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D E PARTM E N T O F M EC H A N IC A L EN G IN EE R IN G

P.E. S . M O D ER N C O LL EG E O F EN G IN EE R IN G , PU N E- 4110 0 5 .

A Seminar on
PAPER BATTERY

Guide: Presented by:

Prof. Mrs. S.K.Veer Pranit C Nikude

Exam
no:T120310913
Literature Review
Sr. Name of Authors Title of Research Summary of Paper
N Paper
o.
1 Tejaswi Kadam, Prasad C. Paper Battery the The paper discusses the
Shinde& Prof. U. C. Patkar Solution for Traditional properties of CNT,
Battery cellulose and the need.
2 Anushri S. Sastikar, Trupti S. Carbon Nanotube The paper discusses on
Bobade and SnehaTamgade Based working of paper battery
Paper Battery And
Lithium Ion Battery
3 Chris Joshwa.A & Rahul.R An approach on the The paper discusses the
functioning of paper functioning and
battery applications
4 Lukman Noerochim, Jia-Zhao Paper battery-A It aims at highlighting
Wang, Shulei Chou, David promising energy the construction and
Wexler solution for India various methods of
production of Paper
Battery
Aim and Objectives
Aim Study of paper battery
Objectives
To study the following:
1. The use of self-rechargeable paper thin film batteries
2.To study their performance and application
3.Analysing properties and characteristics of paper battery
Introduction
The continuously advancing technology of portable electronic devices requires
more flexible batteries to power them. The poor heat conductivity of these kinds
of metals leads to higher cutting temperatures and severe tool failure. In addition,
as the hardness and thickness of the affected layer is large, the boundary wear is
often severe.
Batteries power a wide range of electronic devices including phones, laptop
computers and medical devices such as cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators. As
the round tool rotates, the cutting edge is cooled during periods of non-cutting,
and this is effective in decreasing the temperature of the tool.
With the ever increasing demand for efficiency and design, there is a need for
ultrathin, safe and flexible energy storage
options.
. A paper battery acts as both a high energy battery and supercapacitor,
combining two components that are separate in traditional electronics.
What is battery?
-Battery or voltaic cell is a combination of many electrochemical Galvanic
cells of identical type to store chemical energy and to deliver higher voltage
or higher current than with single cells.
-The battery cells create a voltage difference between the terminals of each
cell and hence to its combination in battery.

-When an external electrical circuit is connected to the battery, then the


battery drives electrons through the circuit and electrical work is done.
Paper battery
-A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device
formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of
cellulose based paper.
-A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor,
combining two discrete components that are separate in traditional
electronics.
-Paper batteries may be folded, cut or otherwise shaped for different
applications without any loss of integrity or efficiency.
Materials and description
-This energy storage device is based on two basic, materials: carbon
nanotubes and cellulose.
-Ionic liquid provides the third component: electrolyte.
-Engineered together, they form nano composite paper

CARBON NANO TUBES:


-Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with
acylindricalnanostructure.
Properties of nano tubes
-Ratio of Width: Length: 1:107
-High tensile Strength

-Stacking the Paper and CNT layers multiplies the Output Voltage; Slicing the Paper
and CNT layers divides the Output Voltage.
-Temperature operating range: -75C to +150C.
-High tensile Strength (Greater than Steel), Low Mass density & High Packing Density.
-Very Light and Very Flexible; Very Good Electrical Conductivity (better than Silicon).
-Low resistance (~33 ohm per sq. inch)
-No heavy metals
Construction
Making
Making
STEP 1:The copier paper is taken.
STEP 2: Carbon nano ink which is black in colour is taken. carbon nano ink is
a solution of nano rods ,surface adhesive agent and ionic salt solutions
STEP 3:carbon nano ink is spread on one side of paper
STEP 4:Paper is kept inside the oven at 150C temp .This evaporates the water
content on paper. Thus paper and the nano rods get attached to each other.
STEP 5: Now place the multi meter on the sides of the paper and we can see
voltage drop is generated

After drying the paper becomes flexible, light weight in nature.The paper is
scratched and rolled to protect nano rods on paper
Working
Working
Cathode: Carbon Nanotube (CNT)
Anode: Lithium metal (Li+)
Electrolyte: All electrolytes (incl. bioelectrolytes like blood, sweat and urine)
Separator: Paper (Cellulose)

-Paper batteries have one electrode made of conductive carbon nanotubes.


-The separator is made from plant cellulose (the main ingredient is paper), The
second electrode is made by coating the opposite side of the paper separtor with
lithium oxide.
-The electrolyte, the paper is saturated with an ionic liquid that is an organic salt
that is liquid at room temperature.
-Chemical reaction in the paper battery is between electrolyte and carbon nanotubes.
-Electrons collect on the negative terminal of the battery and flow along a connected
wire to the positive terminal.
-Electrons must flow from the negative to the positive terminal for the chemical
reaction to continue.
Life of paper battery
-Even if never taken out of the original package Self discharging rate:8-10%
of original charge every year .
-Rechargeable batteries self-discharge more rapidly than disposable alkaline
batteries.

