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V By the end of this Module you should be able to:

Explain bandwidth in networking as units of measurement.

Explain the difference between bandwidth and throughput.
Calculate data transfer rates.
Describe the OSI Model in relation to Layers, Functions,
Protocols and Devices
Identify the four layers of the TCP/IP model and describe the
similarities and differences between the two models.
Briefly outline the history of networking.
Identify devices used in networking.
Understand the role of protocols in networking.
Define LAN, WAN, MAN, and SAN.
Explain VPNs and their advantages.
Describe the differences between intranets and extranets.



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V Sneakernet
Used when few
computers were
Stand alone computers
Files transferred by
copying to disk and
physically delivering it
to destination
Makes it difficult to
track current file
Wastes time
V Local Area Networks
Connected computers
on a shared medium
Enabled users to share
files electronically
More efficient
Standards developed
to allow equipment
from different vendors
to interoperate
V Wide Area Networks
As corporations grew
wider communication
was needed
Each branch of a
corporation became
Files sent by post or
V Solution
WAN standard
Companies were able to
communicate with other
networks globally


V End User Devices
V Network Devices


V Network Topologies Describe
Structure of the network
Physical Layout of Cabling (Physical Topology)
How the media is accessed by communicating hosts
(Logical Topology)
V Common Physical Topologies
V Uses a single backbone cable that is terminated at both
V All the hosts connect directly to this backbone
V Bandwidth is shared between the number of hosts on
V A star topology connects all cables to a central point of
V Concentrator can be a
V Connects one host to the next and the last host to the first
V This creates a physical ring of cable
V Links individual star wired network segments together
V Uses hubs and/or switches
V This topology can extend the scope and coverage of the
V Similar to an extended star
V Instead of linking the hubs and/or switches together, the
system is linked to a computer that controls the traffic on
the topology
V Implemented to provide as much protection as possible from
interruption of service
V The use of a mesh topology in the networked control systems of a
nuclear power plant would be an excellent example
V Each host has its own connections to all other hosts.
V Internet has multiple paths to any one location but it does not adopt
the full mesh topology.


V Defines how the hosts communicate across the medium
V The two most common types of logical topologies are:

Broadcast topology
means that each host sends its data to all other hosts on the network
medium. There is no order that the stations must follow to use the network.
It is first come, first serve.
Token passing
controls network access by passing an electronic token sequentially to each
When a host receives the token, that host can send data on the network. If
the host has no data to send, it passes the token to the next host and the
process repeats itself.
Two examples of networks that use token passing are Token Ring and Fiber
Distributed Data Interface (FDDI).
A variation of Token Ring and FDDI is Arcnet. Arcnet is token passing on a
bus topology.


V Shows many different topologies connected by
network devices.
V It shows a network of moderate complexity
that is typical of a school or a small business.
V It has many symbols, and it depicts many
networking concepts that will take time to
V Protocol suites are collections of protocols that enable network
communication from one host through the network to another host.
V A protocol is a formal description of a set of rules and conventions
that govern a particular aspect of how devices on a network
V Protocols determine the format, timing, sequencing, and error control
in data communication.
V Protocols control data communication, which include the following:
How the physical network is built
How computers connect to the network
How the data is formatted for transmission
How that data is sent
How to deal with errors
V Protocols are created and maintained by
organizations and committees such as:
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA)
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)


V LANs consist of the following components:
Network interface cards
Peripheral devices
Networking media
Network devices


V LANs are designed to:
Operate in a limited geographical area
Allow multiple access to high-bandwidth media
Control the network privately under local administrative control
Provide full time connectivity to local services
Connect physically adjacent devices


V WANs are designed to:
Operate over a large geographical area
Allow access over serial interfaces at lower speeds
Provide full and part time connectivity
Connect devices separated over wide, even global areas


V Common LAN technologies are:
Token Ring
V Common WAN technologies are:
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Frame Relay
US (T) and Europe (E) Carrier Series ² T1, E1, T3, E3
Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)


V A network that spans a
metropolitan area such as a city
or suburban area.
V Usually consists of two or more
LANs in a common geographic
V A service provider is used to
connect two or more LAN sites
V Can also be created using
wireless technology


