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Unit-III

Syllabus

Concrete Mix Design

Mix Design for compressive strength by I.S.

Method, Road Note Method, British method, Mix

Design for flexural Strength

Concrete mix design may be defines as the art

of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and

determining their relative proportions with the

object of producing concrete of certain minimum

strength & durability as economically as

possible.

Objectives of Mix Design

The purpose of concrete mix design is to ensure the

most optimum proportions of the constituent materials

to fulfill the requirement of the structure being built. Mix

design should ensure following objectives.

To achieve the designed/ desired workability in the

plastic stage

To achieve the desired minimum strength in the

hardened stage

To achieve the desired durability in the given

environment conditions

Basic Considerations

The following point must be considered while designing

concrete mixes

Cost

Specification

Workability

Strength and Durability

Basic Considerations

Cost

The cost of concrete is made up of

Material Cost

Equipment Cost

Labour Cost

The variation in the cost of materials arises from the fact that cement

is several times costlier than aggregates. So it is natural in mix design

to aim at as lean a mix as possible. Therefore, all possible steps should

be taken to reduce the cement content of a concrete mixtures without

sacrificing the desirable properties of concrete such as strength and

durability.

Basic Considerations

Specifications

The following point may be kept in mind while designing

concrete mixes

Minimum Compressive Strength required

Minimum water/ cement ratio

Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracks

Maximum aggregate / cement ratio

Maximum density of concrete in case of gravity dams

Basic Considerations

Basic Considerations

Workability

The following points related to workability shall be kept in mind while

designing concrete mixes.

The consistency of concrete should no more than that necessary for

placing, compacting and finishing.

For concrete mixes required high consistency at the time of placing,

the use of water-reducing and set-retarding admixtures should be

used rather than the addition of more water

Wherever possible, the cohesiveness and finishibility of concrete

should be improved by increasing sand/ aggregate ratio than by

increasing the proportion of the fine particles in the sand.

Workability

Strength and Durability

Strength and durability require lower w/c ratio. It is

usually achieved not by increasing the cement content,

but by lowering the water at given cement content.

Water demand can by lowered by throughout control of

the aggregate grading and by using water reducing

admixtures.

Strength and Durability

Grade of Concrete

The concrete shall be in grades designated

Group Grade designation Characteristics

compressive strength of

150 mm cube at 28 days,

N/mm2

Ordinary Concrete M10 10

M15 15

M20 20

Standard Concrete M25 25

M30 30

M35 35

M40 40

M45 45

M50 50

M55 55

High Strength Concrete M60 60

M65 65

M70 70

M75 75

M80 80

What is M 20 ?

M refers to Mix

20 refers to characteristic compressive strength

of 150 mm cube at 28 days in N/mm2

The minimum Grade of Plain Concrete (PCC)

shall be 15 N/mm2

The minimum grade of reinforced Concrete

( RCC) shall be 20 N/mm2

Nominal Concrete Mixes

and

Design mix concrete

Nominal Mix Concrete

The wide use of concrete as construction materials has

led to the use of mixes of fixed proportion, which

ensures adequate strength. These mixes are called

nominal mixes.

They offer simplicity and Under normal circumstances,

has margin of strength above that specified.

Nominal mix concrete may be used for concrete of

grades M5, M 7.5, M10, M15 and M20.

Nominal Concrete Mixes

and

Design mix concrete

Proportions of Ingredients in

Nominal Mixes

The proportions of materials for nominal mix shall be in

accordance

Grade Proportions

C: FA: CA

M5 1: 5:10

M 7.5 1:4:8

M 10 1:3:6

M 15 1:2:4

M 20 1:1.5:3

Design Mix Concrete

The concrete mix produced under quality control

keeping in view the strength, durability, and workability

is called the design Mix.

Others factors like compaction equipment's available,

curing method adopted, type of cement, quality of fine

and coarse aggregate etc. have to be kept in mind

before arriving at the mix proportion.

The design mix or controlled mix is being used more

and more in variety of important structures, because of

better strength, reduced variability, leaner mixed with

consequent economy, as well as greater assurance of

Design Mix Concrete

Factors Influencing Choice of

Mix Design

According to IS 456:2000 and IS 1343:1980 the important influencing

the design of concrete mix are

Grade of Concrete

Type of Cement

Maximum nominal Size of Aggregate

Grading of Combined aggregate

Maximum Water/ Cement Ratio

Workability

Durability

Quality Control.

Factors Influencing Choice of

Mix Design

Grade of Concrete

The grade of concrete gives characteristic

compressive strength of concrete. It is one of the

important factor influencing the mix design

The grade M 20 denotes characteristic compressive

strength fck of 20 N/mm2. Depending upon the degree

of control available at site, the concrete mix is to be

designed for a target mean compressive strength (f ck)

applying suitable standard deviation.

Factors Influencing Choice of

Mix Design

Factors Influencing Choice of

Mix Design

Type of Cement

The rate of development of strength of concrete is

influenced by the type of cement.

The higher the strength of cement used in concrete,

lesser will be the cement content. The use of 43 grade

and 53 grade of cement, gives saving in cement

consumption as much as 15 % and 25 % respectively, as

compared to 33 grade of cement. For concrete of grade

M25 it is advisable to use 43 and 53 grade of cement.

Types of Cement

Factors Influencing Choice of

Mix Design

Maximum Nominal Size of Aggregates

The maximum size of C.A is determined by sieve analysis. It is

designated by the sieve size higher than larger size on which 15

% or more of the aggregate is retained. The maximum nominal

size of C.A. should not be more than one-forth of minimum

thickness of the member.

For heavily reinforced concrete members as in the case of ribs of

main beams, the nominal maximum size of the aggregate should

usually be restricted to sum less than the minimum clear

distance between the main bars or 5 mm less the minimum cover

to the reinforcement, whoever is smaller.

The workability of concrete increases with an increase in the

Factors Influencing Choice of

Mix Design

Grading of Combined Aggregates

The relative proportions of the fine and coarse

aggregate in a concrete mix is one of the important

factors affecting the strength of concrete.

