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# Weeks 5-8

Chapter 3

Robot Kinematics
PE-5112
Prof . Charlton S. Inao
Defence University
College of Engineering
Bishoftu, Ethiopia
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Week 5-8
CHAPTER 3
Robot Kinematics

## Homogeneous transformations Matrices

Representation of Transformation
Rotation Matrix
Dot Product
Euler Angles representation

Forward Kinematics
Inverse Kinematics
Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) Notation
Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) Representation
of Forward Kinematic
Equations of Robots.
The Fundamental Problem with the
Denavit- Hartenberg

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Manipulator
Manipulator- set of links connected by joints
Joint/s= the one that connect two links; # of joint= #dof
Link- is a rigid body that is connected thru joint
End effector=>also called tool, hand or wrist point
DOF= degree of mobility, freedom to move
Kinematics-the study of robots position ,orientation , that is, of
its joints and links to locate the end effector.

Prismatic joint

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Robot Kinematics and Motion Analysis
In order to control and program a robot we must have
knowledge of both its spatial arrangement and a means
of reference to the environment

## Kinematics - the analytical study of the geometry of

motion of a robot arm:
with respect to a fixed reference coordinate system
(world or base frame)
without regard to the forces or moments that cause
the motion
Kinematics = the study of motion
The kinematic state of a robot is the position of each
of its joints
Using kinematics to describe the spatial configuration of
a robot gives us two approaches:

## Forward Kinematics. (direct)

Given the joint variables for the robot, what is the
orientation and position of the end effector?
E.g., (x, y, z) coordinate of end effector

## Inverse Kinematics. (backward)

Calculate joint variables if we want the end effector to
be located at a particular place, e.g., (x, y, z) coordinate
This is an important means used to control robots to
achieve particular goals
Forward Kinematics (angles to position)
What you are given: The length of each link
The angle of each joint

## What you can find: The position of any point

(i.e. its (x, y, z) coordinates

## What you are given: The length of each link

The position of some point on the robot
What you can find: The angles of each joint needed
to obtain that position
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

## In robot motion analysis we study the

geometry of the robot arm with respect to a
reference coordinate system, while the end-
effector moves along the prescribed path .
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

## The kinematic analysis involves two different kinds of

problems:
1. Determining the coordinates of the end- effector or
end of arm for a given set of joints coordinates.
(Forward)

## 2. Determining the joints coordinates for a given

location of the end-effector or end of arm.
(Backward)
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

## Generally, for robots the location of

the end-effector can be defined in
two systems:
a. joint space and
b. world space (also known as
global space)
Kinematic Model
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

## In joint space, the joint parameters such as rotating or

twisting joint angles and variable link lengths are
used to represent the position of the end-effector.
Vj = (q, a) for RR robot
Vj = (L1, , L2) for LL robot
Vj = (a, L2) for TL robot
where Vj refers to the position of the end-effector in
joint space.
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS
In world space, rectilinear coordinates
with reference to the basic Cartesian
system are used to define the
position of the end-effector.

## Usually the origin of the Cartesian axes is

located in the robot's base.
VW = (x, y)
where VW refers to the position of the end-
effector in world space.
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

## The transformation of coordinates of the end-effector

point from the joint space to the world space is
known as forward kinematic transformation.

## Similarly, the transformation of coordinates from

world space to joint space is known as backward or
reverse kinematic transformation.
Forward KinematicTransformation
RR Robot:
Let q and a be the rotations at joints J1 and J2 respectively. Let
J1 and J2 have the coordinates of (x1, y1) and (x2, y2),
respectively.

J
y (x 2 y2 )
2 One can write the following from the
geometry:
L2
L
3
J1
(x 1 y1)
(x y )
x2 = x1+L2 cos()
L
1 y2 = y1 +L2 sin()

x
Forward
KinematicTransformation
In matrix
form: x 2 1 0 L2 cos( ) x1
y 0 1 L sin( ) y
2 2 1
1 0 0 1 1

or
X2 = T1 X1
On the other end:

x = x2 +L3 cos(-)
y = y2 - L3 sin(-)
Forward
KinematicTransformation
In matrix
form: x 1 0 L3cos( ) x2
y 0 1 L sin( ) y
3 2
1 0 0 1 1

or
X = T2 X2

## X = T2 (T1 X1) = TRR X1

Forward
KinematicTransformation
where
TRR = T2 T1

1 0 L 2 cos( ) L3 cos( )
T
0 1 L sin( ) L sin( )
RR 2 3
0 0 1
Forward
KinematicTransformation
TL Robot:
Let be the rotation at twisting joint J1 and L2 be
the variable link length at linear joint J2.

z
J2 ( x 2 y 2 ) y One can write that:
(x y )
L 2 x = x2 + L2 cos()

J1 (x1 y 1)
y = y2 + L2 sin()

x
Forward
KinematicTransformation
In matrix
form:

x 1 0 L2 cos() x2
y 0 1 L2 sin() y2
1 0 0 1 1

or
X = TTL X2
Backward Kinematic
Transformation
LL Robot:
In backward kinematic transformation, the objective is
to derive the variable link lengths from the known
position of the end effector in world space.

x = x 1 + L2 y J 1 (x 1,y 1 ) L
2
J 2 (x 2,y 2 )
y = y1 - L 3
L 3

y1 = y 2
(x,y)
L
1

## By combining above equations,

one can get:
x
L2 = x - x 1
L3 = -y +y2
Backward Kinematic
Transformation
RR Robot:
x = x1 + L2 cos() + L3 cos(-)
y = y1 + L2 sin() - L sin(-)

J
2
y (x 2 y2 )

L2
L
3
J1 (x y )
(x 1 y1)

L
1

x
Backward Kinematic
Transformation
One can easily get the angles:

cos ( ) =
x-x 1
2
y y1 L22 L23
2

2 L 2 L3

and

tan( ) =
y - y1 L2 L3 cos( ) x x1 L3 sin( )
x - x1 L2 L3 cos( ) y y1 L3 sin( )
Backward Kinematic
Transformation
TL Robot:
x = x2 + L cos()
y = y2 +L sin()
One can easily get the equations for length and
angle:
z

x - x2 y y2
2 2 J2 ( x 2 y 2 ) y

L= (x y )
L 2

and
y - y2 J1 (x1 y 1)

sin() =
L x
EXAMPLE
An LL robot has two links of variable length.
Assuming that the origin of the global coordinate
system is defined at joint J1, determine the following:

## a)The coordinate of the end-effector point if the

variable link lengths are 3m and 5 m.

## b) Variable link lengths if the end-effector is located

at (3, 5).
EXAMPLE

J 1 (0 ,0 ) L =3m
x 2
J 2 (x 2,y 2 )

L 3=5m

(x,y)
L1

y
EXAMPLE
1 0 L2
Solution: TLL 0 1 L3
0 0 1
a) It is given that: 1 0 3
(x1, y1) = (0, TLL 0 1 5
0 0 1
0) x x1
y TLL y1
1 1
Therefore the end-effector x 1 0 3 0
point is given by (3, -5). y 0 1 5 0
1 0 0 1 1
x 3
y 5
1 1
EXAMPLE
b)Backward calculations
The end effector point is given by (3, 5)
Then: L2 = x - x1 = 3 - 0 = 3 m
L3 = -y + y1 = -5 + 0 = -5 m
(3,5)

L 3
J 1 (0 ,0 ) L
x 2

## and 5 m. The minus sign is

due to the coordinate system
used. L
1

y
EXAMPLE
An RR robot has two links of length 1 m. Assume that the origin of
the global coordinate system is at J1.
a) Determine the coordinate of the end-effector point if the joint
rotations are 30o at both joints.
b) Determine joint rotations if the end-effector is located at (1, 0)

J o
2 =30
y (x 2 y2 )

L 2=1m
L 3=1m
J1 o
=30 (x y )
(0,0)

L1

x
EXAMPLE
It is given that (x1, y1) = (0, 3 1
10
2
0) TRR 0 1 1 0
2
0 0 1
1 0 L2 cos() L2 cos( )
TRR 0 1 L2 sin() L2 sin( ) x x1
0 0 1 y = TRR y1
1 1
x 1 0 18667
. 0
Therefore the end-effector point is given by y 0 1 0.5 0
(1.8667, 0.5) 1 0 0 1 1
x 18667
.
y 0.5
1 0.51
EXAMPLE

J
2
y (x 2 y2 )

L 2=1m
L 3 =1m
J1 (1,0)
(0,0)

L1

x
EXAMPLE
It is given that (x, y) = (1, 0),
therefore,

x 2 y 2 L22 L23
cos( ) =
2 L3 L2

12 0 2 12 12
cos( ) = 0.5
2 x1x1

= 120o
EXAMPLE
tan( ) =
y - y1 L2 L3 cos( ) x x1 L3 sin( )
x - x1 L2 L3 cos( ) y y1 L3 sin( )

tan( ) =
0 - 01 1x cos(120) 1 0 1 sin(120)
1 - 01 1cos(120) 0 0 1 sin(120)

3
tan() = 2 = 3
0.5
= 60o
Assignment

## In a TL robot, assume that the coordinate system is

defined at joints J2.

## a) Determine the coordinates of the end-effector point

if joint J1 twist by an angle of 20o and the variable link
has a length of 0.75 m.

## b) Determine variable link length and angle of twist

at J1 if the end-effector is located at (0.7091, 0.7091)
Matrix Representation

Conventions

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Matrix Representation

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1

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Representation of a Frame at the Origin of a
Fixed Reference Frame

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Frame of Reference

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Transformation

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Representation of a Rigid Body

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Reduction of 12 parameters to only 6 by
using six (6) constraints

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