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Pradeep & Kannan
Exe- MBA, IIPM
What is Careerª?
As per Greenhaus
A Career is the pattern of work-related experiences (e.g Job positions, job duties decisions, and subjective interpretations about work-related events )and activities over the span of the person·s work life.
The Concept Of Career
It has many Meanings:-The Popular meaning is probably reflected in the idea of moving upward in one¶s chosen line of work.. Making more money Having more responsibility Acquiring more Status Prestige Power
The career consists of both attitudes and behavior and that is an ongoing sequence of work-related activities and plays a significant part in a career.
IMPORTANCE OF CAREER PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT Today¶s everchanging work environment means employees are vulnerable to career disruption or stagnation, so career planning is critical! Thus, employees must continue to develop their skills to ensure they possess the competencies that the market needs.
Diagnostic Aproach To Career Planning & Development
The diagnostic factor influencing careers is not the person, the external environmental influences ,or the internal influences , in which these factors interact. Careers do not just happen in isolation from environmental and personal factors . Every person¶s career goes through a series of stages. Each of these stages may not be influenced by attitudes,motivation,the nature of the task,economic conditions and so on««..
Career stages have found that needs and expectations change as the individual moves through the stages. Career stages have four phases: Apprenticeship phase Advancement phase Maintenance phase Strategic planning
1. 2. 3. 4.
1. Apprenticeship phase : When young professionals enter an organization with technical knowledge but often without an understanding of the organizations demands and expectations . Consequently ,they must work fairly closely with more experienced people . the relationship that develops between the young professionals and their supervisors is an Apprenticeship. This is also known as Establishment phase. 2. Advancement Phase : Following the establishment phase is the advancement phase which lasts approximately from age 30 to 45 . At this phase mostly employees are less concern or safety and more concern for achievement, esteem and autonomy. 3. Maintenance Phase : Following the advancement phase . This period is marked by efforts to stabilize the gains of the past. they are expected to become the mentors of those in apprentice ship. A Mentor Relationship has been defined as the relationship between an experienced employee and junior, where the experienced person helps the junior person by sharing information gained through experience with the organization«and this kind of relationship is expected to contribute to juniors employees instructions, job performance & retention. (ex)
4. Strategic thinking Phase : Its fundamental characteristics involves shaping the direction of the organization itself. Although we usually think of such activity as being undertaken by only one individual in an organization²its Chief Executive± in fact, it may be undertaken by many others. (ex) 5. Retirement Phase . The individuals has completed one career , and he/she has move to another one. During this phase the individual may have opportunities to experience self-actualization through activities that it was have impossible to pursue while working like painting, gardening, volunteer service and quiet reflection etc; are the positive avenues that have been followed by retirees.
EMPLOYEE¶S RESPONSIBILITY To analyse their situation, identify their career objectives and develop action steps to achieve their objectives. Employees are responsible for keeping themselves marketable. If employees are passive they may lose their employability Many employees ignore their responsibility
EMPLOYEE¶S RESPONSIBILITY ± QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER
What do I really want to do? What do I know how to do? What career opportunities can I expect to be available? Where do I want to go? What do I need to get there? How can I tell how well I am doing? How can I get out of the box I am in? What can I do now?
Career Choice & Planning
John L Holland , a Career counseling expert, has proposed and researched a theory of career (vocational) choice. Holland suggest that the choice of a career is an expression of personality and not a random event, though chance can play a role. He also believes that what a person accomplishes and derives from a career depends on the congruence between his or her personality and the job environment. One of the six personality types which Holland contends that each individual to some extend resembles are :
Realistic : This individual prefers activities involving the manipulation of machinery or tools. Ex :- a machinist Investigative : This individual prefers to be analytical, curious, methodical & precise. Ex :- a research scientist. Artistic : This person is expressive, nonconforming, original and introspective Ex :- an interior decorator. Social : this person enjoys working with and helping other and purposefully avoids systematic activities involving tools and machinery. Ex :- a school counselor. Enterprising : this person enjoys activities that permit him or her to influence others to accomplish goals. Ex :- a lawyer Conventional : this individual enjoys the systematic manipulation of data,, filing records ,or reproducing materials. Ex :- an accountant
Managers face the midcareer plateau during the adult stage of life and the maintenance phase of careers. At this point , the likelihood of additional upward promotion is usually quite low. There are simply fewer jobs at the top of organizations, and even though the manager has the ability to perform at that level. No opening exists.. openings may exist but the manager may lack the ability, the skills, or the desire to fill them. Managers who find themselves stifled in their present jobs thend to cope with the problems in fairly consistent ways. They suffer form depression , poor health, and fear of and hostility toward their subordinates. Eventually, they ³retire´ on the job or leave the organization physically and permanently.
Individual and organizational needs and opportunities can be matched in a variety of ways. According to a survey by the American Management Association (AMA) ,the most widely used approaches are counseling by the personal staff and career counseling by supervisors.
Informal Counseling Formal Counseling
Informal Counseling : The HR staff of the organizations often include counseling services for employees who wish to assess their abilities and interests.
Formal Counseling: Workshops, Assessment centers and career development centers are being used increasingly in organizations
The result of career planning is the placement of an individual in a job that is the first of a sequential series of jobs. From the perspective of the organization, career paths are important in workforce planning
SUMMARY Increasing competition, accelerating change and relentless restructuring have made career planning and development critical for both organisations and employees. Effective career planning is essential for employees if they are to fully achieve their career objectives. They must see it as their responsibility.
SUMMARY Organisations, in turn, must realise a better match between employee career aspirations and job opportunities to obtain the supply of qualified human resources needed to achieve strategic organisational objectives.
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