For dense concrete, it is essential that the fine and

coarse aggregate be well graded. In the case when

the aggregate available from natural sources do not

confirm to the specified grading, the proportioning of

two or more aggregate become essential

Grading of Combined Aggregates

Factors Influencing Choice of

Mix Design

Maximum Water/ Cement Ratio

Abrams water/Cement ratio states that for any given

condition of test, the strength of a workability concrete

mix is dependent only on water/cement ratio. The lower

the water/Cement ratio, the greater is the compressive

strength

Workability

Workability of fresh concrete determines the case with

which a concrete mixture can be mixed, transported,

placed, compacted and finished without harmful

Factors Influencing Choice of

Mix Design

Durability

Durability require low water/Cement ratio. It is

usually achieved not by increasing the cement

content, but by lowering the water demand at a

given cement content.

Water demand can be lowered by through

control of the aggregate grading and by using

water reducing admixtures

Method of Concrete Mix Design

Some of the commonly used mix design methods are

I.S. Method

A.C.I method

Road Note 4 method ( U.K. Method)

IRC 44 method

Arbitrary method

Maximum Density method

Fineness modulus method

Surface area Method

Nix design for high strength Concrete

Mix design for pumpable Concrete

DOE (British) Mix design method

IS Method of Mix Design

The Bureau of Indian Standards, recommended a set of procedure for design

of concrete mix. The procedure is based on the research work carried out at

national laboratories.

Data for mix design

The following basic data are required to be specified for design a concrete mix

Characteristic Compressive strength only a few specified proportions of test

results are expected to fall of concrete at 28 days (fck)

Degree of workability desired

Limitation on water/Cement Ratio with the minimum cement to ensure

adequate durability

Type and maximum size of aggregate to be used.

Standard deviations of compressive strength of concrete.

IS Method of Mix Design

Target Strength for Mix Design

The target average compressive strength (fck) of concrete at 28 days is given

by

Fck= f ck + t.s

Where,

Fck= target average compressive strength at 28 days

F ck= characteristics compressive strength at 28 days

s= Standard deviation

t= a stastical value, depending upon the accepted proportion of low results

and the number of tests.

IS Method of Mix Design

According to Is 456: 2000 and IS 1343:1980 te

characteristic strength is defined as the value

below which not more than 5 percent of results

are expected to fall. In such cases the above

equation reduced to

Fck= fck + 1.65 s

The value of standard deviation is obtained from

the table

IS Method of Mix Design

IS Method of Mix Design

Step-II

Selection of Water Cement Ratio

Since different cements and aggregates of different

maximum sizes, grading, surface texture shape and

other characteristics may produce concrete of different

compressive strength for the same free water cement

ratio, the relationship between strength and free water

cement ratio should preferable be established for the

material actually to be used. In the absence of such

data, the preliminary free water-cement ratio

corresponding to the target strength at 28 days may be

IS Method of Mix Design

IS Method of Mix Design

Alternatively, the preliminary free water cement

ratio by mass corresponding to the average

strength may be selected from the relationship

shown below using the curve corresponding to

the 28 days cement strength to be used for the

purpose. However, this will need 28 days for

testing of cement.

IS Method of Mix Design

IS Method of Mix Design

The free water-cement ratio thus selected should

be checked against limiting water-cement ratio

for the requirements of durability as per table

5.4 and the lower of the two values should be

adopted.

IS Method of Mix Design

IS Method of Mix Design

Step 3 Estimation of Air Content

Approximate amount of entrapped air to be expected in

normal concrete is given in table 9.6

Nominal Maximum Size of Entrapped Air, as percentage

Aggregates of volume of concrete

10 3%

20 2%

40 1%

IS Method of Mix Design

Selection of Water Content and fine to total

aggregate ratio

For the desired workability the quantity of mixing water

per unit volume of concrete and the ratio of fine

aggregate (sand) to total aggregate by absolute volume

are to be estimated from table below as applicable.

Depending upon the nominal maximum size and type of

aggregate.

IS Method of Mix Design

Approximate Sand and water Content per Cubic Metre of

Concrete for Grades up to M 35 W/C = 0.6 Workability=

0.8 C.F

Nominal Water Content Sand as

Maximum size of per cubic metre percentage of

aggregate (mm) of concrete (kg) total aggregate

by absolute

volume

10 208 40

20 186 35

40 165 30

IS Method of Mix Design

Approximate Sand and Water Content per cubic metre

of concrete for grades above M 35 W/C = 0.35

Workability= 0.8 C.F.

Nominal Maximum Water Content per Sand as

size of Aggregates cubic metre of percentage total

concrete (kg) aggregate by

absolute volume of

(%)

10 200 28

20 180 25

IS Method of Mix Design

Adjustment of values in water content and sand

percentage for other conditions

Change in Adjustment Required

Condition

Water Content Percentage sand in total

aggregate

For sand 0 + 1.5 percent for zone I

confirming to -1.5 percent for zone III

grading Zones I , -3.0 for zone IV

III and IV

Increase or 3% 0

decrease in values

of compacting

factor by 0.1

Each 0.05 0 1%

increase or 3

Calculation of Cement Content

The cement content per unit volume of concrete

may be calculated from the free water-cement

ratio obtained in step- 2, and the quantity of water

per unit volume of concrete obtained in step-4

The cement content so obtained should be checked

against the minimum cement content for the

requirement of durability as per table 5 IS

456:2000 and the greater of the two value is

adopted.

Step -6 Calculation of Aggregate

Content

With the quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete

and the ratio of fine to total aggregate already determined, the total

aggregate content per unit volume of concrete may be calculated from

the following equations

V= [ W + C + 1 x fa ] x 1 for fine aggregate

1

Sc p Sfa 1000

And

V = [ W + C + 1 x Ca ] x 1 for coarse aggregate

..2

Sc (1-p) Sca 1000

Step -6 Calculation of Aggregate

Content

Where,

V= Absolute volume of fresh concrete (m3)

W= Mass of Water (kg) per m3 of concrete

C= Mass of Cement (Kg) per m3 of concrete

Sc= Specific gravity of cement say 3.15

P= ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume

Fa and Ca = Total masses of fine aggregate and coarse aggregate (kg) / m 3

of concrete mass respectively

Sfa, Sca= Specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine aggregate and

coarse aggregate respectively

Normally Sfa= 2.6 and Sca= 2.7

Trial Mixes

The Calculated mix proportions shall be checked

by means of trial batches. The quantity of

material should be sufficient for at least three

150 mm size cube concrete specimens

Example

Using I.S Method design a concrete mix for

reinforced concrete structure for the following

requirement.

