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Anatomy of

Anatomy of

Endocrine System

Endocrine System

By:

By:

Ns. Dally Rahman, M.Kep, Sp.Kep.MB

Ns. Dally Rahman, M.Kep, Sp.Kep.MB

Endocrine System

Endocrine System

Like nervous system, endocrine system provides communication and control.

Messages are relayed from one cell to another via chemical messengers (hormones).

Unlike nervous system which provides instant but short-lived communication, endocrine system allows for slower-acting but long-term communication.

Many similarities also exist:

Both systems rely on release of chemicals with specific binding onto target receptors.

Both systems use many of the same chemicals (ex:

epinephrine and norepinephrine).

Control set up via negative feedback systems. End goal of both systems is the same: homeostasis.

Comparison of the Nervous

Comparison of the Nervous

and Endocrine Systems

and Endocrine Systems

Nervous System

Endocrine System

Communicates by means of electrical

impulses and neurotransmitters Releases neurotransmitters at synapses at

specific target cells Usually has relatively local, specific effects

 
 

Reacts quickly to stimuli, usually within 1 to 10 msec

 

Stops quickly when stimulus stops

Adapts relatively quickly to continual stimulation

Communicates by means of hormones

Releases hormones into bloodstream for general distribution throughout body

Sometimes has very general, widespread effects

Reacts more slowly to stimuli, often taking seconds to days

May continue responding long after stimulus stops

Adapts relatively slowly; may continue responding for days to weeks of stimulation

Endocrine Organs

Endocrine Organs

1.Hypothalamus

2.Pituitary gland 3.Thyroid gland 4.Parathyroid glands

5.Thymus

6.Adrenal glands

7.Pancreas

8.Ovaries

9.Testes

Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus Hypothalamus

Con’t

Con’t

Hypothalamus Coordinates Drive-Related Behaviors

Behaviors follow the principal of homeostasis

“Drive” refers to drive to correct homeostatic imbalance

Hunger/satiety

Thirst

Sexual behavior

Temperature regulation

Sleep

Hypothalamus is also the integrative link between the external and internal

Pituitary Glands

Pituitary Glands

Pituitary Glands Pituitary Glands

Con’t

Con’t

Con’t Con’t

Con’t

Con’t

Also called the hypophysis.

Located in sella turcica within sphenoid bone.

All pituitary hormones bind to membrane receptors on target cells and use cAMP as a second messenger.

Infundibulum connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus.

Contains distinct anterior and posterior regions.

Thyroid Glands

Thyroid Glands

Thyroid Glands Thyroid Glands

Con’t

Con’t

Located below the anterior portion of the larynx. Red in color due to high degree of vascularity.

Thyroid follicles are spheroid-shaped structures that are present throughout thyroid.

Cavity within each follicle is filled with colloidal fluid (fluid suspended with proteins).

Thyroid hormones are stored within these follicles.

Upon stimulation, epithelial cells on surface move hormones from inside to

Parathyroid Glands

Parathyroid Glands

Parathyroid Glands Parathyroid Glands

Con’t

Con’t

Two pairs of parathyroid glands are embedded on posterior surfaces of the thyroid gland.

Two different cell populations found in parathyroid gland. Chief cells produce parathyroid hormone.

These monitor calcium levels also and

release parathyroid hormone (PTH) when

calcium levels fall.

PTH stimualtes osteoclasts, reduces urinary

elimination of calcium, promotes

reabsorption of calcium by intestine.

Function of other group of cells is still unknown

Thymus

Thymus

Thymus Thymus

Con’t

Con’t

Specialized secretory gland located in thoracic cavity, just behind the sternum.

Increase in size as child grows; decreases after puberty.

Responsible for producing various hormones (thymosins) that are important in maintaining immunologic defenses.

Adrenal Glands

Adrenal Glands

Adrenal Glands Adrenal Glands

Con’t

Con’t

Sits like a cap on the superior pole of each kidney

In adults, the adrenal is about 5 cm (2 in.) long, 3 cm (1.2 in.)

The adrenal medulla The adrenal cortex

Pancreas

Pancreas

Pancreas Pancreas

Con’t

Con’t

Pancreas is located retroperitoneally, inferior and dorsal to the stomach

It is approximately 15 cm long and 2.5 cm thick

Insulin is secreted by the beta () cells of the islets when we digest a meal and the level of glucose and amino acids in the blood rises.

Glucagon is secreted by alpha () cells when blood glucose concentration falls between meals.

Somatostatin is secreted by the delta () cells when blood glucose and amino

Ovaries

Ovaries

Ovaries Ovaries
Ovaries Ovaries

Testes

Testes

Testes Testes

Con’t

Con’t

Con’t Con’t

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