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Protection Basics

Presented by
John S. Levine, P.E.
Levine Lectronics and Lectric, Inc.
770 565-1556

GE Consumer & Industrial

Protection Fundamentals

John Levine
GE Consumer & Industrial

• Introductions
• Tools
– Enervista Launchpad
– On – Line Store
– Demo Relays at Levine
• ANSI number
• Training CD’s
• Protection Fundamentals

GE Consumer & Industrial

• We are here to help make your job easier.
This is very informal and designed around
Applications. Please ask question. We
are not here to “preach” to you.
• The knowledge base in the room varies
greatly. If you have a question, there is a
good chance there are 3 or 4 other people
that have the same question. Please ask
GE Consumer & Industrial

Tools 5 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

6 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Demo Relays at L-3 7 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Relays at L-3 8 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

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GE Multilin Training CD’s 10 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

ANSI Symbols 11 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Conversion of Electro-Mechanical to Electronic sheet 12 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

com/private/ieee/ 13 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .PowerPoint presentations at: http://l-3.

Protection Fundamentals 14 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Desirable Protection Attributes • Reliability: System operate properly – Security: Don’t trip when you shouldn’t – Dependability: Trip when you should • Selectivity: Trip the minimal amount to clear the fault or abnormal operating condition • Speed: Usually the faster the better in terms of minimizing equipment damage and maintaining system integrity • Simplicity: KISS • Economics: Don’t break the bank 15 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Art & Science of Protection Selection of protective relays requires compromises: • Maximum and Reliable protection at minimum equipment cost • High Sensitivity to faults and insensitivity to maximum load currents • High-speed fault clearance with correct selectivity • Selectivity in isolating small faulty area • Ability to operate correctly under all predictable power system conditions 16 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

some form of backup protection is provided. Art & Science of Protection • Cost of protective relays should be balanced against risks involved if protection is not sufficient and not enough redundancy. but if there are protective relays failures. • Backup protection is local (if local primary protection fails to clear fault) 17 and remote (if remote protection fails GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . • Primary objectives is to have faulted zone’s primary protection operate first.

to energize equipment and interrupt fault current to isolate faulted equipment • Insulators . Primary Equipment & Components • Transformers .to allow multiple connections (feeders) to the same source of power (transformer).to create a visible and permanent isolation of primary equipment for maintenance purposes and route power flow over certain buses. 18 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . • Bus .to step up or step down voltage level • Breakers .to insulate equipment from ground and other phases • Isolators (switches) .

19 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . protect.voltage. meter and control power flow • Reactors .to limit fault current (series) or compensate for charge current (shunt) • VT and CT . phase angle. protect primary equipment of sudden overvoltage (lightning strike). current. metering. • Regulators . etc. etc. • Switchgear – integrated components to switch. Primary Equipment & Components • Grounding . operate and maintain equipment safely • Arrester .to measure primary current and voltage and supply scaled down values to P&C.

Types of Protection Overcurrent • Uses current to determine magnitude of fault – Simple – May employ definite time or inverse time curves – May be slow – Selectivity at the cost of speed (coordination stacks) – Inexpensive – May use various polarizing voltages or ground current for directionality – Communication aided schemes make more selective 20 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Instantaneous Overcurrent Protection (IOC) & CTI Definite Time Overcurrent • Relay closest to fault operates first • Relays closer to source t operate slower • Time between operating for same current is called CTI (Clearing Time Interval) I CTI 50 50 +2 +2 Distribution Substation 21 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

(TOC) Coordination • Relay closest to fault operates first • Relays closer to source t operate slower • Time between operating for same current is called CTI I CTI Distribution Substation 22 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Time Overcurrent Protection (TOC) • Selection of the curves uses what is termed as a “ time multiplier” or “time dial” to effectively shift the curve up or down on the time axis • Operate region lies above selected curve. while no-operate region lies below it • Inverse curves can approximate fuse 23 curve shapes GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Time Overcurrent Protection (51. 51G) Multiples of pick- up 24 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . 51N.