Design data

Characteristic compressive strength= 20 N/mm 2

Degree of workability= 0.9 CF

Degree of quality Control= Good

Type of exposure= Mild

Example

Test data for Material

Cement used= Ordinary Portland cement of grade 43 with 28 days strength

51 N/mm2

SG= 3.15

Bulk Density = 1450 kg/m3

Aggregate Fine Aggregate Coarse

Aggregate

SG 2.66 2.75

Bulk Density 1700 1800

Water absorption 1 0.5

Free Moisture 2 Nil

Example

Step-I Target Mean Strength

Fck= fck + ts

fck= 20 N/mm2

T= 1.65

S= 4 from table 9.5 for M 20

Therefore

Fck= 20 + 1.65 x 4

= 26.6 N/mm2 (Mpa)

Example

Step-II

Selection of Water Cement Ratio

From the fig the free water cement ratio required for the target

mean strength of 26.6 N/ mm2 is 0.5

From fig, for 28 days strength of cement 51 N/mm 2, for curve D

the free water cement ratio is 0.52

From table the maximum free water cement ratio for mild

exposure is 0.55

Hence the free water cement ratio is taken as the minimum of

above three values i.e. w/c = 0.5

Example

Step III

Estimation of Air Content

For maximum Size of aggregate of 20 mm, the air

content is taken as 2 %

Example

Step-4 Selection of water and Sand Content

From table 9.7 for 20 mm nominal maximum size

aggregate and sand confirming to grading zone II

water content per cubic metre of concrete = 186 kg and

sand content as percentage of total aggregate by

absolute volume= 35 %

Water= 186 kg/m3 of concrete

Sand= 35 % of total aggregate by absolute volume

Example

For change in values in water cement ratio, compaction

factor and sand belonging to zone III the following

adjustments required.

Change in Condition Water Percentage

Content Sand in total

aggregate

For Decrease in water cement 0 -2.0

ratio

(0.6-0.5) that is 0.1

0.1 x 1 = 2.0

0.05

For increase in compacting factor + 3 0

(0.9 -0.8) = 0.1

0.1 x 3 = 3

0.1

For Sand conforming to Zone III 0 -1.5

Example

Required Water Content = 186 + ( 186 x 3 / 100)

= 186 + 5.58

= 191.6 lit /m3

=

required sand content as percentage of total aggregate

by absolute volume= 35 3.5

=

31.5 %

Example

Determination of Cement Content

Water Cement ratio= 0.5

Water = 191.6 lit= 191.6 kg

Therefore W/c = 0.5

191.6 = 0.5

C

C=383.4 kg/m3

= 383kg/m3 > 300 kg / m3 therefore O.K.

Example

Determination of fine and coarse Aggregates

Consider volume of Concrete= 1 m3

But entrapped air in wet concrete = 2 %

Therefore volume of fresh concrete= 1 2

100

1- 0.02

V= 0.98 m3

Example

With the quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete and

the ratio of fine to total aggregate already determined, the total

aggregate content per unit volume of concrete may be calculated from

the following equations

V= [ W + C + 1 x fa ] x 1 for fine aggregate

1

Sc p Sfa 1000

0.98 = [ 191.6 + 383 + 1 + fa ]x 1

3.15 0.315 2.66 1000

980 = 313.187 + 1.19 fa

fa= 558.75 kg mass of F.A

Example

And

V = [ W + C + 1 x Ca ] x 1 for coarse

aggregate ..2

Sc (1-p) Sca 1000

0.98 = [ 191.6 + 383 x 1 x Ca ]

x 1

3.15 (1-0.315) 2.75

1000

980 = 313.187 + 0.5308 Ca

Example

Water Cement F.A C.A

191.6 li 383 kg 558.75 kg 1256.24 kg

0.5 1 1.46 3.28

383 = 0.264 m 3

558.75 = 0.328 m 1256.24 = 0.698

1450 3

m3

1700 1800

0.5 1.0 1.242 2.644

Example

Water Cement F.A C.A

25 li 50 kg 73 kg 164 kg

Example

Design a Concrete mix for M 25 grade as per IS 10262

for the following data:

Characteristic Compressive Strength in the field at 28

days 25 N/mm2

Maximum Size of Aggregate= 20 mm

Degree of Workability 0.9 CF

Degree of Quality Control= Good

Type of Exposure = Moderate

Example

Test data for Material

Cement Used : Ordinary Portland Cement of Grade 33 satisfying the requirement of IS:

269-1989

Specific Gravity of Cement: 3.15

Specific Gravity;

Coarse Aggregate=2.65

Fine Aggregate= 2.6

Water absorption

Coarse Aggregate 0.6 %

Fine aggregate= 1.2 %

Free moisture

Coarse aggregate Nil

Fine aggregate 2 %

Example

Step-I

Target mean Strength of Concrete

Fck= fck + ts

fck= 25 N/mm2

T= 1.65 from table 9.4

S= 4.0 from table 9.5 for M 25 grade of concrete

Fck= 25 + 1.65 x 4

= 31.6 N/mm2

Example

Step-2

Selection of Water-Cement Ratio

From fig 9.1 the free water cement ratio required for the target mean

strength of 31.6 N/mm 2 is 0.44

Now, from table 5.4 the maximum free water cement ratio for moderate

exposure is 0.5

Hence, the free water cement ratio is taken as the minimum of above two

value i.e

W= 0.44

C

Example

Step III Estimation of air Content

For maximum Size of Aggregate of 20 mm, the air

content is taken as 2.0 %

Example

Step-4

Selection of Water and Sand Content

From table 9.7 for 20 mm nominal maximum size

aggregates and sand confirming to grading Zone-II,

water content per cubic metre of concrete = 186 kg

and sand content as percentage of total aggregate by

absolute volume = 35 % i.e.

