore extra quantity of water to be added
0.6 x 132 = 0.792 lit (+)
100
F.A contains 2 % free moisture by mass
Quantity of water to be deducted
= 2 x 64.5 = 1.29 (-)
100
Actual quantity of water to be added
= 22 + 0.792 1.29
Example
Actual quantity of sand (FA) required after allowing for
mass of free water
= 64.5 + 1.29 = 65.79 kg
Actual quantity of C.A required
= 132 - 0.792
= 131.21 kg
Water Cement F.A. C.A
21.50 li 50 kg 65.79 kg 131.21 kg
Example
Design a concrete mix from the following data by I.S. method
Target mean Strength= 35 N/mm2
Maximum Size of Aggregate = 20 mm
W/C ratio = 0.43
Water required per m3 of concrete= 190 kg
Sand as percentage of total aggregate by absolute Volume = 35 %
Entrapped air in concrete= 2 %
Sp gravity of Cement= 3.15
Sp gravity of fine aggregate= 2.6
Sp gravity of Coarse aggregate.= 2.7
Example
Step-I Target mean Strength
Fck=35 N/mm2
Step-II Selection of Water-Cement Ratio:
W/C ratio = 0.43
Step-III Estimation of air Content
Entrapped air = 2 %
Step-IV
Selection of water and sand Content
Quantity of water per m3 of concrete = 190 kg
Sand Content = 35 % of total aggregate by absolute Volume
Example
Step-V
Cement Content
Water-Cement Ratio = 0.43
Water = 190 kg
W = 0.43
c
190 = 0.43
C
C= 441 .86 kg/m3
Example
Determination of F.A and C.A Content
Consider Volume of Concrete = 1 m 3
But, entrapped air = 2 %
Therefore Absolute Volume of press Concrete
V= 1 2
100
V= 0.98 m3
Example
V= [ W + C + 1 x fa ] x 1 for fine
aggregate 1
Sc p Sfa 1000
0.98 = [ 190 + 442 + 1+ fa ]x 1
3.15 0.35 2.6 1000
0.98 = [ 190 + 140.32 + 1.098 fa] x 1
1000
fa= 591.69 kg/m3
fa= 592 kg/m3 Mass of FA
Example
Similarly,
V = [ W + C + 1 x Ca ] x 1 for coarse
aggregate..2
Sc (1-p) Sca 1000
0.98 = [ 190 + 442 x 1 x Ca ] x 1
3.14 (1-0.35) 2.7 1000
980 = 190 + 140.32 + 0.569 Ca
Ca= 1142 kg/m3 Mass of CA
Example
Mix Proportion (by mass)
Water Cement F.A C.A
190 442 592 1142
0.43 1 1.34 2.58

Quantity for 1 bag of Cement


Water Cement F.A C.A
21.5 50 67 129
The ACI Method of Mix Design
In the USA the method suggested by ACI is widely used. It
has the advantages of simplicity in that it applies equally
well, and with more or less identical procedure to rounded or
angular aggregate, to normal or lightweight aggregate and
to air-entrained or non-air-entrained concretes.
The ACI method is based on the fact that for a given size of
well graded aggregates water content is largely independent
of mix proportions, i.e. Water content regardless of variation
in water/cement ratio and cement content.
The ACI Method of Mix Design
This method assumes that the optimum ratio of
the bulk volume of coarse aggregates and on the
grading of fineness aggregates regardless of
shape of particles. This method also assumes
that even after complete compaction is done, a
definite percentage of air remains which is
inversely proportional to the maximum size of
aggregate.
The ACI Method of Mix Design
The steps by steps operation in the ACI method are
Step-1 Data to be collected
Fineness modulus of FA
Unit weight of dry CA
Specific gravity of FA and CA saturated surface dry
condition.
Specific gravity of Cement
Absorptions characteristics of both CA and FA
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Step-2
Calculation mean design Strength, from the minimum
strength specified, using standard deviation:
fm= fmin + K.S
Where,
F m= Specified minimum strength (Characteristic
Strength)
K= Constant dependency upon the probability of certain
no of results likely to fall fck= taken from table 9.4
IS Method of Mix Design
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Step-3 Estimation of Water-Cement Ratio
Water Cement ratio is estimated from table 9.10 for the
mean design Strength.
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Average Compressive Effective Water-Cement Ratio (By Mass)
Strength at 28 days Non-Air Entrained Air-entrained Concrete
Concrete