V A dedicated, high-performance
network used to move data
between servers and storage
V SAN technology allows high-
speed server-to-storage,
V Offers the following features:
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V A private network that is
constructed within a
public network
infrastructure such as the
V Uses a secure tunnel
through the Internet
between the
telecommuter·s PC and a
VPN router in the
V The following are the three main types of VPNs:

V Why Bandwidth is important
Bandwidth is limited by Physics and Technology
Regardless of the media used to build the network there are
limits on the capacity of that network to carry information.
Bandwidth is limited by the laws of physics and by the
technologies used to place information on the media.
Bandwidth is not free
WAN connectivity must be purchased from a service
Bandwidth requirements are growing at a rapid rate
More and more companies are using WAN services which
require more and more bandwidth
Bandwidth is critical to network performance
The higher the bandwidth the more information can be
transferred in a shorter time
V Bandwidth Analogy 1
V Bandwidth Analogy 2
V Units of Bandwidth
Bandwidth is the measure of how much information, or bits,
can flow from one place to another in a given amount of time
Although bandwidth can be described in bits per second,
usually some multiple of bits per second is used.
V Bandwidth is limited by a number of factors
Network devices
V Each have their own limiting factors
V Actual bandwidth of a network is determined
by a combination of the physical media and the
technologies chosen for signaling and detecting
network signals
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V Throughput refers to actual measured bandwidth at:
a specific time of day
using specific Internet routes
and while a specific set of data is transmitted on the
V Is determines by the following factors
Internetworking devices
Type of data being transferred
Network topology
Number of users on the network
User computer
Server computer
Power conditions
V There are many types of networks
V All have the same characteristics
V How many types of network can you think of?
V Data Transfer Calculation
Best Download ² T=S/BW
Typical Bandwidth ² T=S/P

V Where
T = Transfer time in seconds
S = Size of file in Bits
BW = Maximum theoretical bandwidth (slowest link
between source and destination devices
P = Actual throughput at moment of transfer in Bps
V Is measured by how much of the electromagnetic spectrum is
occupied by each signal
V The basic unit of analog bandwidth is hertz (Hz)
V Units of measurement that are commonly seen are
kilohertz (KHz)
megahertz (MHz)
gigahertz (GHz).
V These are the units used to describe the bandwidths of cordless
Operate at either 900 MHz or 2.4 GHz.
V These are also the units used to describe the bandwidths of IEEE
802.11a and 802.11b wireless networks
operate at 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz.


V All Tasks can be broken down into discrete
V Network Communication is no exception
V Questions to determine the model in
communication are:
What is flowing
What objects flow
What are the rules that govern the flow
Where does the flow occur


V Using a layered model
Breaks network communication into smaller, more
manageable parts.
Standardizes network components to allow multiple
vendor development and support.
Allows different types of network hardware and
software to communicate with each other.
Prevents changes in one layer from affecting other
Divides network communication into smaller parts
to make learning it easier to understand.
V Open Standards Interconnection
Model (OSI Model)
Released by International
Standards Organisation (ISO)
in 1984
Standardised communications
between different vendor
hardware and software
Consists of 7 Layers
Each layer described a specific
aspect of network
V The physical layer is
concerned with transmitting
raw bits over a medium
Data rates
V Controls the direct link to
the media
V How media is accessed
Physical addressing
Network topology
Flow control
Error Notification
V Logical Addressing
V Best Path Determination
´Best Effortµ delivery of
data between networks
V End-to-end Connections
Concerned with
transportation issues
between hosts
Reliable delivery of data
Establishes, maintains and
terminates virtual circuits
Error recovery and data
V Host to host communication
Establishes, manages and
terminates sessions
between applications
V Data representation
Ensure data is readable
with receiving system
Data format
Data Structure
Negotiates data
transfer syntax for
application layer
V Provides network
services for applications
e-mail, file transfer,
terminal emulation


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V Developed by the US DoD
V Designed as an open
V Is robust enough to survive
any conditions (even nuclear
V Is the standard used for
communication on the
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