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BIOMEDICAL

WASTE
MANAGEMENT

Dr. Ch. Preethi (M.D)


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Definition
Classification of biomedical waste
Problems associated with biomedical waste
Need for biomedical waste management
Segregation and Treatment techniques
Biomedical waste management in India
Environmental legislation
News on biomedical waste
BIOMEDICAL WASTE
Definition:
Bio Medical waste is any waste,
which is generated during the diagnosis,
treatment or immunization of human beings or
animals or in research activities pertaining to
or in the production or testing of biologicals.
Biomedical waste is generated in:
hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, medical
laboratories, blood banks, animal houses etc.
Such a waste can also be generated at home if
health care is being provided there to a
patient (e.g. injection, dressing material etc.)
CLASSIFICATION
NEED FOR BIOMEDICAL WASTE
MANAGEMENT
Prevent Nosocomial infections
Control misutilisation of left over drugs.
Minimise the risk of air, water and soil
pollution directly due to waste, or due to
defective incineration emissions and ash.
Check the risk of infection outside hospital
for waste handlers andscavengers,
otherpeoples.
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH
BIOMEDICAL WASTE
organism Diseases caused Related waste item

Viruses: AIDS,infectious Infected needles,


HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis, Dengue, body fluids, human
Hepatitis A,C, tick-borne fevers, excreta, soiled
Arboviruses, etc linen, blood, body
Enteroviruses fluids.

Bacteria: Typhoid, Cholera, Human excreta and


Salmonella typhi, wound infections, body fluids in
Vibrio cholerae, septicemia, landfills and hospital
Clostridium tetani, rheumatic fever, wards, sharps such
Psedomonas, endocarditis, skin as needles, surgical
Streptococcus and soft tissue blades.
infections

Parasites: Cutaneous Human excreta and


Wuchereria leishmaniasis, kala body fluids in poorly
Bancrofti, azar, malaria managed sewage
Plasmodium system of hospitals
BIOMEDICAL WASTE
MANAGEMENT RULES IN INDIA
Ministry of Environment and Forests has revised
the Bio Medical Waste (Management and
Handling) Rules promulgated under the
Environment Protection Act of 1986. The Rules
now called the Bio Medical Wastes (Management
and Handling) Rules 2011.
According to the Ministry of Environment and
Forests (MoEF) gross generation of BMW in India is
4,05,702 kg/day of which only 2,91,983 kg/day is
disposed, which means that almost 28% of the
wastes is left untreated and not disposed finding
its way in dumps or water bodies and re-enters
our system.
CATEGORIES OF BMW
category Waste category (type)
Category No.1 Human anatomical waste

Category No.2 Animal waste

Category No.3 Microbiology and


biotechnology waste and
other laboratory waste

Category No.4 Waste sharps


Category No.5 Discarded medicines &
cytotoxic drugs (outdated &
contaminated)
Category No.6 Soiled waste

Category No.7 Infectious solid waste

Category No.8 Chemical waste


Colour Coding and Type of Container
for Disposal of BMW
Colour Coding Type of container to be used Waste
Category
Number
Yellow Non Chlorinated plastic bags Category
1,2,5,6

Red Non Chlorinated plastic Category 3,4,7


bags/puncture proof container for
sharps

Blue Non Chlorinated plastic bags Category 8


container

Black Non Chlorinated plastic bags Municipal


Waste
WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF TREATMENT & DISPOSAL
NUMBER

Category 1,2,5,6 Incineration

Category 3,4,7 Disinfection by chemical treatment or by


autoclaving/microwaving followed by
mutilation/shredding and final disposal

Category 8 Chemical treatment & discharge into drains


meeting the norms notified under these rules
& solid disposal in secured landfill
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN 2011
&1998
These rules imply to every occupier
generating BMW.
Only 8 categories.
Annual report format is indicated.
Confusion between disposal of waste is
cleared.
ROLE OF DOCTORS, NURSES, LAB TECHNICIANS.
Do not dispose dressings in patients bin / Ask
for disposal bags.
Ensure all the plastics and gloves are cut and
put into bleach solution.
Ensure all used injections are cut using needle
cutters.
Ensure compliance of this scheme during ward
visits
Help patients understand the scheme.
Media plates to be put in separate bleach
solution.
DONTS
Put the waste indiscriminately.
Put wrong bags in bin. (Adhere to colour code.)
Fill
the bags till neck. (Waste would otherwise spill
over.)
Handle waste without protective clothing.
Drag the bags after removal. (Bags can burst and
the site could be repulsive.)
Never recap the needle. (Never re-use needle
without disinfection)
Mix non infectious waste with infectious waste.
OUT HOUSE MANAGEMENT

Role of Common Facilitator:


To collect Bio Medical Waste from Individual Hospital
every day.
To transport in closed container Van safely to the
Treatment plant.
To erect common offsite BMWM Treatment facility in
accordance with the standard prescribe BMWM Rules
and approval from Pollution Control Board.
To dispose various categories of Bio Medical Waste by
approved techniques.
To train the individual hospitals staffs regarding
BMWM.
ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION

The Environment (Protection) Act,1986


The BiomedicalWaste (Management &
Handling)Rules, 1998
The MunicipalSolid Waste (Management &
Handling)Rules, 2000
The Hazardous Waste (Management &
Handling)Rules, 1989
The National Environmental Tribunal Act,
1995
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution)
Act,1981
NEWS ON BIOMEDICAL WASTE
News
King George's Medical University's double gain in sell
ing biomedical waste
TOI06 Dec 2013, 08:05 IST Here's a perfect example of
'best out of waste'. The biomedical waste management
system at King George's Medical University is helping the
institute mint handsome money besides contributing to
saving the environment.

Biomedical waste management seminar concludes at St


anley Medical College
TOI23 Nov 2013, 04:29 IST More than 50 NCC cadets at
the Stanley Medical College (SMC) on Friday participated
in a seminar on biomedical waste management and
would impart the knowledge to other students.
LET THE WASTE OF
THE SICK NOT
CONTAMINATE THE
LIVES OF HEALTHY

THANK YOU