45 0.38 -
40 0.43 -
35 0.48 0.4
30 0.55 0.46
25 0.62 0.53
20 0.7 0.61
15 0.8 0.71
The ACI Method of Mix Design
The water Cement ratio obtained from Strength
point of view is to be checked against maximum
W/C Ratio given for special exposure condition
given in table 9.11 and minimum of the two is to
be adopted.
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Requirement of ACI for W/C Ratio and Strength for
Special Exposure Condition
Exposure Condition Maximum W/C ratio, Minimum Design Strength,
normal density aggregate low Density aggregate
concrete Concrete, MPA
Concrete Intended to be
Watertight 0.5 25
(a)Exposed to fresh Water 0.45 30
(b)Exposed to brackish or
sea Water
Concrete Exposed to freezing and Thawing in a moist Condition:

(a) Kerbs, gutters, guard 0.45 30


rails or thin sections
Other elements 0.5 25
In presence of de-icing 0.45 30
chemicals
For corrosion protection of 0.4 30
reinforced concrete
exposed to de-icing salts,
brackish water, sea water
or spray from the sources.
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Decide maximum size of aggregate to be Used.
Generally RCC work 20 mm and Pre-stressed Concrete
10 mm Size are Used
Decide Workability in terms of slump for the type of job
in hand. General guidance can be taken from table 9.12.
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Type of Construction Range of slump mm
Reinforced foundation walls and 20-80
footings
Plain footing, cassions and 20-80
substructure wall
Beams and Reinforced Wall 20-100
Building Column 20-100
Pavement and Slabs 20-80
Mass Concrete 20-80
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Step-4 Minimum Water Content and entrapped air
content:
Decide maximum size of aggregate to be used.
Generally for RCC work 20 mm and for pre-stressed
concrete 10 mm size are used.
Decide workability in terms of slump for the type of job
in hand. Recommended value of slump for various types
of construction as given in table 9.12
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Step-5 Cement Content
Cement Content is computed by dividing the water
content by the water/ Cement Ratio
Step-6
Bulk Volume of Dry Rodded Coarse Aggregate per Unit
Volume of Concrete
Table 9.13 for a decided value of slump and maximum
size of aggregate, decide the mixing water content and
entrapped air content.
Table 9.13
Workabili Water Content, kg/m 3
of Concrete for indicated maximum
ty aggregate Size
Non- air entrained Concrete
Workability 10 12.5 20mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 m 70 mm 150 mm
mm mm
Slump 30- 205 200 185 180 160 155 145 125
50 mm
80-100 225 215 200 195 175 170 160 140
mm
150-180 240 230 210 205 185 180 170 -
mm
Approx 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0.3 0,2
entrapped
air content
Table 9.13
Workabilit Water Content, kg/m 3
of Concrete for indicated maximum
y aggregate Size
Air entrained Concrete
Workability 10 12.5 20mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 m 70 mm 150 mm
mm mm
Slump 30- 180 175 165 160 145 140 135 120
50 mm
80-100 mm 200 190 180 175 160 155 150 135
150-180 215 205 190 185 170 165 160 -
mm
Table 9.13
Workab Water
Workabilit Water
Content,
Content,
kg/m kg/m
3
of Concrete
3
of Concrete
for indicated
for maximum
indicated aggregate
maximum
y
ility Size
aggregate Size
Air Air
entrained
entrained
Concrete
Concrete

Recom 104.5
mm 12.54 20mm
3.5 253.0
mm 402.5
mm 502.0
m 701.5
mm 150 mm
1.0
mende mm
Slump
d air 180 175 165 160 145 140 135 120
30-50
Conten
mmt
Mild
80-100 200 190 180 175 160 155 150 135
Exposu
mm
re
150-180 215 205 190 185 170 165 160 -
Modera
mm 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0
te
Exposu
re
Extrem 7.5 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0
e
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Knowing the values of maximum size of coarse
aggregates and fineness modulus (FM) of fine
aggregate, bulk volume of dry rodded aggregate per
unit volume of concrete is selected from table 9.14
Dry Bulk of Coarse Aggregate per unit Volume of
Concrete as Given by ACI
Maximum Size Bulk Volume of Dry Rodded Coarse Aggregate per unit volume
of Aggregate of concrete for fineness modulus of sand

