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Weeks 5-8

Chapter 3

Robot Kinematics
PE-5112
Prof . Charlton S. Inao
Defence University
College of Engineering
Bishoftu, Ethiopia
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Week 5-8
CHAPTER 3
Robot Kinematics

Homogeneous transformations Matrices


Representation of Transformation
Rotation Matrix
Dot Product
Euler Angles representation

Forward Kinematics
Inverse Kinematics
Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) Notation
Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) Representation
of Forward Kinematic
Equations of Robots.
The Fundamental Problem with the
Denavit- Hartenberg

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Manipulator
Manipulator- set of links connected by joints
Joint/s= the one that connect two links; # of joint= #dof
Link- is a rigid body that is connected thru joint
End effector=>also called tool, hand or wrist point
DOF= degree of mobility, freedom to move
Kinematics-the study of robots position ,orientation , that is, of
its joints and links to locate the end effector.

Prismatic joint

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Robot Kinematics and Motion Analysis
In order to control and program a robot we must have
knowledge of both its spatial arrangement and a means
of reference to the environment

Kinematics - the analytical study of the geometry of


motion of a robot arm:
with respect to a fixed reference coordinate system
(world or base frame)
without regard to the forces or moments that cause
the motion
Kinematics = the study of motion
The kinematic state of a robot is the position of each
of its joints
Using kinematics to describe the spatial configuration of
a robot gives us two approaches:

Forward Kinematics. (direct)


Given the joint variables for the robot, what is the
orientation and position of the end effector?
E.g., (x, y, z) coordinate of end effector

Inverse Kinematics. (backward)


Calculate joint variables if we want the end effector to
be located at a particular place, e.g., (x, y, z) coordinate
This is an important means used to control robots to
achieve particular goals
Forward Kinematics (angles to position)
What you are given: The length of each link
The angle of each joint

What you can find: The position of any point


(i.e. its (x, y, z) coordinates

Inverse Kinematics (position to angles)

What you are given: The length of each link


The position of some point on the robot
What you can find: The angles of each joint needed
to obtain that position
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

In robot motion analysis we study the


geometry of the robot arm with respect to a
reference coordinate system, while the end-
effector moves along the prescribed path .
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

The kinematic analysis involves two different kinds of


problems:
1. Determining the coordinates of the end- effector or
end of arm for a given set of joints coordinates.
(Forward)

2. Determining the joints coordinates for a given


location of the end-effector or end of arm.
(Backward)
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

Generally, for robots the location of


the end-effector can be defined in
two systems:
a. joint space and
b. world space (also known as
global space)
Kinematic Model
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

In joint space, the joint parameters such as rotating or


twisting joint angles and variable link lengths are
used to represent the position of the end-effector.
Vj = (q, a) for RR robot
Vj = (L1, , L2) for LL robot
Vj = (a, L2) for TL robot
where Vj refers to the position of the end-effector in
joint space.
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS
In world space, rectilinear coordinates
with reference to the basic Cartesian
system are used to define the
position of the end-effector.

Usually the origin of the Cartesian axes is


located in the robot's base.
VW = (x, y)
where VW refers to the position of the end-
effector in world space.
ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

The transformation of coordinates of the end-effector


point from the joint space to the world space is
known as forward kinematic transformation.

Similarly, the transformation of coordinates from


world space to joint space is known as backward or
reverse kinematic transformation.
Forward KinematicTransformation
RR Robot:
Let q and a be the rotations at joints J1 and J2 respectively. Let
J1 and J2 have the coordinates of (x1, y1) and (x2, y2),
respectively.

J
y (x 2 y2 )
2 One can write the following from the
geometry:
L2
L
3
J1
(x 1 y1)
(x y )
x2 = x1+L2 cos()
L
1 y2 = y1 +L2 sin()

x
Forward
KinematicTransformation
In matrix
form: x 2 1 0 L2 cos( ) x1
y 0 1 L sin( ) y
2 2 1
1 0 0 1 1

or
X2 = T1 X1
On the other end:

x = x2 +L3 cos(-)
y = y2 - L3 sin(-)
Forward
KinematicTransformation
In matrix
form: x 1 0 L3cos( ) x2
y 0 1 L sin( ) y
3 2
1 0 0 1 1

or
X = T2 X2

Combining the two equation gives:

X = T2 (T1 X1) = TRR X1


Forward
KinematicTransformation
where
TRR = T2 T1

1 0 L 2 cos( ) L3 cos( )
T
0 1 L sin( ) L sin( )
RR 2 3
0 0 1
Forward
KinematicTransformation
TL Robot:
Let be the rotation at twisting joint J1 and L2 be
the variable link length at linear joint J2.

z
J2 ( x 2 y 2 ) y One can write that:
(x y )
L 2 x = x2 + L2 cos()