Types of Protection Differential – current in = current out – Simple – Very fast – Very defined clearing area – Expensive – Practical distance limitations • Line differential systems overcome this using digital communications 26 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

1 pu IP CT-X CT-Y IP Differential IS IS • Note CT polarity Relay dots IR-X IR-Y • This is a +1 through-current 1 + (-1) = 0 representation Current. pu 0 • Perfect waveforms. no -1 saturation DIFF CURRENT 27 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

no DIFF CURRENT saturation 28 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . pu • Perfect 0 -2 waveforms. Differential 2 pu 2 pu IP Fault CT-X CT-Y IP X IS IS • Note CT IR-X Relay IR-Y polarity dots • This is an +2 internal fault 2 + (+2) = 4 representation Current.

Types of Protection Voltage • Uses voltage to infer fault or abnormal condition • May employ definite time or inverse time curves • May also be used for undervoltage load shedding – Simple – May be slow – Selectivity at the cost of speed (coordination stacks) – Inexpensive 29 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Types of Protection Frequency • Uses frequency of voltage to detect power balance condition • May employ definite time or inverse time curves • Used for load shedding & machinery under/overspeed protection – Simple – May be slow – Selectivity at the cost of speed can be expensive 30 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Types of Protection Power • Uses voltage and current to determine power flow magnitude and direction • Typically definite time – Complex – May be slow – Accuracy important for many applications – Can be expensive 31 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Types of Protection Distance (Impedance) – Uses voltage and current to determine impedance of fault – Set on impedance [R-X] plane – Uses definite time – Impedance related to distance from relay – Complicated – Fast – Somewhat defined clearing area with reasonable accuracy – Expensive – Communication aided schemes make more selective 32 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

X ZL Impedance • Relay in Zone 1 operates first • Time between Zones is called CTI R T2 ZB ZA T1 21 21 A B Source 33 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

4- 69kV Low voltage (service)-typically 120-600V 36 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Typical Generation-typically at 4- Bulk 20kV Power Transmission-typically at 230. System 765kV Receives power from transmission system and transforms into subtransmission level Subtransmission-typically at 69-161kV Receives power from subtransmission system and transforms into primary feeder voltage Distribution network-typically 2.

) 6. Protection Zones 1. static loads. Generator or Generator-Transformer Units 2. Utilization equipment (motors. etc. Buses 4. Transformers 3. Capacitor or reactor (when separately protected) Bus zone Bus zone Bus zone Unit Generator-Tx zone Line zone Transformer zone Motor zone Transformer zone ~ Generator XFMR Bus Line Bus XFMR Bus Motor 37 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Lines (transmission and distribution) 5.

which means it can not be cleared until adjacent breakers (local or remote) are opened. In some cases a fault might involve a CT or a circuit breaker itself. 2. Relay Zone A Relay Zone A Zone A Relay Zone B Zone B Zone A Relay Zone B Zone B CTs are located at both sides of CTs are located at one side CB-fault between CTs is cleared from of CB-fault between CTs is sensed both remote sides by both relays. Zone Overlap 1. Overlap is accomplished by the locations of CTs. 38 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . the key source for protective relays. remote right side operate only.

Impedances and connections of power equipment. system frequency. What Info is Required to Apply Protection 1. Operating procedures and practices affecting protection 5. Importance of protection required and maximum allowed clearance times 6. connections and ratios 9. One-line diagram of the system or area involved 2. voltage level and phase sequence 3. Existing schemes 4. 43 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .Any special considerations for application. Maximum load and system swing limits 8. CTs and VTs locations. Future expansion expectance 10. System fault studies 7.


• Partial listing

GE Consumer & Industrial

One Line Diagram
• Non-dimensioned diagram showing how
pieces of electrical equipment are
• Simplification of actual system
• Equipment is shown as boxes, circles and
other simple graphic symbols
• Symbols should follow ANSI or IEC
GE Consumer & Industrial

1-Line Symbols [1]

GE Consumer & Industrial

1-Line Symbols [2]

GE Consumer & Industrial

1-Line Symbols [3] 48 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

1-Line Symbols [4] 49 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

1-Line [1] 50 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

1-Line [2] .