FM 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0


10 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.44
12.5 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53
20 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.6
25 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65
40 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69
50 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72
70 0.82 0.8 0.78 0.76
150 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81
(a)The value given will produce a mix that is suitable for reinforced concrete
construction. For less workable concrete the value may be increased by 10
percent for workable concrete such as pumpable concrete the value may be
reduced by upto 10 percent
(b)From the minimum strength specified estimate the average design strength
either by using coefficient of variation
(c)Find the water/cement ratio from the table 9.14
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Step-7
The weight of CA per cubic metre of Concrete is
Calculated by multiplying the bulk Volume with
bulk density of CA
Step-8 Estimate of Density of fresh Concrete
Knowing the maximum Size of Coarse
Aggregates, the density of fresh Concrete is
estimated as
The ACI Method of Mix Design
First Estimate of Density of Fresh Concrete as Given by
ACI Maximum Size of Non air-entrained Airentrained kg/m
3

Aggregates air kg/m3


10 2285 2190
12.5 2315 2235
20 2355 2280
25 2375 2315
40 2420 2355
50 2445 2375
70 2465 2400
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Step-9
Absolute volumes of ingredients per cubic metre of concrete are
obtained by knowing the specific gravity of cement, water CA and FA
Step- 10
Trial mix proportions are calculated and adjustments for field conditions
like free moisture and water absorption by aggregates are made.
Step-11
A trial mix is then made to study the properties of concrete in respect of
workability, cohesiveness, finishing quality and 28 days compressive
strength. The proportion of CA and FA may be changed to get desired
properties.
Example-I
Design a Concrete mix Using ACI method for a multi-Storied building for the
following data
28 days characteristic Compressive Strength= 30 Mpa
Type of Cement Available= Ordinary Portland Cement
Desired Slump= 80-100 mm
Maximum Size of aggregate = 20 mm
Standard Deviation from past Records = 4.5 Mpa
Specific Gravities for FA= 2.65
Specific Gravity for CA= 2.7
For Cement= 3.15
Bulk density of CA= 1600 kg/m3
Fineness modulus of FA= 2.8
CA absorbed 1 % moisture and sand
Contains 1.5 % free surface moisture
Assume any other data
Example-I
Solution
Step-I
Mean Design Strength
fm= fmin + K.S
= 30 + 1.65 x 4.5
= 37.425 Mpa
From table 9.4
Assume 5 % of test results are expected fall
K= 1.65
Example-I
Step-II
Estimation of Water-Cement Ratio
From table 9.1 for mean design strength of 37.425 Mpa,
the estimated W/C ratio is 0.45
From table 9.11, for exposure condition concrete
intended to be watertight and exposed to fresh water,
the maximum
w/C ratio is 0.5
Hence adopt a water cement ratio of 0.45
The ACI Method of Mix Design
Average Compressive Effective Water-Cement Ratio (By Mass)
Strength at 28 days Non-Air Entrained Air-entrained Concrete
Concrete

45 0.38 -
40 0.43 -
35 0.48 0.4
30 0.55 0.46
25 0.62 0.53
20 0.7 0.61
15 0.8 0.71
Exposure Condition Maximum W/C ratio, Minimum Design Strength,
normal density aggregate low Density aggregate
concrete Concrete, MPA
Concrete Intended to be
Watertight 0.5 25
(a)Exposed to fresh Water 0.45 30
(b)Exposed to brackish or
sea Water
Concrete Exposed to freezing and Thawing in a moist Condition:

(a) Kerbs, gutters, guard 0.45 30


rails or thin sections
Other elements 0.5 25
In presence of de-icing 0.45 30
chemicals
For corrosion protection of 0.4 30
reinforced concrete
exposed to de-icing salts,
brackish water, sea water
or spray from the sources.
Example-I
Mixing water content and entrapped air content
Maximum size of aggregates = 20 mm
Desired Slump= 80-100
Therefore from table 9.13
Mixing water Content = 200 kg/m3 of Concrete
Entrapped air Content = 2 %
Table 9.13
Workabili Water Content, kg/m 3
of Concrete for indicated maximum
ty aggregate Size
Non- air entrained Concrete
Workabili 10 12.5 20mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 m 70 mm 150
ty mm mm mm
Slump 30- 205 200 185 180 160 155 145 125
50 mm
80-100 225 215 200 195 175 170 160 140
mm
150-180 240 230 210 205 185 180 170 -
mm
Approx 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0.3 0,2
entrapped
air content
Table 9.13
Workabilit Water Content, kg/m 3
of Concrete for indicated maximum
y aggregate Size
Air entrained Concrete
Workability 10 12.5 20mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 m 70 mm 150 mm
mm mm
Slump 30- 180 175 165 160 145 140 135 120
50 mm
80-100 mm 200 190 180 175 160 155 150 135
150-180 215 205 190 185 170 165 160 -
mm
Table 9.13
Recom 4.5 4 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0
mende
d air
Conten
t
Mild
Exposu
re
Modera 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0
te
Exposu
re
Extrem 7.5 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0
e
Exposu
re
Example-I
Step-4
Cement Content
W/C ratio = 0.45
200 = 0.45
C
C= 445 kg/m3
Water = 200 kg/m3 of concrete
Example-I
Step-5
Bulk Volume of Dry Rodded CA:
Maximum Size of CA= 20 mm
Fineness modulus of FA= 2.8
Therefore table 9.14
The bulk volume of dry rodded CA is 0.62 per unit
volume of Concrete
Maximum Size Bulk Volume of Dry Rodded Coarse Aggregate per unit volume
of Aggregate of concrete for fineness modulus of sand

FM 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0


10 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.44
12.5 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53
20 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.6
25 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65
40 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69
50 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72
70 0.82 0.8 0.78 0.76
150 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81
(a)The value given will produce a mix that is suitable for reinforced concrete
construction. For less workable concrete the value may be increased by 10
percent for workable concrete such as pumpable concrete the value may be
reduced by upto 10 percent
(b)From the minimum strength specified estimate the average design strength
either by using coefficient of variation
(c)Find the water/cement ratio from the table 9.14
Example-I
Step-6
Weight of CA = 0.62 x 1600
= 992 kg/m3
Therefore density of CA is 1600 kg/m3
Example-I
Step-7
Dry density of fresh Concrete
For maximum Size of CA = 200 mm and non air
entrained Concrete,
From table 9.15 dry density of fresh Concrete
= 2355 kg/m3
Example-I
Step-8
Mass of all the known Ingredient of Concrete
Mass of water= 200 kg/m3
Mass of Cement= 445 kg/m3
Mass of CA= 992 kg/m3
Mass of FA = 2355-[ 200 + 445 + 992]
= 718 kg/m3
Example-I
Sr.no Ingredient Mass, kg/m3 Absolute Volume
m3
1 Cement 445 445 =
0.141 m3
3.15 x 1000
2 Water 200 200= 0.2 m3
1 x 1000
3 CA 992 992 = 0.367
m3
2.7 x 1000
4 Entrapped Air 2% 2 x 1 = 0.02 %
100

Total Absolute 0.728 m3


Volume
Hence, Volume of FA required = 1-0.728
= 0.272 m 3
Mass of FA = 0.272 x 2.65 x 1000
= 720.8 kg/m 3
Adopt mass of FA = 720.8 kg/m 3

= 721 kg/m 3
Estimated quantities of material per cubic metre of
concrete are
Cement= 445 kg
FA= 721 kg
CA= 992 kg
Water= 200 kg
Example-I
Density of fresh Concrete is 2358 kg/m3 as against 2355
Water Cement F.A C.A
200 445 kg 721 kg 992 kg
0.45 1 1.62 2.23

Water Cement F.A C.A


22.5 kg 50 kg 81 kg 111.5
Example-I
Adjustment for water absorption and free surface moisture
F.A Contains 1.5 % free surface moisture
Total surface moisture of FA = 1.5 x 721
100
= 10.82 kg (-)
Mass of FA in field condition = 721 + 10.82
= 731.83 kg/m3
Say 732 kg/m3
CA absorbs 1 % of moisture,
Quantity of water absorbed by CA = 1 x 992
100
= 9.92 kg (+)
Therefore mass of CA in field Condition = 992 9.92
= 982 kg/m3
Example-I
Net Quantity of Mix Water = 200 -10.82+ 9.92
= 199.10 kg
Final mix proportions (for 1 m3 of concrete)

Water Cement F.A. C.A.