Water = 186 kg/m3

Sand = 35 % of total aggregate by absolute Volume.

Example

For Change in values in water-Cement ratio, compaction

factor and sand belonging to zone I the following

adjustments are required.

Change in Condition Adjustment Required

Water Content Percentage Sand in

total Aggregate

(i) For Decrease in Water- 0 -3.2

Cement ratio (0.6 0.44) that

is 0.16

Therefore 0.16 x 1 = 3.2

0.05

(ii) For Increase in Compacting +3 0

factor (0.9 -0.8)= 0.1

Therefore 0.1 x 3 = 3.0

0.1

(iii) For Sand Conforming to 0 +1.5

Zone-I of table 4 of IS 383-1970

Example

Required water Content = 186 + ( 186 x 3 )

100

= 191.6 lit / m3

Required Sand Content as Percentage of Total aggregate

by absoluter Volume

p= 35 1.7

=

33.3 %

Example

Step- V Determination of Cement Content

Water Cement Ratio = 0.44

Water = 191.6 lit = 191.6 kg

Therefore,

W= 0.44

C

191.6 = 0.44

C

C= 435.45 kg/m3 > 300 kg /m3

This cement content is adequate for Moderate Exposure condition, according

to table 5 IS 456-2000)

Example

Determination of fine and Coarse content:

Consider volume of concrete = 1 m3

But, entrapped air in wet concrete= 2 %

Therefore, absolute volume of fresh concrete= 1 2

100

= 1 0.02

V= 0.98 m3

Therefore,

Example

V= [ W + C + 1 x fa ]x 1 for fine aggregate1

Sc p Sfa 1000

And

0.98= [ 191.6 + 436 + 1 + fa ]x 1

3.15 0.33 2.6 1000

980 = 191.6 + 138.41 + 1.15 fa

fa= 562.76 kg

= 563 kg mass of F.A.

Example

Similarly,

V = [ W + C + 1 x Ca ] x 1 for coarse

aggregate..2

Sc (1-p) Sca 1000

0.98 = [ 191.6 + 436 x 1 x Ca ] x 1

3.15 (1-0.333) 2.65 1000

980 = 191.6 + 138.41 + 0.5657 Ca

Ca= 1149 kg/m3 mass of C.A.

Example

Mix Proportions (By Mass)

191.6 li 436 kg 563 kg 1149 kg

0.44 1 1.29 2.64

Example

Water Cement F.A. C.A

22 li 50 kg 64.5 kg 132 kg

Example

Step 8 Adjustment for water absorption and free surface moisture in

F.A. and C.A

For water Cement ratio of 0.44 quantity of water required = 22 lit

C.A absorbs 0.6 % of water by mass

Therefore extra quantity of water to be added

0.6 x 132 = 0.792 lit (+)

100

F.A contains 2 % free moisture by mass

Quantity of water to be deducted

= 2 x 64.5 = 1.29 (-)

100

Actual quantity of water to be added

= 22 + 0.792 1.29

Example

Actual quantity of sand (FA) required after allowing for

mass of free water

= 64.5 + 1.29 = 65.79 kg

Actual quantity of C.A required

= 132 - 0.792

= 131.21 kg

Water Cement F.A. C.A

21.50 li 50 kg 65.79 kg 131.21 kg

Example

Design a concrete mix from the following data by I.S. method

Target mean Strength= 35 N/mm2

Maximum Size of Aggregate = 20 mm

W/C ratio = 0.43

Water required per m3 of concrete= 190 kg

Sand as percentage of total aggregate by absolute Volume = 35 %

Entrapped air in concrete= 2 %

Sp gravity of Cement= 3.15

Sp gravity of fine aggregate= 2.6

Sp gravity of Coarse aggregate.= 2.7

Example

Step-I Target mean Strength

Fck=35 N/mm2

Step-II Selection of Water-Cement Ratio:

W/C ratio = 0.43

Step-III Estimation of air Content

Entrapped air = 2 %

Step-IV

Selection of water and sand Content

Quantity of water per m3 of concrete = 190 kg

Sand Content = 35 % of total aggregate by absolute Volume

Example

Step-V

Cement Content

Water-Cement Ratio = 0.43

Water = 190 kg

W = 0.43

c

190 = 0.43

C

C= 441 .86 kg/m3

Example

Determination of F.A and C.A Content

Consider Volume of Concrete = 1 m 3

But, entrapped air = 2 %

Therefore Absolute Volume of press Concrete

V= 1 2

100

V= 0.98 m3

Example

V= [ W + C + 1 x fa ] x 1 for fine

aggregate 1

Sc p Sfa 1000

0.98 = [ 190 + 442 + 1+ fa ]x 1

3.15 0.35 2.6 1000

0.98 = [ 190 + 140.32 + 1.098 fa] x 1

1000

fa= 591.69 kg/m3

fa= 592 kg/m3 Mass of FA

Example

Similarly,

V = [ W + C + 1 x Ca ] x 1 for coarse

aggregate..2

Sc (1-p) Sca 1000

0.98 = [ 190 + 442 x 1 x Ca ] x 1

3.14 (1-0.35) 2.7 1000

980 = 190 + 140.32 + 0.569 Ca

Ca= 1142 kg/m3 Mass of CA

Example

Mix Proportion (by mass)

Water Cement F.A C.A

190 442 592 1142

0.43 1 1.34 2.58

Water Cement F.A C.A

21.5 50 67 129

The ACI Method of Mix Design

In the USA the method suggested by ACI is widely used. It

has the advantages of simplicity in that it applies equally

well, and with more or less identical procedure to rounded or

angular aggregate, to normal or lightweight aggregate and

to air-entrained or non-air-entrained concretes.

The ACI method is based on the fact that for a given size of

well graded aggregates water content is largely independent

of mix proportions, i.e. Water content regardless of variation

in water/cement ratio and cement content.

The ACI Method of Mix Design

This method assumes that the optimum ratio of

the bulk volume of coarse aggregates and on the

grading of fineness aggregates regardless of

shape of particles. This method also assumes

that even after complete compaction is done, a

definite percentage of air remains which is

inversely proportional to the maximum size of

aggregate.