3-Line 52 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

CB Trip Circuit (Simplified) 55 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Lock Out Relay 58 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

CB Coil Circuit Monitoring: T with CB Closed. C with CB Opened + Trip/Close Coil Monitor Contact Input Relay 52/a or 52/b Breaker T/C Coil 52/a for trip circuit 52/b for close circuit - 59 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

CB Coil Circuit Monitoring: Both T&C Regardless of CB state Relay Relay Breaker Breaker 60 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

etc. SCADA. 600:5. Current Transformers • Current transformers are used to step primary system currents to values usable by relays. 300:5 • A 2000:5 CT has a “CTR” of 400 61 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . meters. • CT ratios are expressed as primary to secondary. 2000:5. 1200:5. transducers.

000 primary amps (1200*20) without exceeding a 10% ratio error. a relay class of C100 on a 1200:5 CT means that the CT can develop 100 volts at 24. 100 V = 20 * 5 * (1ohm) 200 V = 20 * 5 * (2 ohms) 400 V = 20 * 5 * (4 ohms) 800 V = 20 * 5 * (8 ohms) 62 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Maximum burden = 1 ohm. Standard IEEE CT Relay Accuracy • IEEE relay class is defined in terms of the voltage a CT can deliver at 20 times the nominal current rating without exceeding a 10% composite ratio error. For example.

8 45 0.5 B8 8 200 0.9 B1.5 0. C57.2 0.1 2.5 64 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .5 0.5 12.5 0.9 22.9 0.13-1993) Application Burden Impedance VA @ Power Designation (Ohms) 5 amps Factor Metering B0.5 B4 4 100 0.9 B0.9 B0.2 5 0.9 Relaying B1 1 25 0.tandard IEEE CT Burdens (5 Amp) (Per IEEE Std.5 0.5 B2 2 50 0.8 1.1 0.9 B0.

7200:120 • A 4160:120 VT has a “VTR” of 34.66 VP VS Relay 66 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Voltage Transformers • Voltage (potential) transformers are used to isolate and step down and accurately reproduce the scaled voltage for the protective device or relay • VT ratios are typically expressed as primary to secondary. 14400:120.

Protective Relay: Principles and Applications 67 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Typical CT/VT Circuits Courtesy of Blackburn.

CT/VT Circuit vs. Casing Ground Case Secondary Circuit • Case ground made at IT location • Secondary circuit ground made at first point of use 68 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Equipment Grounding – Prevents shock exposure of personnel – Provides current carrying capability for the ground-fault current – Grounding includes design and construction of substation ground mat and CT and VT safety grounding 69 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

System Grounding – Limits overvoltages – Limits difference in electric potential through local area conducting objects – Several methods • Ungrounded • Reactance Coil Grounded • High Z Grounded • Low Z Grounded • Solidly Grounded 70 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

2. This decreases the current at the fault and limits voltage across the arc at the fault to decrease damage. System Grounding 1. 71 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Found in 2.4- 15kV systems. Reactance Grounded: Total system capacitance is cancelled by equal inductance. Ungrounded: There is no intentional ground applied to the system-however it’s grounded through natural capacitance.

High Resistance Grounded: Limits ground fault current to 10A-20A. X0C is capacitive zero sequence reactance 4. Low Resistance Grounded: To limit current to 25-400A R0 >= 2X0 72 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . R0 <= X0C/3. Used to limit transient overvoltages due to arcing ground faults. System Grounding 3.

System Grounding 5. where R is the system fault resistance 73 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Effectively Grounded: R0 <= X1. Solidly Grounded: There is a connection of transformer or generator neutral directly to station ground. X0 <= 3X1.

Basic Current Connections: How System is Grounded Determines How Ground Fault is Detected Medium/High Low/No Resistance Resistance 79 Ground Ground GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

buses. Substation Types • Single Supply • Multiple Supply • Mobile Substations for emergencies • Types are defined by number of transformers. breakers to provide adequate service for application 80 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Industrial Substation Arrangements (Typical) 81 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Industrial Substation Arrangements (Typical) 82 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Utility Substation Arrangements (Typical) Single Bus. Dual 2-sections Bus with HS Tie-Breaker. 2 Tx. Dual Supply 83 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Supply 2 Tx. 1 Tx. Dual supply Single Bus.

