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Introduction to deformed Heisenberg Algebras and Gravity's Rainbow

Introduction to deformed Heisenberg Algebras and Gravity's Rainbow

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Zaid Zaz

University of Kashmir/NIT Srinagar

Supervisor

Dr. Prince Ahmed Ganai

Concentration

Resolution of of large

Collapse of

arbitrarily small energies in

space onto itself

distances small regions of

space

Space cannot be resolved below a certain length scale. This

implies a minimum measurable length

measurable length manifest

itself?

The answer to this question was provided

by Achim Kempf and others in their 1996

paper,

Hilbert space representation of

minimum length uncertainty relation

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

A minimum non

removable

Minimum

uncertainty in

measurable length

position

measurements

A modification

Minimum of the

measurable uncertainty

length principle

A minimum

non

removable

uncertainty in

position

measurement

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

s

Thus to make quantum mechanical principles consistent with a minimum measurable length the

uncertainty principle is modified.

Uncertainty Heisenberg

principle Algebra

A A

Modificatio Modificatio

n of the n of the

uncertainty Heisenberg

principle Algebra.

Heisenberg algebra can be regarded as some kind of a Lie algebraic structure in terms of conjugate

variables (Here Positions and momenta) therefore,

Changes the form of the operators

Any modification of the commutator in a particular basis.

algebra of the operators

More precisely if we are working in a position basis, the representation of the momentum

operator will change because of the modification of the commutation relations, Which

means, a modified commutation relation can be written as,

A fundamental limit Existence of a

minimum

to the resolution of measurable length

distances scale

minimum length uncertainty

uncertainty principle

commutation of quantum

relations

(Heisenberg

mechanical

Algebra)/ operator Hamiltonian

structure s

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

This isnt quite the end of the story..

Towards the last decade of the last century, the idea of modified energy momentum

relations of the form,

These modified Energy momentum dispersion relations are very intimately related to the

idea of a fundamental quantum description of gravity.

Relativity of inertial frames is

Lorentz invariance ad Lorentz invariance is broken by maintained and fundamental

relativity of inertial frames the existence of a preferred matter degrees of freedom are

is maintained exactly frame point like

degrees of freedom relation in the form as laws achieve a non linear

become non point like given previously structure

E.g. String theory However ruled out by This produces a whole new

observations class of MDR

The Planck energy

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz achieves a special status.

Planck energy now plays a role of separating the classical description of spacetime from a

fully quantum mechanical description.

NOW Doubly

Special special

relativity relativity

Transformatio Transformatio

n laws are n laws are

linear non linear

to momentum momentum

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

We now have at hand a minimum measurable length and a maximum measurable momentum.

Now the question that needs to be asked is the following,

length consistent with each other?

A reasonable guess would be to say that one of the ways of achieving this end would be to

postulate another form of deformation of the Heisenberg algebra.

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

They proposed an algebra linear in momentum up to first order

Where,

Satisfy,

The Schrodinger equation for a particle in a box can now be written as

The most interesting result

A generalization of this idea now reveals that lengths volumes and areas are all

quantized.

This modification has been applied to many interesting physical systems and whole

new phenomenological models have been devised such as Tunneling currents in

scanning tunneling microscopes.

The next question we would now like to ask, what is the most

general form of this deformation of the momentum operator or

the Heisenberg Algebra?

deformation of the following form

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

Non locality;

Consider ordinary differential equations, they can be solved by the knowledge of boundary

Conditions or by the knowledge of certain initial values, that is only a specific local information is

Required to solve those equations,

However, for differential equations involving fractional derivatives local information does not suffice

A continuous set of conditions might sometimes be required,

Recently many Nuclear Physics experiments were reported in Physical review, which necessitated

Introduction of non-local terms,

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

The modified Schrodinger equation in this formalism can be written as,

Now, when we do a particle in a box problem with this, we get a very

strange result,

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

Work in progress,

to Gravitys Rainbow formally,

To be able to find an energy dependent gravitational field.

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

References:

2. M. Maggiore, Phys. Lett. B 304 (1993) 65, arXiv:hep-th /9301067;

3. M. Maggiore, Phys. Rev. D 49 (1994) 5182, arXiv:hep-th /9305163;

4. M. Maggiore, Phys. Lett. B 319 (1993) 83, arXiv:hep-th /9309034;

5. L.J. Garay, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 10 (1995) 145, arXiv:gr-qc /9403008;

6. F. Scardigli, Phys. Lett. B 452 (1999) 39, arXiv:hep-th/9904025;

7. J. Magueijo, L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 (2002) 190403, arXiv:hep-th/0112090;

8.J. Magueijo, L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. D 71 (2005) 026010, arXiv:hep-th/0401087.

9.J.L. Cortes, J. Gamboa, Phys. Rev. D 71 (2005) 065015, arXiv:hep-th/0405285.

10. A. Kempf, G. Mangano, R.B. Mann, Phys. Rev. D 52 (1995) 1108, arXiv:hepth /

9412167.

11. A. Kempf, J. Phys. A 30 (1997) 2093, arXiv:hep-th/9604045.

12. F. Brau, J. Phys. A 32 (1999) 7691, arXiv:quant-ph/9905033.

13. S. Das, E.C. Vagenas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (2008) 221301, arXiv:0810.5333

[hepth].

14. A.F. Ali, S. Das, E.C. Vagenas, in preparation.

15. S. Das, E.C. Vagenas, Can. J. Phys. 87 (2009) 233, arXiv:0901.1768 [hep-th].

16. T. Thiemann, J. Math. Phys. 39 (1998) 33723392, arXiv:gr-qc/9606092.

On Deformed Heisenberg algebras and Gravity's Rainbow Zaid Zaz

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