The ACI Method of Mix Design

The steps by steps operation in the ACI method are

Step-1 Data to be collected

Fineness modulus of FA

Unit weight of dry CA

Specific gravity of FA and CA saturated surface dry

condition.

Specific gravity of Cement

Absorptions characteristics of both CA and FA

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Step-2

Calculation mean design Strength, from the minimum

strength specified, using standard deviation:

fm= fmin + K.S

Where,

F m= Specified minimum strength (Characteristic

Strength)

K= Constant dependency upon the probability of certain

no of results likely to fall fck= taken from table 9.4

IS Method of Mix Design

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Step-3 Estimation of Water-Cement Ratio

Water Cement ratio is estimated from table 9.10 for the

mean design Strength.

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Average Compressive Effective Water-Cement Ratio (By Mass)

Strength at 28 days Non-Air Entrained Air-entrained Concrete

Concrete

45 0.38 -

40 0.43 -

35 0.48 0.4

30 0.55 0.46

25 0.62 0.53

20 0.7 0.61

15 0.8 0.71

The ACI Method of Mix Design

The water Cement ratio obtained from Strength

point of view is to be checked against maximum

W/C Ratio given for special exposure condition

given in table 9.11 and minimum of the two is to

be adopted.

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Requirement of ACI for W/C Ratio and Strength for

Special Exposure Condition

Exposure Condition Maximum W/C ratio, Minimum Design Strength,

normal density aggregate low Density aggregate

concrete Concrete, MPA

Concrete Intended to be

Watertight 0.5 25

(a)Exposed to fresh Water 0.45 30

(b)Exposed to brackish or

sea Water

Concrete Exposed to freezing and Thawing in a moist Condition:

rails or thin sections

Other elements 0.5 25

In presence of de-icing 0.45 30

chemicals

For corrosion protection of 0.4 30

reinforced concrete

exposed to de-icing salts,

brackish water, sea water

or spray from the sources.

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Decide maximum size of aggregate to be Used.

Generally RCC work 20 mm and Pre-stressed Concrete

10 mm Size are Used

Decide Workability in terms of slump for the type of job

in hand. General guidance can be taken from table 9.12.

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Type of Construction Range of slump mm

Reinforced foundation walls and 20-80

footings

Plain footing, cassions and 20-80

substructure wall

Beams and Reinforced Wall 20-100

Building Column 20-100

Pavement and Slabs 20-80

Mass Concrete 20-80

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Step-4 Minimum Water Content and entrapped air

content:

Decide maximum size of aggregate to be used.

Generally for RCC work 20 mm and for pre-stressed

concrete 10 mm size are used.

Decide workability in terms of slump for the type of job

in hand. Recommended value of slump for various types

of construction as given in table 9.12

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Step-5 Cement Content

Cement Content is computed by dividing the water

content by the water/ Cement Ratio

Step-6

Bulk Volume of Dry Rodded Coarse Aggregate per Unit

Volume of Concrete

Table 9.13 for a decided value of slump and maximum

size of aggregate, decide the mixing water content and

entrapped air content.

Table 9.13

Workabili Water Content, kg/m 3

of Concrete for indicated maximum

ty aggregate Size

Non- air entrained Concrete

Workability 10 12.5 20mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 m 70 mm 150 mm

mm mm

Slump 30- 205 200 185 180 160 155 145 125

50 mm

80-100 225 215 200 195 175 170 160 140

mm

150-180 240 230 210 205 185 180 170 -

mm

Approx 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0.3 0,2

entrapped

air content

Table 9.13

Workabilit Water Content, kg/m 3

of Concrete for indicated maximum

y aggregate Size

Air entrained Concrete

Workability 10 12.5 20mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 m 70 mm 150 mm

mm mm

Slump 30- 180 175 165 160 145 140 135 120

50 mm

80-100 mm 200 190 180 175 160 155 150 135

150-180 215 205 190 185 170 165 160 -

mm

Table 9.13

Workab Water

Workabilit Water

Content,

Content,

kg/m kg/m

3

of Concrete

3

of Concrete

for indicated

for maximum

indicated aggregate

maximum

y

ility Size

aggregate Size

Air Air

entrained

entrained

Concrete

Concrete

Recom 104.5

mm 12.54 20mm

3.5 253.0

mm 402.5

mm 502.0

m 701.5

mm 150 mm

1.0

mende mm

Slump

d air 180 175 165 160 145 140 135 120

30-50

Conten

mmt

Mild

80-100 200 190 180 175 160 155 150 135

Exposu

mm

re

150-180 215 205 190 185 170 165 160 -

Modera

mm 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0

te

Exposu

re

Extrem 7.5 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0

e

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Knowing the values of maximum size of coarse

aggregates and fineness modulus (FM) of fine

aggregate, bulk volume of dry rodded aggregate per

unit volume of concrete is selected from table 9.14

Dry Bulk of Coarse Aggregate per unit Volume of

Concrete as Given by ACI

Maximum Size Bulk Volume of Dry Rodded Coarse Aggregate per unit volume

of Aggregate of concrete for fineness modulus of sand

10 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.44

12.5 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53

20 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.6

25 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65

40 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69

50 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72

70 0.82 0.8 0.78 0.76

150 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81

(a)The value given will produce a mix that is suitable for reinforced concrete

construction. For less workable concrete the value may be increased by 10

percent for workable concrete such as pumpable concrete the value may be

reduced by upto 10 percent

(b)From the minimum strength specified estimate the average design strength

either by using coefficient of variation

(c)Find the water/cement ratio from the table 9.14

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Step-7

The weight of CA per cubic metre of Concrete is

Calculated by multiplying the bulk Volume with

bulk density of CA

Step-8 Estimate of Density of fresh Concrete

Knowing the maximum Size of Coarse

Aggregates, the density of fresh Concrete is

estimated as

The ACI Method of Mix Design

First Estimate of Density of Fresh Concrete as Given by

ACI Maximum Size of Non air-entrained Airentrained kg/m

3

10 2285 2190

12.5 2315 2235

20 2355 2280

25 2375 2315

40 2420 2355

50 2445 2375

70 2465 2400

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Step-9

Absolute volumes of ingredients per cubic metre of concrete are

obtained by knowing the specific gravity of cement, water CA and FA

Step- 10

Trial mix proportions are calculated and adjustments for field conditions

like free moisture and water absorption by aggregates are made.

