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Robot Kinematics:
• Forward Kinematics
• Inverse Kinematics
• Euler Angles representation

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Chapter 3

Robot Kinematics

PE-5112

Prof . Charlton S. Inao

Defence University

College of Engineering

Bishoftu, Ethiopia

5/4/17 1

Week 5-8

CHAPTER 3

Robot Kinematics

Representation of Transformation

Rotation Matrix

Dot Product

Euler Angles representation

Forward Kinematics

Inverse Kinematics

Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) Notation

Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) Representation

of Forward Kinematic

Equations of Robots.

The Fundamental Problem with the

Denavit- Hartenberg

5/4/17 2

Manipulator

Manipulator- set of links connected by joints

Joint/s= the one that connect two links; # of joint= #dof

Link- is a rigid body that is connected thru joint

End effector=>also called tool, hand or wrist point

DOF= degree of mobility, freedom to move

Kinematics-the study of robots position ,orientation , that is, of

its joints and links to locate the end effector.

Prismatic joint

5/4/17 3

Robot Kinematics and Motion Analysis

In order to control and program a robot we must have

knowledge of both its spatial arrangement and a means

of reference to the environment

motion of a robot arm:

with respect to a fixed reference coordinate system

(world or base frame)

without regard to the forces or moments that cause

the motion

Kinematics = the study of motion

The kinematic state of a robot is the position of each

of its joints

Using kinematics to describe the spatial configuration of

a robot gives us two approaches:

Given the joint variables for the robot, what is the

orientation and position of the end effector?

E.g., (x, y, z) coordinate of end effector

Calculate joint variables if we want the end effector to

be located at a particular place, e.g., (x, y, z) coordinate

This is an important means used to control robots to

achieve particular goals

Forward Kinematics (angles to position)

What you are given: The length of each link

The angle of each joint

(i.e. its (x, y, z) coordinates

The position of some point on the robot

What you can find: The angles of each joint needed

to obtain that position

ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

geometry of the robot arm with respect to a

reference coordinate system, while the end-

effector moves along the prescribed path .

ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

problems:

1. Determining the coordinates of the end- effector or

end of arm for a given set of joints coordinates.

(Forward)

location of the end-effector or end of arm.

(Backward)

ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

the end-effector can be defined in

two systems:

a. joint space and

b. world space (also known as

global space)

Kinematic Model

ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

twisting joint angles and variable link lengths are

used to represent the position of the end-effector.

Vj = (q, a) for RR robot

Vj = (L1, , L2) for LL robot

Vj = (a, L2) for TL robot

where Vj refers to the position of the end-effector in

joint space.

ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

In world space, rectilinear coordinates

with reference to the basic Cartesian

system are used to define the

position of the end-effector.

located in the robot's base.

VW = (x, y)

where VW refers to the position of the end-

effector in world space.

ROBOT MOTION ANALYSIS

point from the joint space to the world space is

known as forward kinematic transformation.

world space to joint space is known as backward or

reverse kinematic transformation.

Forward KinematicTransformation

RR Robot:

Let q and a be the rotations at joints J1 and J2 respectively. Let

J1 and J2 have the coordinates of (x1, y1) and (x2, y2),

respectively.

J

y (x 2 y2 )

2 One can write the following from the

geometry:

L2

L

3

J1

(x 1 y1)

(x y )

x2 = x1+L2 cos()

L

1 y2 = y1 +L2 sin()

x

Forward

KinematicTransformation

In matrix

form: x 2 1 0 L2 cos( ) x1

y 0 1 L sin( ) y

2 2 1

1 0 0 1 1

or

X2 = T1 X1

On the other end:

x = x2 +L3 cos(-)

y = y2 - L3 sin(-)

Forward

KinematicTransformation

In matrix

form: x 1 0 L3cos( ) x2

y 0 1 L sin( ) y

3 2

1 0 0 1 1

or

X = T2 X2

Forward

KinematicTransformation

where

TRR = T2 T1

1 0 L 2 cos( ) L3 cos( )

T

0 1 L sin( ) L sin( )

RR 2 3

0 0 1

Forward

KinematicTransformation

TL Robot:

Let be the rotation at twisting joint J1 and L2 be

the variable link length at linear joint J2.

z

J2 ( x 2 y 2 ) y One can write that:

(x y )

L 2 x = x2 + L2 cos()

J1 (x1 y 1)

y = y2 + L2 sin()

x

Forward

KinematicTransformation

In matrix

form:

x 1 0 L2 cos() x2

y 0 1 L2 sin() y2

1 0 0 1 1

or

X = TTL X2

Backward Kinematic

Transformation

LL Robot:

In backward kinematic transformation, the objective is

to derive the variable link lengths from the known

position of the end effector in world space.

