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Group member :
1.SITI MARIAM BT RAHIM(D20162075678)

Group :

Lecturer : EN. AZMI B. IBRAHIM

Ahmad and Ali take their breakfast before going to the
school.Ahmad takes a bowl of cereals while Ali eats
peanut with the same mass of cereals that Ahmad
takes.In the afternoon,Ali is more energetic than

They take the same mass of food of their

breakfast,but they gain different energy from the food.

What is the energy(calories) value in cereals and


If the food samples have the same mass, does it have

the same energy as well?
Have you ever wondered how nutritionists know how many
calories a certain food contains?

Why we should know how many energy we gain from every

food we ate?

Is it necesary for nutritionists to obtain accurate estimates

of the caloric value of various diets?
Objective :
To determine the energy value in food samples.

Material & apparatus:

Test Tube
Measuring Cylinder
Laboratory Thermometer
Needle with Handle
Scalpel (for cutting the substances into exactly 0.5 grams)
Test tube holder
The following substances are the 5 different food items that are used to
conduct the experiment, the substances used are:
i. Biscuit
ii. Koko Crunch
iii. Cheetos
iv. Peanut
v. Candlenut
Procedure :
1. Measure 20ml water in the measuring cylinder and pour in the test tube.
2. Place the test tube in the holder and lock it tight.
3. If the food substance measures 0.5 grams on the electrical balance, then use the
substance, otherwise use the scalpel to divide it into smaller pieces and make sure it
measures exactly 0.5 grams.
4. Measure the initial temperature of water using the thermometer
5. Poke through a food substance measuring 0.5 grams using the needle with the
6. Turn on fire on the burner.
7. Set the food substance on the needle to fire on the burner.
8. Once the food substance starts to burn, place it under the test tube so the water
inside it can absorb heat.
9. Measure the temperature change in the water using the thermometer.
10. Measure the energy content in the food item by using the following formula:

Result :
Bar chat for trial result
Averages results:
Food Item Energy T1(kJ) Energy T2(kJ) Energy T3(kJ) Average Energy (kJ)

Biscuit 1.426 2.305 3.696 2.476

Cheetos 3.024 4.032 3.360 3.472

Koko Crunch 1.428 0.840 1.344 1.204

Candlenut 8.568 8.568 8.736 8.652

Peanut 6.171 5.880 4.116 5.839

Bar chat :
1. The least energy as the graph shows is in the Cereal (Koko
Crunch). It contains about 1.2 kJ of Average Energy.
Candlenut contains the highest amount of energy in the 5
items used during the experiment possessing energy of
approximately 8.6kJ.
2. The trials of the Biscuit show increasing energy from T1 to
T3, causing the Average Energy to be higher than the energy
obtained in T1 and T2 but lesser than T3. The results of
Candlenut show a similar pattern and Peanuts have an
opposite pattern.
3. The results of Cheetos show a pattern of results being T1
(Least) T2 (Highest) T3 (Lesser than Highest and Higher
than Least). The Average Energy in this case is just a bit
higher than the T3. The Koko Crunch shows the opposite
pattern and therefore the Average Energy observed is higher
than T3.
4. The trials of Biscuit and Peanut show high variation, this
shows the inaccuracy in the results that can be explained by
evaluating the method used.
My results completely agree with my hypothesis that
when the temperature change is greater, the energy
content is higher. My hypothesis states:
If the change in temperature is greater when the water is
heated with the use of the fire caught by the food
substance, then the energy content in the food substance
is higher because the heat energy is greater, since the
heat energy is absorbed by the water when the fire is kept
under the test tube containing water. The formula
indicates that if the change in temperature is greater
when the mass of the substances and the volume of water
are constant, then the heat energy is higher.
If compared to my results, I can vouchsafe that my

hypothesis agrees with my results.