Step-11

A trial mix is then made to study the properties of concrete in respect of

workability, cohesiveness, finishing quality and 28 days compressive

strength. The proportion of CA and FA may be changed to get desired

properties.

Example-I

Design a Concrete mix Using ACI method for a multi-Storied building for the

following data

28 days characteristic Compressive Strength= 30 Mpa

Type of Cement Available= Ordinary Portland Cement

Desired Slump= 80-100 mm

Maximum Size of aggregate = 20 mm

Standard Deviation from past Records = 4.5 Mpa

Specific Gravities for FA= 2.65

Specific Gravity for CA= 2.7

For Cement= 3.15

Bulk density of CA= 1600 kg/m3

Fineness modulus of FA= 2.8

CA absorbed 1 % moisture and sand

Contains 1.5 % free surface moisture

Assume any other data

Example-I

Solution

Step-I

Mean Design Strength

fm= fmin + K.S

= 30 + 1.65 x 4.5

= 37.425 Mpa

From table 9.4

Assume 5 % of test results are expected fall

K= 1.65

Example-I

Step-II

Estimation of Water-Cement Ratio

From table 9.1 for mean design strength of 37.425 Mpa,

the estimated W/C ratio is 0.45

From table 9.11, for exposure condition concrete

intended to be watertight and exposed to fresh water,

the maximum

w/C ratio is 0.5

Hence adopt a water cement ratio of 0.45

The ACI Method of Mix Design

Average Compressive Effective Water-Cement Ratio (By Mass)

Strength at 28 days Non-Air Entrained Air-entrained Concrete

Concrete

45 0.38 -

40 0.43 -

35 0.48 0.4

30 0.55 0.46

25 0.62 0.53

20 0.7 0.61

15 0.8 0.71

Exposure Condition Maximum W/C ratio, Minimum Design Strength,

normal density aggregate low Density aggregate

concrete Concrete, MPA

Concrete Intended to be

Watertight 0.5 25

(a)Exposed to fresh Water 0.45 30

(b)Exposed to brackish or

sea Water

Concrete Exposed to freezing and Thawing in a moist Condition:

rails or thin sections

Other elements 0.5 25

In presence of de-icing 0.45 30

chemicals

For corrosion protection of 0.4 30

reinforced concrete

exposed to de-icing salts,

brackish water, sea water

or spray from the sources.

Example-I

Mixing water content and entrapped air content

Maximum size of aggregates = 20 mm

Desired Slump= 80-100

Therefore from table 9.13

Mixing water Content = 200 kg/m3 of Concrete

Entrapped air Content = 2 %

Table 9.13

Workabili Water Content, kg/m 3

of Concrete for indicated maximum

ty aggregate Size

Non- air entrained Concrete

Workabili 10 12.5 20mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 m 70 mm 150

ty mm mm mm

Slump 30- 205 200 185 180 160 155 145 125

50 mm

80-100 225 215 200 195 175 170 160 140

mm

150-180 240 230 210 205 185 180 170 -

mm

Approx 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0.3 0,2

entrapped

air content

Table 9.13

Workabilit Water Content, kg/m 3

of Concrete for indicated maximum

y aggregate Size

Air entrained Concrete

Workability 10 12.5 20mm 25 mm 40 mm 50 m 70 mm 150 mm

mm mm

Slump 30- 180 175 165 160 145 140 135 120

50 mm

80-100 mm 200 190 180 175 160 155 150 135

150-180 215 205 190 185 170 165 160 -

mm

Table 9.13

Recom 4.5 4 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0

mende

d air

Conten

t

Mild

Exposu

re

Modera 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0

te

Exposu

re

Extrem 7.5 7.0 6.0 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0

e

Exposu

re

Example-I

Step-4

Cement Content

W/C ratio = 0.45

200 = 0.45

C

C= 445 kg/m3

Water = 200 kg/m3 of concrete

Example-I

Step-5

Bulk Volume of Dry Rodded CA:

Maximum Size of CA= 20 mm

Fineness modulus of FA= 2.8

Therefore table 9.14

The bulk volume of dry rodded CA is 0.62 per unit

volume of Concrete

Maximum Size Bulk Volume of Dry Rodded Coarse Aggregate per unit volume

of Aggregate of concrete for fineness modulus of sand

10 0.5 0.48 0.46 0.44

12.5 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53

20 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.6

25 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65

40 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69

50 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72

70 0.82 0.8 0.78 0.76

150 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.81

(a)The value given will produce a mix that is suitable for reinforced concrete

construction. For less workable concrete the value may be increased by 10

percent for workable concrete such as pumpable concrete the value may be

reduced by upto 10 percent

(b)From the minimum strength specified estimate the average design strength

either by using coefficient of variation

(c)Find the water/cement ratio from the table 9.14

Example-I

Step-6

Weight of CA = 0.62 x 1600

= 992 kg/m3

Therefore density of CA is 1600 kg/m3

Example-I

Step-7

Dry density of fresh Concrete

For maximum Size of CA = 200 mm and non air

entrained Concrete,

From table 9.15 dry density of fresh Concrete

= 2355 kg/m3

Example-I

Step-8

Mass of all the known Ingredient of Concrete

Mass of water= 200 kg/m3

Mass of Cement= 445 kg/m3

Mass of CA= 992 kg/m3

Mass of FA = 2355-[ 200 + 445 + 992]