x = x 1 + L2 y J 1 (x 1,y 1 ) L

2

J 2 (x 2,y 2 )

y = y1 - L 3

L 3

y1 = y 2

(x,y)

L

1

one can get:

x

L2 = x - x 1

L3 = -y +y2

Backward Kinematic

Transformation

RR Robot:

x = x1 + L2 cos() + L3 cos(-)

y = y1 + L2 sin() - L sin(-)

J

2

y (x 2 y2 )

L2

L

3

J1 (x y )

(x 1 y1)

L

1

x

Backward Kinematic

Transformation

One can easily get the angles:

cos ( ) =

x-x 1

2

y y1 L22 L23

2

2 L 2 L3

and

tan( ) =

y - y1 L2 L3 cos( ) x x1 L3 sin( )

x - x1 L2 L3 cos( ) y y1 L3 sin( )

Backward Kinematic

Transformation

TL Robot:

x = x2 + L cos()

y = y2 +L sin()

One can easily get the equations for length and

angle:

z

x - x2 y y2

2 2 J2 ( x 2 y 2 ) y

L= (x y )

L 2

and

y - y2 J1 (x1 y 1)

sin() =

L x

EXAMPLE

An LL robot has two links of variable length.

Assuming that the origin of the global coordinate

system is defined at joint J1, determine the following:

variable link lengths are 3m and 5 m.

at (3, 5).

EXAMPLE

J 1 (0 ,0 ) L =3m

x 2

J 2 (x 2,y 2 )

L 3=5m

(x,y)

L1

y

EXAMPLE

1 0 L2

Solution: TLL 0 1 L3

0 0 1

a) It is given that: 1 0 3

(x1, y1) = (0, TLL 0 1 5

0 0 1

0) x x1

y TLL y1

1 1

Therefore the end-effector x 1 0 3 0

point is given by (3, -5). y 0 1 5 0

1 0 0 1 1

x 3

y 5

1 1

EXAMPLE

b)Backward calculations

The end effector point is given by (3, 5)

Then: L2 = x - x1 = 3 - 0 = 3 m

L3 = -y + y1 = -5 + 0 = -5 m

(3,5)

L 3

J 1 (0 ,0 ) L

x 2

due to the coordinate system

used. L

1

y

EXAMPLE

An RR robot has two links of length 1 m. Assume that the origin of

the global coordinate system is at J1.

a) Determine the coordinate of the end-effector point if the joint

rotations are 30o at both joints.

b) Determine joint rotations if the end-effector is located at (1, 0)

J o

2 =30

y (x 2 y2 )

L 2=1m

L 3=1m

J1 o

=30 (x y )

(0,0)

L1

x

EXAMPLE

It is given that (x1, y1) = (0, 3 1

10

2

0) TRR 0 1 1 0

2

0 0 1

1 0 L2 cos() L2 cos( )

TRR 0 1 L2 sin() L2 sin( ) x x1

0 0 1 y = TRR y1

1 1

x 1 0 18667

. 0

Therefore the end-effector point is given by y 0 1 0.5 0

(1.8667, 0.5) 1 0 0 1 1

x 18667

.

y 0.5

1 0.51

EXAMPLE

J

2

y (x 2 y2 )

L 2=1m

L 3 =1m

J1 (1,0)

(0,0)

L1

x

EXAMPLE

It is given that (x, y) = (1, 0),

therefore,

x 2 y 2 L22 L23

cos( ) =

2 L3 L2

12 0 2 12 12

cos( ) = 0.5

2 x1x1

= 120o

EXAMPLE

tan( ) =

y - y1 L2 L3 cos( ) x x1 L3 sin( )

x - x1 L2 L3 cos( ) y y1 L3 sin( )

tan( ) =

0 - 01 1x cos(120) 1 0 1 sin(120)

1 - 01 1cos(120) 0 0 1 sin(120)

3

tan() = 2 = 3

0.5

= 60o

Assignment

defined at joints J2.

if joint J1 twist by an angle of 20o and the variable link

has a length of 0.75 m.

at J1 if the end-effector is located at (0.7091, 0.7091)

Matrix Representation

Conventions

5/4/17 34

5/4/17 35

Matrix Representation

5/4/17 36

5/4/17 37

5/4/17 38

1

5/4/17 39

5/4/17 40

5/4/17 41

Representation of a Frame at the Origin of a

Fixed Reference Frame

5/4/17 42

Frame of Reference

5/4/17 43

Transformation

5/4/17 44

5/4/17 45

Representation of a Rigid Body

5/4/17 46

Reduction of 12 parameters to only 6 by

using six (6) constraints

5/4/17 47

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