199.10 kg 445 kg 732 kg 982 kg
The British Method
The traditional British method has been replaced by the department of the
environment for normal mixes, known as DOE(British) mix design method.
The following steps are Involved in DOE Method
Step-I
Find the target mean strength from the specified Characteristic Strength
ft= fck + k.S
Where,
ft= target mean strength
fck= characteristic Strength
S= Standard Deviation
K= risk factor or probability factor

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Step-II
Determination of free water cement ratio
From the given type of cement and aggregate, obtain
the compressive strength of concrete corresponding to
free w/c
Type of
Cement
ratio of
Type of
Coarse
0.5
3 7 28 91

Aggregate
Ordinary or Uncrushed 22 30 42 49
Sulphate Crushed 27 36 49 56
Resisting
Cement
Rapid Uncrushed 29 37 48 54
Hardening Crushed 34 43 55 61
Portland
Cement

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Now adopt the pair of data i.e. compressive strength
read from table 9.16 and w/c ratio mark point P.
Through this point draw a dotted curve parallel to
neighbouring curve. Using this new curve we read the
w/c ratio as against target strength ft calculated in step
1
Minimu 30 35 40 45 50
m
Check this w/c ratio
grade for durability considerations and
adopt the lower
m
value
Maximu
w/c
0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 0.45

ratio
Maximu 275 300 325 350 400
m
cement
content
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
Fig.1 Relation between
compressive strength
and free water cement
ratio
mark a point corresponding
to strength f1, at water cement
ratio 0.5.
draw a curve parallel to the
nearest curve, through this
point
Using the new curve,
Read off ( abscissa) the water
cement ratio
corresponding to the target
mean strength (ordinate) Free water-cement
ratio
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
Step-3
Determination of water Content
Depending upon the type and maximum nominal size of aggregate
and workability the water content is estimated as
W= 2 W fa + 1 W ca
3 3
Where,
W fa= free water content appropriate to the type of fine aggregate
W ca= free water content appropriate to the type of coarse
aggregate

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Level of Very Low Low Medium High
Workability
Description Slump 0-10 10-30 30-60 60-180
Vee-bee >12 12-6 6-3 3-0
Compaction 0.75- 0.85 0.85-0.9 0.9- 0.93 >0.93
Factor
Maximu Type of Water Content
m Size aggrega
of Agg te
10 mm Uncrushe 150 180 205 225
d
Crushed 180 205 230 250
20 Uncrushe 135 160 180 195
d
Crushed 170 190 210 225
40 Uncrushe 115 140 160 175
d
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
Crushed 155 175 190 205
Reduction in water content when fly ash is Used

% of fly Reduction Water Kg/m3


ash in content
10 5 5 5 10
20 10 10 10 15
30 15 15 20 20
40 20 20 25 25
50 25 25 30 30

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Step 4 - Determination of Cement Content
The Cement Content if the mix is calculated from the
selected w/c ratio
Cement Content = water content
W/C ratio

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Step-5
Determination of aggregate Cement Ratio
Absolute volume occupied by the aggregate
= 1- Cement Content (kg) Water Content (kg)
1000 x Sc 1000 x Sw
Where, Sc= Specific gravity of cement particles
Therefore Total aggregate content (kg/m 3)
= absolute volume occupied by the aggregate x 1000x Sa
Where Sa= Specific gravity of aggregate
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
Step-6 Determination of FA and CA
Depending on the free water cement ratio, the nominal maximum size
of coarse aggregate, the workability and grading zone of fine
aggregate is determined from fig 9.5 (a), 9.5 (b) and 9.5 (c)
Once the proportion of FA is obtained, multiplying by the weight of
total aggregate gives the weight of fine aggregate. Then coarse
aggregate is calculated as
Fine aggregate content = total aggregate content x proportion of fine
aggregate
Coarse aggregate content = Total aggregate content fine aggregate
content