84 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . Also each each 2 circuits. Any breaker can be taken complex as middle breaker is responsible from service without disrupting to both circuits others. Utility Substation Arrangements (Typical) Bus 1 Bus 2 Breaker-and-a-half –allows reduction of Ring bus –advantage that one equipment cost by using 3 breakers for breaker per circuit. but relaying is of supply. For load transfer and outgoing circuit (Tx) has 2 sources operation is simple.

Utility Substation Arrangements (Typical) Main bus Aux. bottom Double Main bus Bus: Allows maintenance of any bus and any breaker 85 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . bus Main Reserve Transfer Bus 1 breaker Tie Bus 2 Double Bus: Upper Main and Main-Reserved and Transfer Transfer.

high-power industrial. including motor control. "switchgears") • May be a described in terms of use: – "the generator switchgear" – "the stamping line switchgear" 86 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . protection. commercial and utility applications • Covers a variety of actual uses. metering and management devices • Used in three-phase. Switchgear Defined • Assemblies containing electrical switching. even when referring to a single switchgear assembly (never say. distribution panels and outdoor switchyards • The term "switchgear" is plural.

Switchgear Examples .

A Good Day in System Protection…… – CTs and VTs bring electrical info to relays – Relays sense current and voltage and declare fault – Relays send signals through control circuits to circuit breakers – Circuit breaker(s) correctly trip What Could Go Wrong Here???? 94 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

opened. or their wiring is – Relays do not declare fault due to setting errors. A Bad Day in System Protection…… – CTs or VTs are shorted. faulty relay. burnt trip coil or otherwise fail to trip Protection Systems Typically are Designed for N-1 95 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin . CT saturation – Control wires cut or batteries dead so no signal is sent from relay to circuit breaker – Circuit breakers do not have power.

3% • Incorrect: 2.1% • Fail to trip: 0.2% • Correct but undesired: 5.Protection Performance Statistics • Correct and desired: 92.4% 96 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Contribution to Faults 97 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Fault Types (Shunt) 98 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

AC & DC Current Components of Fault Current 102 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Useful Conversions 105 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Per Unit System Establish two base quantities:  Standard practice is to define – Base power – 3 phase – Base voltage – line to line  Other quantities derived with basic power equations 106 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Per Unit Basics 107 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Short Circuit Calculations Per Unit System Per Unit Value = Actual Quantity Base Quantity Vpu = Vactual Vbase Ipu = Iactual Ibase Zpu = Zactual Zbase 108 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Short Circuit Calculations Per Unit System MVAbase x 1000 I base = 3 x kV L-L base kV2L-L base Z base = MVA base 109 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Short Circuit Calculations Per Unit System – Base Conversion Zpu = Zactual Zbase = kV 2base Zbase MVAbase Zpu1 = MVAbase1 Zpu2 = MVAbase2 X X Zactual kV 2base1 kV 2base2 Z actual 2  Zpu2 =Zpu1 x kV base1 x MVAbase2 kV 2base2 MVAbase1 110 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

A Study of a Fault……. 123 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Arc Flash Hazard 125 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Protective Relaying Methods of Reducing Arc Flash Hazard – Bus differential protection (this – FlexCurve for improved reduces the arc flash energy by coordination opportunities reducing the clearing time – Employ 51VC/VR on feeders – Zone interlock schemes where fed from small generation to bus relay selectively is allowed improve sensitivity and to trip or block depending on coordination location of faults as identified – Employ UV light detectors with from feeder relays current disturbance detectors – Temporary setting changes to for selective gear tripping reduce clearing time during maintenance • Sacrifices coordination 129 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Arc Flash Hazards 131 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Arc Pressure Wave 132 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .

Copy of this presentation are at:\private\IEEE 136 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .L-3.

Protection Fundamentals QUESTIONS? 137 GE Consumer & Industrial Multilin .