J1 (x1 y 1)
y = y2 + L2 sin()

x
Forward
KinematicTransformation
In matrix
form:

x 1 0 L2 cos() x2
y 0 1 L2 sin() y2
1 0 0 1 1

or
X = TTL X2
Backward Kinematic
Transformation
LL Robot:
In backward kinematic transformation, the objective is
to derive the variable link lengths from the known
position of the end effector in world space.

x = x 1 + L2 y J 1 (x 1,y 1 ) L
2
J 2 (x 2,y 2 )
y = y1 - L 3
L 3

y1 = y 2
(x,y)
L
1

By combining above equations,


one can get:
x
L2 = x - x 1
L3 = -y +y2
Backward Kinematic
Transformation
RR Robot:
x = x1 + L2 cos() + L3 cos(-)
y = y1 + L2 sin() - L sin(-)

J
2
y (x 2 y2 )

L2
L
3
J1 (x y )
(x 1 y1)

L
1

x
Backward Kinematic
Transformation
One can easily get the angles:

cos ( ) =
x-x 1
2
y y1 L22 L23
2

2 L 2 L3

and

tan( ) =
y - y1 L2 L3 cos( ) x x1 L3 sin( )
x - x1 L2 L3 cos( ) y y1 L3 sin( )
Backward Kinematic
Transformation
TL Robot:
x = x2 + L cos()
y = y2 +L sin()
One can easily get the equations for length and
angle:
z

x - x2 y y2
2 2 J2 ( x 2 y 2 ) y

L= (x y )
L 2

and
y - y2 J1 (x1 y 1)

sin() =
L x
EXAMPLE
An LL robot has two links of variable length.
Assuming that the origin of the global coordinate
system is defined at joint J1, determine the following:

a)The coordinate of the end-effector point if the


variable link lengths are 3m and 5 m.

b) Variable link lengths if the end-effector is located


at (3, 5).
EXAMPLE

J 1 (0 ,0 ) L =3m
x 2
J 2 (x 2,y 2 )

L 3=5m

(x,y)
L1

y
EXAMPLE
1 0 L2
Solution: TLL 0 1 L3
0 0 1
a) It is given that: 1 0 3
(x1, y1) = (0, TLL 0 1 5
0 0 1
0) x x1
y TLL y1
1 1
Therefore the end-effector x 1 0 3 0
point is given by (3, -5). y 0 1 5 0
1 0 0 1 1
x 3
y 5
1 1
EXAMPLE
b)Backward calculations
The end effector point is given by (3, 5)
Then: L2 = x - x1 = 3 - 0 = 3 m
L3 = -y + y1 = -5 + 0 = -5 m
(3,5)

L 3
J 1 (0 ,0 ) L
x 2

The variable lengths are 3 m J 2 (x 2,y 2 )

and 5 m. The minus sign is


due to the coordinate system
used. L
1

y
EXAMPLE
An RR robot has two links of length 1 m. Assume that the origin of
the global coordinate system is at J1.
a) Determine the coordinate of the end-effector point if the joint
rotations are 30o at both joints.
b) Determine joint rotations if the end-effector is located at (1, 0)

J o
2 =30
y (x 2 y2 )

L 2=1m
L 3=1m
J1 o
=30 (x y )
(0,0)

L1

x
EXAMPLE
It is given that (x1, y1) = (0, 3 1
10
2
0) TRR 0 1 1 0
2
0 0 1
1 0 L2 cos() L2 cos( )
TRR 0 1 L2 sin() L2 sin( ) x x1
0 0 1 y = TRR y1
1 1
x 1 0 18667
. 0
Therefore the end-effector point is given by y 0 1 0.5 0
(1.8667, 0.5) 1 0 0 1 1
x 18667
.
y 0.5
1 0.51
EXAMPLE

J
2
y (x 2 y2 )

L 2=1m
L 3 =1m
J1 (1,0)
(0,0)

L1

x
EXAMPLE
It is given that (x, y) = (1, 0),
therefore,

x 2 y 2 L22 L23
cos( ) =
2 L3 L2

12 0 2 12 12
cos( ) = 0.5
2 x1x1

= 120o
EXAMPLE
tan( ) =
y - y1 L2 L3 cos( ) x x1 L3 sin( )
x - x1 L2 L3 cos( ) y y1 L3 sin( )

tan( ) =
0 - 01 1x cos(120) 1 0 1 sin(120)
1 - 01 1cos(120) 0 0 1 sin(120)

3
tan() = 2 = 3
0.5
= 60o
Assignment

In a TL robot, assume that the coordinate system is


defined at joints J2.

a) Determine the coordinates of the end-effector point


if joint J1 twist by an angle of 20o and the variable link
has a length of 0.75 m.

b) Determine variable link length and angle of twist


at J1 if the end-effector is located at (0.7091, 0.7091)
Matrix Representation

Conventions

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Matrix Representation

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1

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Representation of a Frame at the Origin of a
Fixed Reference Frame

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Frame of Reference

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Transformation

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Representation of a Rigid Body

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Reduction of 12 parameters to only 6 by
using six (6) constraints

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