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Determination of FA and CA
Determination of FA and CA
FIG 3- Recommended proportion of fine
aggregate as a function of free water cement
ratio
Proportion of Different sizes of CA
Aggregate 4.75- 10 mm 10-20 mm 20-40 mm
Type-I 33 67 -
Type-II 18 27 55

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Step-7
Determination of final Proportion
The proportion so worked out should be tried for their
specified strength and suitable adjustment are made to
obtain the proportion.

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Example
Design a Concrete mix Using, DOE Method for a reinforced Concrete Work for the
following data:
Required Characteristic Compressive Strength= 35 Mpa at 28 days
Type of Cement Used= Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement
Desired Slump= 50 mm
Maximum Size of Aggregate= 20 mm
Type of Aggregate= Uncrushed
Specific Gravity = 2.65
Fine aggregate conforms to grade Zone III with percent passing 600 micron sieve
being 70 %
Exposure Condition = Moderate
Standard Deviation= 5.0 Defective Rate= 5 %

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Example
Mix Design Without fly ash:
Target Mean Strength:
Ft= fck+ kS
fck= 35 N/mm 2

Standard Deviation= 5.0


K= 1.65
ft= 35 + 1.65 x 5
= 43.25 N/mm 2

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Example
Determination of free Water-Cement Ratio
For type of Cement Sulphate resisting Portland cement and
uncrushed aggregate 28 days compressive strength from table 9.16
is 42 MPA
For Compressive Strength equal to 42 MPA and w/c ratio 0.5, mark P
in fig and draw a dotted curve parallel to the neighbouring curve
Using this new curve again ft= 43.25 N/mm2 the W/C ratio is read as
0.48
From table 9.17 from durability point of view the maximum w/c ratio
is 0.6
Hence Adopt the minimum w/c ratio as 0.48

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Example
Step-3
Determination of Water Content:
For Desired slump = 50 mm
Maximum size of CA= 20 mm
From table 9.18 water content is 180 kg/m3

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Example
Step-4 Determination of Cement Content:
W/C ratio obtained from step 2 is 0.48 and water is 180
kg/m3
W/C = 0.48
180 = 0.48
C
Therefore C= 375 kg/m3 of Concrete
This is satisfactory as it is greater than minimum Cement
Content of 300 kg/m3
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
Example
Step: 5
Aggregate Cement Ratio
Specific gravity of aggregate is 2.65
Therefore fig 9.4 wet density of concrete is 2400 kg/m3
Therefore mass of total aggregate
= 2400 180- 375
= 1845 kg/m3
Alternatively Volume occupied by aggregate
= 1- 375 180 = 0.7009 m3
100x 3.15 1000 x 1
Therefore total Aggregate Content
= 0.7009 x 1000 x 2.65
= 1875 kg/m3

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Example
Step-6 Determination of FA and CA Content
For, Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm
Slump= 50 mm
Free W/C ratio = 0.48
Percent aggregate Passing
600 micron sieve = 70 %
From fig 9.5 (b) the proportion of fine aggregate i.s 30 %
Mass of FA = 30 x 1875 = 557 kg/m3
100
Mass of CA = 1875 557.1
= 1299.9 kg/m3
= 1300 kg/m3

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Example
Step 7
The estimated Quantity are:

Water Cement F.A C.A


180 kg 375 kg 557 kg 1300 kg
0.48 1 1.485 3.46

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


Road Note No. 4
Method Of Mix
Design

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN


ROAD NOTE No. 4 METHOD OF MIX DESIGN

Proposed by the Road Research Laboratory, UK (1950)

Introduction
In this method, the aggregate to cement ratios are worked out on the basis
of type of aggregate, max size of aggregate and different levels of workability.
The relative proportion of aggregates is worked on basis of combined
grading curves. This method facilitates use of different types of fine and coarse
aggregates in the same mix.
The relative proportion of these can be easily calculated from combined
grading curves.
The values of aggregate to cement ratio are available for angular rounded
or irregular coarse aggregate.
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 156
Procedure
1. The average compressive strength of the mix to be designed is obtained by applying
control factors to the minimum compressive strength.