= 718 kg/m3

Example-I

Sr.no Ingredient Mass, kg/m3 Absolute Volume

m3

1 Cement 445 445 =

0.141 m3

3.15 x 1000

2 Water 200 200= 0.2 m3

1 x 1000

3 CA 992 992 = 0.367

m3

2.7 x 1000

4 Entrapped Air 2% 2 x 1 = 0.02 %

100

Volume

Hence, Volume of FA required = 1-0.728

= 0.272 m 3

Mass of FA = 0.272 x 2.65 x 1000

= 720.8 kg/m 3

Adopt mass of FA = 720.8 kg/m 3

= 721 kg/m 3

Estimated quantities of material per cubic metre of

concrete are

Cement= 445 kg

FA= 721 kg

CA= 992 kg

Water= 200 kg

Example-I

Density of fresh Concrete is 2358 kg/m3 as against 2355

Water Cement F.A C.A

200 445 kg 721 kg 992 kg

0.45 1 1.62 2.23

22.5 kg 50 kg 81 kg 111.5

Example-I

Adjustment for water absorption and free surface moisture

F.A Contains 1.5 % free surface moisture

Total surface moisture of FA = 1.5 x 721

100

= 10.82 kg (-)

Mass of FA in field condition = 721 + 10.82

= 731.83 kg/m3

Say 732 kg/m3

CA absorbs 1 % of moisture,

Quantity of water absorbed by CA = 1 x 992

100

= 9.92 kg (+)

Therefore mass of CA in field Condition = 992 9.92

= 982 kg/m3

Example-I

Net Quantity of Mix Water = 200 -10.82+ 9.92

= 199.10 kg

Final mix proportions (for 1 m3 of concrete)

199.10 kg 445 kg 732 kg 982 kg

The British Method

The traditional British method has been replaced by the department of the

environment for normal mixes, known as DOE(British) mix design method.

The following steps are Involved in DOE Method

Step-I

Find the target mean strength from the specified Characteristic Strength

ft= fck + k.S

Where,

ft= target mean strength

fck= characteristic Strength

S= Standard Deviation

K= risk factor or probability factor

Step-II

Determination of free water cement ratio

From the given type of cement and aggregate, obtain

the compressive strength of concrete corresponding to

free w/c

Type of

Cement

ratio of

Type of

Coarse

0.5

3 7 28 91

Aggregate

Ordinary or Uncrushed 22 30 42 49

Sulphate Crushed 27 36 49 56

Resisting

Cement

Rapid Uncrushed 29 37 48 54

Hardening Crushed 34 43 55 61

Portland

Cement

Now adopt the pair of data i.e. compressive strength

read from table 9.16 and w/c ratio mark point P.

Through this point draw a dotted curve parallel to

neighbouring curve. Using this new curve we read the

w/c ratio as against target strength ft calculated in step

1

Minimu 30 35 40 45 50

m

Check this w/c ratio

grade for durability considerations and

adopt the lower

m

value

Maximu

w/c

0.65 0.6 0.55 0.5 0.45

ratio

Maximu 275 300 325 350 400

m

cement

content

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

Fig.1 Relation between

compressive strength

and free water cement

ratio

mark a point corresponding

to strength f1, at water cement

ratio 0.5.

draw a curve parallel to the

nearest curve, through this

point

Using the new curve,

Read off ( abscissa) the water

cement ratio

corresponding to the target

mean strength (ordinate) Free water-cement

ratio

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

Step-3

Determination of water Content

Depending upon the type and maximum nominal size of aggregate

and workability the water content is estimated as

W= 2 W fa + 1 W ca

3 3

Where,

W fa= free water content appropriate to the type of fine aggregate

W ca= free water content appropriate to the type of coarse

aggregate

Level of Very Low Low Medium High

Workability

Description Slump 0-10 10-30 30-60 60-180

Vee-bee >12 12-6 6-3 3-0

Compaction 0.75- 0.85 0.85-0.9 0.9- 0.93 >0.93

Factor

Maximu Type of Water Content

m Size aggrega

of Agg te

10 mm Uncrushe 150 180 205 225

d

Crushed 180 205 230 250

20 Uncrushe 135 160 180 195

d

Crushed 170 190 210 225

40 Uncrushe 115 140 160 175

d

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

Crushed 155 175 190 205

Reduction in water content when fly ash is Used

ash in content

10 5 5 5 10

20 10 10 10 15

30 15 15 20 20

40 20 20 25 25

50 25 25 30 30

Step 4 - Determination of Cement Content

The Cement Content if the mix is calculated from the

selected w/c ratio

Cement Content = water content

W/C ratio

Step-5

Determination of aggregate Cement Ratio

Absolute volume occupied by the aggregate

= 1- Cement Content (kg) Water Content (kg)

1000 x Sc 1000 x Sw

Where, Sc= Specific gravity of cement particles

Therefore Total aggregate content (kg/m 3)

= absolute volume occupied by the aggregate x 1000x Sa

Where Sa= Specific gravity of aggregate

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

Step-6 Determination of FA and CA

Depending on the free water cement ratio, the nominal maximum size

of coarse aggregate, the workability and grading zone of fine

aggregate is determined from fig 9.5 (a), 9.5 (b) and 9.5 (c)

Once the proportion of FA is obtained, multiplying by the weight of

total aggregate gives the weight of fine aggregate. Then coarse

aggregate is calculated as

Fine aggregate content = total aggregate content x proportion of fine

aggregate

Coarse aggregate content = Total aggregate content fine aggregate

content

Determination of FA and CA

Determination of FA and CA

FIG 3- Recommended proportion of fine

aggregate as a function of free water cement

ratio

Proportion of Different sizes of CA

Aggregate 4.75- 10 mm 10-20 mm 20-40 mm

Type-I 33 67 -

Type-II 18 27 55

Step-7

Determination of final Proportion

The proportion so worked out should be tried for their

specified strength and suitable adjustment are made to

obtain the proportion.