-Nickel-based batteries a freshly charged NiCd loses 10% of its charge in the
first 24 hours, and thereafter discharges at a rate of about 10% a month.
Limitations
1. Paper batteries have low strength they an be torn easily.

2. The techniques and the set-ups used in the production of Carbon Nano
tubes are very expensive and very less efficient.

3. When inhaled, their interaction with the microphages present in the lungs
is similar to that with asbestor fibers. Hence may be seriouslu hazardous to
human health.
Needs
-Limited Life Time

-Leakage

-Environmental Concerns
Advantages
-Biodegradable & Non Toxic
-Biocompatible
-Easily Reusable , Recyclable
-Durable
-Rechargeable
-No Leakage & Overheating
-Very Light Weight & Flexible
-Easily Mouldable Into Desired Shapes & Sizes.
-Customizable Output Voltage:
-By varying CNT concentration.
-By stacking & slicing.
Disadvantages
- Have Low Shear strength

-The Techniques and the Set-ups used in the production of Carbon Nanotubes
are very Expensive and very less Efficient:
(i)Arc discharge
(ii)Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD)
(iii) Laser Ablation
(iv)Electrolysis
-When inhaled, their interaction with the Microphages present in the lungs is
similar to that with Asbestos fibers, hence may be seriously hazardous to
human health.
Applications
Applications

In Electronics: Laptop batteries, mobile phones, handheld digital


cameras ,calculators, wrist watch and other low drain devices;
in wireless communication devices like speakers, mouse, keyboard ,Bluetooth
headsets etc.; in Enhanced Printed Circuit Board(PCB)

In Medical Sciences: Pacemakers for the heart;


in Artificial tissues (using Carbon nanotubes);
in Cosmetics, Drug-delivery systems;
in Biosensors, such as Glucose meters, Sugar meters, etc.

In Automobiles and Aircrafts: In Hybrid Car batteries, Long Air Flights


reducing Refueling, for Light weight guided missiles, for powering electronic
devices in Satellite Programs
Conclusion
- One of the major problems bugging the world now is Energy crisis.

-Every nation needs energy and everyone needs power.

-And this problem which disturbs the developed countries perturbs the
developing countries like India to a much greater extent.

-Standing at a point in the present where there cant be a day without power,
Paper Batteries can provide an altogether path-breaking solution to the same.

-Being Biodegradable, Light-weight and Nontoxic, flexible paper batteries


have potential adaptability to power the next generation of electronics,
medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and
medical technologies.
References
1. Tejaswi Kadam, Prasad C. Shinde& Prof. U. C. Patkar," Paper Battery the Solution for
Traditional Battery, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) Vol-2, Issue-5, 2016
ISSN: 2454-1362.
2. Anushri S. Sastikar, Trupti S. Bobade and SnehaTamgade, "Carbon Nanotube Based
Paper Battery And Lithium Ion Battery",International Journal of Application or Innovation in
Engineering & Management (IJAIEM), ISSN 2319 - 4847, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2015
3. Chris Joshwa.A & Rahul.R," AN APPROACH ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE PAPER
BATTERY",International Journal of Advances in Applied Science and Engineering (IJAEAS)
ISSN (P): 2348-1811; ISSN (E): 2348-182X Vol. 1, Issue 2, Apr 2014, 76-78
References
4. Lukman Noerochim, Jia-Zhao Wang, Shulei Chou, David Wexler," Free-
standing single-walled carbon nanotube/SnO2 anode paper for flexible lithium-
ion batteries"University of Wollongong,Noerochim, L, Wang, J, Chou, S &
Wexler, D (2012)
5. A. Ganguly, S. Sar2, "PAPER BATTERY-A PROMISING ENERGY SOLUTIONFOR
INDIA", IJAERS/Vol. I, E-ISSN2249 8974, Issue I/October-December, 2011

6. Liangbing Hu, Hui Wu,Fabio La Mantia, Yuan Yang, and Yi Cui," Thin,
Flexible Secondary Li-Ion Paper Batteries",Department of Materials Science
and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, VOL. 4 NO.
10 58435848 2010
References
7.Pushparaj V. L, Manikoth S. M., Kumar A., Murugesan S., Ci L., Vajtai R.,
Linhardt R. J., Nalamasu O., Ajayan P. M.."Flexible Nanocomposite Thin Film
Energy Storage Devices". Proceedings of the National Academy of Science
USA 104, 13574-13577, 2007.. Retrieved 2010-08-08.

8. S.H. Ng, J. Wang, Z.P. Guo, J. Chen, G.X. Wang , H.K. Liu," Single wall carbon
nanotube paper as anode for lithium-ion battery "Electrochimica Acta 51
(2005) 2328
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