2. w/c ratio is read from compressive strength v/s w/c ratio graph.

3. Proportion of combined aggregates to cement is determined from tables, for


maximum size 40 mm and 20 mm.

4. If the aggregate available differs from the standard grading, combine FA and CA so as
to produce one of the standard grading.

5. The proportion of cement, water, FA and CA is determined from knowing the


water/cement ratio and the aggregate/cement ratio.

6. Calculate the quantities of ingredients required to produce 1 m 3 of concrete, by the


absolute volume method, using the specific gravities of cement and aggregates.

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 157


Method In Detail
Find The Target Mean Strength
Concrete is designed for strength higher than characteristic
strength
as a margin for statistical variation in results and variation in
degree of
control exercised at site. This higher strength is defined as the
target mean
strength.

Target mean strength = Characteristic strength + K * s

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 158


Determine water/cement ratio
The relation between Target Mean Strength and water
cement ratio
for different cement curves is given in IS 10262

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 159


Finding cement
content

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 160


The Relative Proportion Are
Worked Out
A trial proportion is taken and combined gradation
is worked out for e.g.
35% fine aggregate 20% 10mm down aggregate,
45% 20mm down aggregate.

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 161


Combined gradation is plotted and pushed towards
Ideal curve by increasing or decreasing the sand
content

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 162


Calculation Of Cement
Content
Cement Content (Kg/m3) = Plastic density /(1+a/c ratio + w/c ratio)

If weight of cement is C the total weight per m3 will be


C +1.45C + 0.75C +1.6C + 0.46C=5.26C

Plastic Density

Sc= Specific gravity of cement


Sfa =Specific gravity of fine aggregate
Sca10=Specific gravity of 10mm coarse aggregate
Sca20=Specific gravity of 20mm coarse aggregate
W/c = water to cement ratio
Ea = Entrapped air %

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 163


Drawbacks Of Road Note No. 4 Method

This method
This
method leads
leads to
to very
very high
high cement
cement contents
contents and
and thus
thus
is becoming
is becoming obsolete.
obsolete.

In many
In
many cases
cases use
use ofof gap
gap graded
graded aggregate
aggregate becomes
becomes
unavoidable. In
unavoidable. In many
many parts
parts of
of the
the country
country the
the practice
practice isis to
to
use 20mm
use 20mm coarse
coarse aggregates
aggregates without
without 10mm
10mm aggregates.
aggregates.
This is
This is because
because of
of quality
quality of
of 10mm
10mm aggregates
aggregates produced
produced
from jaw
from jaw crusher
crusher is
is very
very poor
poor .Gap
.Gap grading
grading does
does not
not fit
fit in
in to
to
the standard
the standard combined
combined grading
grading curves
curves of
of RRL
RRL method.
method.

Sand available
Sand
available in
in some
some parts
parts of
of country
country is is graded
graded that
that it
it is
is
high on
high on coarse
coarse fraction
fraction (1.18mm
(1.18mm and and above)
above) and
and low
low onon
fines (600micron
fines (600micron andand below).
below). It It is
is difficult
difficult to
to adjust
adjust the
the sand
sand
content to
content to match
match any
any of of the
the standard
standard combined
combined grading
grading
curves .The
curves .The combined
combined grading
grading curve
curve often
often cuts
cuts across
across more
more
than one
than one standard
standard curves
curves
CONCRETE in such
in
MIX DESIGNsuch cases
cases 164
Different aggregate to cement ratios are
given for different levels of workability
ranging from low to high. But these levels
of workability are not defined in terms of
slump, compaction factor or Vee Bee time
as in case of other methods.

The fine aggregate content cannot be


adjusted for different cement contents.
Hence the richer mixes and leaner mixes
may have same sand proportion, for a
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 165
given set of materials.
References
Concrete Technology by: R.P. Rethaliya
Concrete Technology by . M.S. Shetty

Internet websites
http://www.foundationsakc.org/
Thanks

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN