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Denavit- Hartenberg (D-H) Notation
• Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H)
Representation of Forward Kinematic Equations of Robots.
• Homogeneous transformations Matrices
• Rotation Matrix
Homogeneous transformations Matrices
• Rotation Matrix
• Dot Product
• • Representation of Transformation
• The Fundamental Problem
with the Denavit- Hartenberg
Representation.

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Robot Kinematics

continued.

Homogeneous transformation

Representation of Transformation

RPY

Euler Angles

Homogeneous Transformations

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Example

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Example

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Transformation Rule

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Example

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Homogeneous Representation

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Homogeneous Representation-Translation

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Homogeneous Transformation Matrices

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Homogeneous Transformation Matrices

Representation of Transformation

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Representation of Pure Translation

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Solution

10

F OLD

matrix

Fnew

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Pure Rotation about an Axis

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P(l1- l2, l3+l4)

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Cos 90= 0

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Sin 90 =1 19

Rotation of a frame relative to the x-axis of a

reference frame, 90 deg CCW

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Basic Rotation Matrices

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Representation of Combined Transformation

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Solution

The matrix equation representing the transformation

is :

noa

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Using Matlab in Matrix multiplication

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Sequence of implementation

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Inverse of Transformation Matrices

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Angle is 30

degrees

Solution

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Forward Kinematics

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Inverse Kinematics

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Example

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Forward kinematics

5/4/17 cm L3=22cm 37

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Robot Reference Frames

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Dot Product: Properties

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Coordinate Transformation

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Basic Rotation

5/4/17 43

Rotation Matrix

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Basic Rotation Matrix

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Rotation Matrix

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Example

Note

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Composite Rotation Matrix

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Coordinate Transformations

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Coordinate Transformations

5/4/17 52

Forward and Inverse Kinematic

Equations

Forward kinematics includes substituting

the known joint values into the equations

to find the location and orientation

Inverse kinematics includes finding an

equation that results in joint values if the

desired position and orientation are

specified.

Forward and Inverse Kinematics for

Position

Four possibilities are common:

a. Cartesian (gantry, rectangular)

coordinates

b. Cylindrical coordinates

c. Spherical coordinates

d. Articulated (anthropomorphic or all-

revolute) coordinates

Cartesian Coordinates

1 0 0 px

0 1 0 p y

Tp Tcart ( px , p y , pz )

R

0 0 1 pz z a

0 0 0 1 o

n

p pz

y

px

py

x

Forward and Inverse Kinematics of a Robot

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Cylindrical Coordinate

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rSin

rCos

58

SPHERICAL COORDINATES(2RP)

59

DETAILS

60

Product of two rotation matrix about

y and z axis

61

62

Inverse Solution

the joint values.

for correct determination of angles.

Inverse Solution

determine the joint values.

values.

Forward and Inverse Kinematics for

Orientation

Three possibilities are common:

a. Roll-pitch-yaw (RPY) angles

b. Euler angles

c. Articulated coordinates

RPY Angles

Rotations relative to the current z-,

y-, and x-axes

z z z

a

a a

o a o

o o

n

n

n n

x y x y x y

RPY Angles Matrix

CaCo Ca So Sn SaCn Ca SoCn Sa Sn 0

S C S S S C C S S C C S 0

a o a o n a n a o n a n

So Co Sn CoCn 0

0 0 0 1

Inverse Solution

Use:

a ATAN 2(n y , nx ) and a ATAN 2(n y , nx )

ROLL ,PITCH ,YAW(R,P,Y)

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ROLL ,PITCH ,YAW(R,P,Y)

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SUMMARY of Formulas for R, P ,Y

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Cos 35 deg = 0.819

Sin 35 deg=0.5735

Sin 215 deg= -0.574

Sin 35 deg=0.5735

Sin 215 deg= -0.574

5/4/17 78

Summary of Results of Roll , Pitch and

Yaw Angles

Rotations Differ from Translations

Rotations are non-Euclidean

like travelling on a globe vs. a grid

x-rotate, y-rotate is not equal y-rotate, x-

rotate etc.

Basic Rotation about Z-axis

cos -sin 0

R sin cos 0

z

0 0 1

Rotation Parameterization

Represent rotation space in Euclidean

3

R

e.g. Euler angles

Pros

three parameters for three DOFs

Cons

singularities, potentially poor interpolation

Euler angles (,,)

R = R R R

X-Convention

The rotation given by Euler angles (,,),

where the first rotation is by an angle about

the z-axis, the second is by an angle about

the x-axis, and the third is by an angle about

the z-axis (again).

R = R R R

cos -sin 0 1 0 0

cos -sin 0

R sin cos 0 R cos -sin

0 R sin cos 0

0 0 1 0 sin cos 0 0 1

Yaw-Pitch-Roll Convention

R sin cos 0

R 0 1 0

R 0

cos -sin

0 0 1 -sin 0 cos 0 sin cos

Singularities

More than one sets of parameters can

create the same rotation matrix.

Gimbal lock - two or more axes align,

results in loss of rotational DOFs

For Yaw-Pitch-Roll Convention

Rotation Axis + Angle

Eulers Rotation Theorem:

all rotations can be expressed as

axis/angle

Euler Angles

Euler Angles

The Euler angles were developed by Leonhard Euler

to describe the orientation of a rigid body (a body in

which the relative position of all its points is constant)

in 3-dimensional Euclidean space.

To give an object a specific orientation it may be

subjected to a sequence of three rotations described

by the Euler angles.

This is equivalent to saying that a rotation matrix can

be decomposed as a product of three elemental

rotations.

Euler Angles

ZXZ Euler Angles

cos cos cos sin sin cos sin cos cos sin sin sin

R sin cos cos sin cos sin sin cos cos cos cos sin

sin sin sin cos cos

Leonhard Euler The Euler angles

(1707 1783)

formulation of mechanics, it is necessary to seek three independent

parameters that specify the orientation of a rigid body

The most common and useful set of such parameters are the Euler angles

successive rotations performed in a specific sequence

A 1

The Euler angles

First, we rotate the system around the z

axis

cos sin 0 x '

0 y '

x' ' Dx' sin cos

0 0 1 z '

axis

1 0 0 x' '

X Cx' ' 0 cos sin y ' '

0 sin cos z ' '

The Euler angles

Finally, we rotate the system around the Z

axis

cos sin 0 X

x BX sin cos 0 Y

0 0 1 Z

expressed as a product of the successive

x BX BCx' ' BCDx' Ax'

matrices

x Ax'

The Euler angles

The explicit form of the resultant

transformation matrix A is

A BCD

cos cos cos sin sin cos sin cos cos sin sin sin

sin cos cos sin cos sin sin cos cos cos cos sin

sin sin sin cos cos

the x-convention (ZXZ)

possible conventions in defining the

ZYZ Euler Angles

One method of describing the orientation of a

coordinate frame B relative to another coordinate

frame A is as follows: start with frame B coincident

with frame A. First, rotate the B frame about the z-

axis of frame B (at this time coincident with frame

A) by an angle , then rotate about the (new) y-axis

of frame B by an angle , and then rotate about the

(once again, new) z-axis of frame B by an angle .

This yields a net orientation ARB(, , ) and the

triple of angles (, , ) is used to represent the

rotation. The angles (, , ) are called the ZYZ

Euler angles.

To derive the final orientation of frame B, it is easiest to derive the

formula by viewing the rotation with B considered as the fixed

frame, since then all rotations then occur around fixed axes. The

appropriate sequence of rotations for the frame A, considering the B

frame as fixed, is

Euler Angles

Rotations relative to the current z-, y-, and z-

axes.

Z Z Z

a

a a

o

o o

n n

n

X Y X Y X Y

Euler( , , ) Rot ( a, ) Rot (o, ), Rot ( a, )

C C C S S C C S S C C S 0

S C C C S S C S C C S S 0

S C S S C 0

0 0 0 1

ZYX Euler angles

ZYX Euler Angles

Forward and Inverse Kinematics Equations

for Orientation

Euler Angles Representation

Inverse Solution

Use the Formula

ATAN 2(a y , ax ) or ATAN 2(a y , a x )

ATAN 2[(axC a y S ), az )]

5/4/17 106

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

@ 35

@ 215

@ 35

@ 215

Checke

d

C C C S S C C S S C C S 0

S C C C S S C S C C S S 0

S C S S C 0

0 0 0 1

phi

sin 35 0.573 cos 35 0.573

sin 215 -0.574 cos 215 0.819

psi

sin 0 0 cos 0 1

sin 180 0 cos 180 -1

theta

sin 50 0.766 cos 50 0.643

sin -50 -0.766 cos -50 0.643

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