Example

Design a Concrete mix Using, DOE Method for a reinforced Concrete Work for the

following data:

Required Characteristic Compressive Strength= 35 Mpa at 28 days

Type of Cement Used= Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement

Desired Slump= 50 mm

Maximum Size of Aggregate= 20 mm

Type of Aggregate= Uncrushed

Specific Gravity = 2.65

Fine aggregate conforms to grade Zone III with percent passing 600 micron sieve

being 70 %

Exposure Condition = Moderate

Standard Deviation= 5.0 Defective Rate= 5 %

Example

Mix Design Without fly ash:

Target Mean Strength:

Ft= fck+ kS

fck= 35 N/mm 2

K= 1.65

ft= 35 + 1.65 x 5

= 43.25 N/mm 2

Example

Determination of free Water-Cement Ratio

For type of Cement Sulphate resisting Portland cement and

uncrushed aggregate 28 days compressive strength from table 9.16

is 42 MPA

For Compressive Strength equal to 42 MPA and w/c ratio 0.5, mark P

in fig and draw a dotted curve parallel to the neighbouring curve

Using this new curve again ft= 43.25 N/mm2 the W/C ratio is read as

0.48

From table 9.17 from durability point of view the maximum w/c ratio

is 0.6

Hence Adopt the minimum w/c ratio as 0.48

Example

Step-3

Determination of Water Content:

For Desired slump = 50 mm

Maximum size of CA= 20 mm

From table 9.18 water content is 180 kg/m3

Example

Step-4 Determination of Cement Content:

W/C ratio obtained from step 2 is 0.48 and water is 180

kg/m3

W/C = 0.48

180 = 0.48

C

Therefore C= 375 kg/m3 of Concrete

This is satisfactory as it is greater than minimum Cement

Content of 300 kg/m3

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN

Example

Step: 5

Aggregate Cement Ratio

Specific gravity of aggregate is 2.65

Therefore fig 9.4 wet density of concrete is 2400 kg/m3

Therefore mass of total aggregate

= 2400 180- 375

= 1845 kg/m3

Alternatively Volume occupied by aggregate

= 1- 375 180 = 0.7009 m3

100x 3.15 1000 x 1

Therefore total Aggregate Content

= 0.7009 x 1000 x 2.65

= 1875 kg/m3

Example

Step-6 Determination of FA and CA Content

For, Maximum size of aggregate = 20 mm

Slump= 50 mm

Free W/C ratio = 0.48

Percent aggregate Passing

600 micron sieve = 70 %

From fig 9.5 (b) the proportion of fine aggregate i.s 30 %

Mass of FA = 30 x 1875 = 557 kg/m3

100

Mass of CA = 1875 557.1

= 1299.9 kg/m3

= 1300 kg/m3

Example

Step 7

The estimated Quantity are:

180 kg 375 kg 557 kg 1300 kg

0.48 1 1.485 3.46

Road Note No. 4

Method Of Mix

Design

ROAD NOTE No. 4 METHOD OF MIX DESIGN

Introduction

In this method, the aggregate to cement ratios are worked out on the basis

of type of aggregate, max size of aggregate and different levels of workability.

The relative proportion of aggregates is worked on basis of combined

grading curves. This method facilitates use of different types of fine and coarse

aggregates in the same mix.

The relative proportion of these can be easily calculated from combined

grading curves.

The values of aggregate to cement ratio are available for angular rounded

or irregular coarse aggregate.

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 156

Procedure

1. The average compressive strength of the mix to be designed is obtained by applying

control factors to the minimum compressive strength.

2. w/c ratio is read from compressive strength v/s w/c ratio graph.

maximum size 40 mm and 20 mm.

4. If the aggregate available differs from the standard grading, combine FA and CA so as

to produce one of the standard grading.

water/cement ratio and the aggregate/cement ratio.

absolute volume method, using the specific gravities of cement and aggregates.

Method In Detail

Find The Target Mean Strength

Concrete is designed for strength higher than characteristic

strength

as a margin for statistical variation in results and variation in

degree of

control exercised at site. This higher strength is defined as the

target mean

strength.

Determine water/cement ratio

The relation between Target Mean Strength and water

cement ratio

for different cement curves is given in IS 10262

Finding cement

content

The Relative Proportion Are

Worked Out

A trial proportion is taken and combined gradation

is worked out for e.g.

35% fine aggregate 20% 10mm down aggregate,

45% 20mm down aggregate.

Combined gradation is plotted and pushed towards

Ideal curve by increasing or decreasing the sand

content

Calculation Of Cement

Content

Cement Content (Kg/m3) = Plastic density /(1+a/c ratio + w/c ratio)

C +1.45C + 0.75C +1.6C + 0.46C=5.26C

Plastic Density

Sfa =Specific gravity of fine aggregate

Sca10=Specific gravity of 10mm coarse aggregate

Sca20=Specific gravity of 20mm coarse aggregate

W/c = water to cement ratio

Ea = Entrapped air %

Drawbacks Of Road Note No. 4 Method

This method

This

method leads

leads to

to very

very high

high cement

cement contents

contents and

and thus

thus

is becoming

is becoming obsolete.

obsolete.

In many

In

many cases

cases use

use ofof gap

gap graded

graded aggregate

aggregate becomes

becomes

unavoidable. In

unavoidable. In many

many parts

parts of

of the

the country

country the

the practice

practice isis to

to

use 20mm

use 20mm coarse

coarse aggregates

aggregates without

without 10mm

10mm aggregates.

aggregates.

This is

This is because

because of

of quality

quality of

of 10mm

10mm aggregates

aggregates produced

produced

from jaw

from jaw crusher

crusher is

is very

very poor

poor .Gap

.Gap grading

grading does

does not

not fit

fit in

in to

to

the standard

the standard combined

combined grading

grading curves

curves of

of RRL

RRL method.

method.

Sand available

Sand

available in

in some

some parts

parts of

of country

country is is graded

graded that

that it

it is

is

high on

high on coarse

coarse fraction

fraction (1.18mm

(1.18mm and and above)

above) and

and low

low onon

fines (600micron

fines (600micron andand below).

below). It It is

is difficult

difficult to

to adjust

adjust the

the sand

sand

content to

content to match

match any

any of of the

the standard

standard combined

combined grading

grading

curves .The

curves .The combined

combined grading

grading curve

curve often

often cuts

cuts across

across more

more

than one

than one standard

standard curves

curves

CONCRETE in such

in

MIX DESIGNsuch cases

cases 164

Different aggregate to cement ratios are

given for different levels of workability

ranging from low to high. But these levels

of workability are not defined in terms of

slump, compaction factor or Vee Bee time

as in case of other methods.

adjusted for different cement contents.

Hence the richer mixes and leaner mixes

may have same sand proportion, for a

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN 165

given set of materials.

References

Concrete Technology by: R.P. Rethaliya

Concrete Technology by . M.S. Shetty

Internet websites

http://www.foundationsakc.org/

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