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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

AIRCRAFT DE-ICING
SYSTEM

Prepared by: AZLAN BIN TAJUDIN


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

LESSON OBJECTIVE

By the end of this session, you should be able to:

1. Understand the De-Icing System on Aircraft.

2. Identify the common types of De-Icing System.

3. Explain the Basic Operational Principle of the De-Icing System.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

De-Icing System
TO REMOVE THE FORMATION OF ICE

Common method for DE-ICE Protection System:


* RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT/OVERSHOES
* ELECTRO-THERMAL
* ELECTRO-EPULSIVE SEPERATION
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER
DE-ICER BOOT
SYSTEM
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM


In this system, Inflatable Rubber Boots containing several LONGITUDINAL
TUBES are fitted to the Leading Edges of the Wing, Tail-planes and the Fin. When
a certain amount of ice has accumulated on the Leading Edges, the Boots are
INFLATED. The swelling of the Boots causes the ice to break away. The inflation
deflation cycle is repeated as often as necessary.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM

Sources of operating air:

a) Turbine Engine Compressor Bleed Air


- Required step down regulator to reduce the pressure.

b) Exhaust / Pressure side of an Engine-driven Air Pump:


- Wet Type = Engine Oil as lubricants, Oil Separator
required to remove oil and prevent deterioration.
- Dry Type = Carbon Vane as lubrication.

c) A Cylinder / Reservoir of high pressure Compressed Air.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM -CONSTRUCTION


The inflatable boots are made from soft
pliable RUBBERIZED FABRIC,
FABRIC the outer
ply of which is made from NEOPRENE.

The Neoprene resists abrasion and


deterioration and provides an Electrically
CONDUCTING PATH to dissipate Static
Electricity. Without this conductive path,
the static charges might pass through the
boot to the Aerofoil Leading Edge,
puncturing the boot.

The whole boot are bonded to the


Leading Edge using a suitable Adhesive.
The edges are SEALED and a coat of
Conducting Compound is applied.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM -CONSTRUCTION


Incorporated in the construction
of the Boot are LONGITUDINAL
TUBES,
TUBES which are inflated to
break the ice away from the
Aerofoil Leading Edge. Some
Boots have CHORDWISE
TUBES, as shown in the
illustration. The tubes of some
boots inflates simultaneously,
while others inflates alternately.
When the inflation part of the
cycle is completed, the Boots are
deflated and held to the contour
of the Aerofoil Leading Edge by
applying VACUUM to the tubes,
instead of pressure.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM -OPERATION

Where PISTON ENGINES are employed, the usual method of providing both Pressure and
Vacuum is by means of a VANE TYPE Pump,
Pump the same Pump which supplies Vacuum or
Pressure for the Gyro Instruments.
Instruments In operation, one side of the pump provides Vacuum
while the other provides the Pressure.

In the case of TURBINE ENGINES, Pressure can be supplied from the Engine Bleed Air
System through a PRESSURE REDUCING VALVE. The Vacuum is obtained by passing
Bleed Air through an Ejector or Venturi. The Pressure Air is often filtered before being
admitted to the Boots. The supply of Pressure and Vacuum to the Boots is controlled by
a SOLENOID VALVE and a SHUTTLE VALVE,VALVE which may be contained in the same
housing.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM


PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

- When the System switched OFF:-

* Vacuum is supplied continuously to all tubes to hold them


flat against the Leading Edges to minimize drag.

* Vacuum/Suction is derived from vacuum side of Piston


Engine Driven Vacuum Pump / Air Pump (Negative Pressure)

* Suction Relief Valve installed between Check Valves and


Distributor Valves to regulate the amount of suction that applied
to the Boots.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM (Component)


Oil separator:
Suction relief valve / * To remove the
Vacuum regulator: Oil lubricating oil
* Control amounts of vacuum Separator
applied to boots/instruments.
Oil return to
engine
Control Control Valves:
To Suction
Relief
valve Valve Control amounts of pressure
Gyros V P allowed in the system.
Air pump
Air pump (vacuum System in Normal Ops:
pump): boots are alternately inflated
* Create a vacuum for Pressure gauge fluctuates
operating instruments. Vacuum gauge relatively
Shuttle/Distributor Filter
* Output side provides air steady
Valve/Timer Shuttle/Distributor
pressure.
valve:
Others: To control the inflation of
* De-icer the boots.
To related component
boots/overshoes
* Valve, filters, pipe lines. Timer module:
Sequences the de-icer
boots through one
complete de-ice cycle.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM


OPERATION
- When System is switched ON:-

* Low Pressure Air passes


through a timer-operated
Distributor Valve into the tubes.
* On a sequentially operated
system, the CENTER TUBE
inflates first to crack the ice.
* The Center Tube then
deflates and the outer tubes
inflate, pushing up the cracked
ice.
* The Inflation Sequence is
controlled by a timer-operated
Distributor Valve or Shuttle Valve.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM

- Air flows remove the ice.

-Alternate Inflation minimize the Airflow disturbances and


Operation Cycle inflates the tube in a SYMMETRICAL MANNER to
minimize Flight Control problem.

-Larger Aircraft using this system has an Electric Motor-driven


time to operating Solenoid Valves to continually cycle the System.

-Small Aircraft, Pilot turns on the System after accumulation of ice


on the Leading Edge.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM


REMOVAL OF BOOTS

- Soften the adhesive with the


recommended solvent and carefully
apply tension to peel back the edge
of the boot.

- Keep the separation area wet with


solvent and carefully pull the boot
away from the surface.

- Always refer to the proper


MAINTENANCE MANUAL.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM


INSTALLATION

A DE-ICER BOOT attached to Leading Edge of the Wing , Screw Fasteners


(Rivnuts) or Adhesive Cement.

Example for Adhesive Cement

- Remove all the paint & primer from the area where the boots is to be installed.
- Apply adhesive to the back of the Boot and the Leading Edges.
- Secure the hoses to the Boot and place the Boot in the proper position.
- Press tightly to the surface with roller, BUT always follow the Proper Manuals.
- To ensure properly bonded Test Strip

For the other type of installations you can refer the applicable Manufacturers
Manual.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE


- Always keep the Boots clean.

-Wash the Boots with MILD SOAP and WATER SOLUTION.


SOLUTION Remove cleaning
compound by using clean water.

- Remove OIL or GREASE by scrubbing the surface lightly with a rag that is
damp with Benzoil or Lead-free Gasoline.
Gasoline

- Sprayed the Boot with SILICON to give the rubber an extremely smooth
surface.

- Inspection and check the Condition & Security of the Boots.

- Inspect the condition of Plumbing Fittings and Lines.

- Conclude the Inspection with a through Operational Check of the System.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

RUBBER DE-ICER BOOT SYSTEM-STORAGE

-make sure NO Operating Defects.

- Cleaned and repaired, lightly dusted with French Chalk.

-Connector should be blanked off. The de-icer boots rolled up at approximately


153mm (06 inches) in Diameter.

- Rolling should start at the end remote from Valve Connectors so they are on
the outside of finished roll.

- Rolled De-Icer Boots should then be thoroughly wrapped up in a HEAVY


PAPER to exclude all light, and stored in cool, dry, dark place, where it will not
be crushed or wrinkle.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-THERMAL
DE-ICING SYSTEM
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-THERMAL DE-ICING SYSTEM


By the end of this session, you should be able to:

1. Understand the Electro-Thermal De-icing System


on Aircraft.

2. Know the source of power for the System.

3. Explain the basic Operational Principle of this


De-icing System.

4. Know the maintenance procedures of the System.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-THERMAL DE-ICING SYSTEM


-installed in modern Propeller System.

-Rubber Boots with Heater Wires embedded and bonded to the Leading Edges
of the Propeller Blades.

-Electrical current passes through the wires to heat the rubber and melts any
ice, while centrifugal forces carry them away.

- Most efficient method to remove ice on Propellers.


Components:
-Electrically heated de-icer bonded to the Propellers Blades.

-Slip-Ring and Brush Lock Assemblies that carry the current to the rotating
Propellers. A timer to control HEATING TIME and sequence of the de-icing
cycle. An Ammeter to indicate the operation of the System.

- Wiring, Switches, and Circuit Breakers.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-THERMAL DE-ICING SYSTEM


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-THERMAL DE-ICING SYSTEM

Installation and Maintenance

Always refer to the Maintenance Manual.

Overshoes / Boots

- Check for splits, wrinkling, tears and discoloration.

- Check for Security of Attachment and General Condition.

- Overshoes must be removed in case heating elements burned out.


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-THERMAL DE-ICING SYSTEM

Brushes and Slip Rings:


- checked for wear, damage, cleanliness and freedom of movement.

- Brush holder must be cleaned with dry cloth; solvent must not be used.

- New brush fitted, at least 80% of the face must contact with the slip ring.

- Slip ring must be checked for security attachment and discoloration.

- Slip ring must be cleaned with lint free cloth moistened with approved spirit.

Repair:
Always refer to the Maintenance Manual.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-EPULSIVE
SEPARATION
SYSTEM
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-EPULSIVE DE-ICING SYSTEM


-Offers a reliable alternative to Pneumatic or Electrical de-icing boots to
reduce airfoil drag and surface erosion.

-CONDUCTORS are mounted directly beneath a metal Leading Edge.

- Generate opposing Electro-Magnetic fields,


fields which cause the Conductors change
shape rapidly.

Rapid motion of Conductors results in acceleration-based de-bonding of accumulates


ice on the erosion shields.

Advantages:
- System pulverize the ice into small particles but does not damage the Airframe or
Engine.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO EPULSIVE DE-ICING SYSTEM


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

ELECTRO-EPULSIVE DE-ICING SYSTEM


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ICE AND SNOW


REMOVAL
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ICE AND SNOW REMOVAL

SMALL AIRCRAFT
- Sweeping the snow off with brush/broom or squeegee.

- Do not push snow into gap around control surface &


doors.

-Used Chemical means if necessary.

- Blows warm air through large hose.


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ICE AND SNOW REMOVAL


LARGE AIRCRAFT

De Icing

Anti Icing (Mobile Unit)

Accomplished by one step and two steps process:

Step 1: (One Step Process) Apply the heated fluid;


quick and uncomplicated but required lot of fluids

Step 2: First apply Heated Fluid,


Fluid seconds apply anti-icing and Cold Fluid.
(Dilution prevent refreezing until anti-ice process complete). Apply
Anti-Icing and Cold Fluid (Type I or Type II/IV)

* Choice fluid depends on Weather Condition, Holdover Time and


Equipment.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FROST REMOVAL
Best removed by the use of FROST REMOVER or De-icing Fluid (i.e.: Kilfrost
ABC or similar fluids property)

Remove frost from the Wing and Tail Surfaces by brushing it off with a long
handled T-Broom. Better prevention of ice formation by covering the Aircraft
with NYLON or CANVAS when the Aircraft is secured for the night.

Spray the surfaces with de-icing solution of Ethylene Glycol and Isopropyl
Alcohol just before the flight to effectively remove all traces of frost.

Frost may also be removed from Aircraft Surfaces using a mobile unit capable
of supplying large quantities of HOT AIR through a delivery hose and nozzle.

Operators using this equipment should ensure that any melted frost is dried up
and not allowed to accumulate in hinges, micro-switches, etc, where re-freezing
could occur.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

DE-ICING FLUIDS
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

DE-ICING FLUIDS
The SAE publishes standards for 4 different types of Aviation De-Icing Fluids
Color Compositi Viscosity Usage
on
Type I Orange Glycol/wate Low De-icing
r
(50/50)
Type II Amber Glycol and High Anti-icing
thickening
agent
Type III Light yellow Glycol and Medium Anti-icing
thickening
agent

Type IV Emerald Glycol and High Anti-icing


green thickening
agent
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ONE-STEP PROCESS

Type 1 fluid diluted with water 50/50 or 70/30

Fluid heated to approx. 140


Remove accumulated ice and snow
degrees Fahrenheit

Applies thin layer of propylene


Prevent refreezing & snow buildup
glycol
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TWO-STEP PROCESS

After a/c de-iced, type IV fluid


sprayed 3-5 min after type I fluid applied

The fluid run down Repel accumulation of ice & snow

The fluid shear off a/c anti-ice take over


Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

GROUND DE-ICING SYSTEM

Two main types of Freezing-Point Depressant (FPD) fluids:-

Type I (un-thickened)
Fluids have a high glycol content (80%) and a low viscosity.
- The de-icing performance is good; but provide only limited
protection against refreezing.
* Primary for De-icing.

NOTE:
* De-ice and Anti-ice application on the Aircraft must be carried out as
close to Departure Time as possible for shorter hold-over times.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

DE-ICING FLUIDS
Type II (thickened)
Fluids have a minimum glycol contents of approximately 50%
and the thickening agent have properties enable the fluid to
remain on the aircraft surface until take-off.
- The de-icing performance is good and in addition, protection is
provided against refreezing and/or build-up of further accretion
when exposed to freezing precipitation.
* Used for De-icing and Anti-icing.

NOTE:
* De-ice and Anti-ice application on the Aircraft must be carried out as
close to Departure Time as possible for shorter hold-over times.
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

DE-ICING FLUIDS
Each type will serve the same purpose but different
H.O.T. (Hold-Over Time)

HOT is determined by the viscosity of the fluid,


fluid the
higher the viscosity the longer the holdover time.

Holdover Time is also influenced by the


1. Ambient temperature wind
2. Precipitation
3. Humidity
4. Aircraft skin Temperature
5. Other factors
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

DE-ICING FLUIDS
When applied to a clean surface, the fluid will form
a Protective Layer

The fluid has a lower freezing point than the frozen


precipitation. Ice will melt on contact with the fluid
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SAFETY PRECAUTION
Dont spray de-icing /anti-icing fluid directly at or on pitot inlet,
TAT probes or static port
Dont spray heated de-icing/anti-icing fluid or water directly onto
cold window
Dont spray de-icing/anti-icing fluid directly into engine, APU
inlet, air scoops, vents or drains.
Be sure the ice and /or snow is not forced into areas around
flight control during ice and snow removal
Remove all ice and snow from doors and door operating
mechanism before closing any door.
Dont use hard or sharp tools to scrape or chip ice from an
airplane surface
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology
Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

END OF TOPIC