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Cellular Organization

Cell- Basic unit of life


Tissue group of cells
functioning
together.
Organ group of tissues
functioning together.
Organ System group of
organs functioning
together.
Organism group of
CELL
Cell is the
basic
structural
and
functional
unit of life. It
is the
smallest unit
of an
organism that
is classified
as living, and
is often called
the building
brick of life.
TISSUE
Group of
cells
working
together
constitute
a tissue.
ORGAN
Group of
tissue
working
together
constitute
a organ.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN:
Animal cell Plant cell
Animal cell Plant cell

Animal cells are usually smaller in size.


Plant cells are comparatively
larger in size.
Enclosed by plasma membrane only. Cell
wall is absent. Plasma membrane of plant cells is
surrounded by a thick cell wall.
Plastids are absent, except in the protozoan
euglena. Plastids are present.
Animal cell Plant cell

Cytoplasm consists largely of smaller Cytoplasm peripheral, central


vacuole. space occupied by a large vacuole.
Nucleus lies in the centre. Nucleus lies on one side.
Prominent and highly complex Golgi bodies Contains several sub-units of
present.
Golgi apparatus called
dictyosomes.
Animal cells possess centrosome with one or
Plant cells lack centrosome and


two Centrioles.
Centrioles.
CELL
STRUCTURE
S AND THEIR
FUNCTIONS
PLASMA MEMBRANE
PLASMA MEMBRANE

This is the outermost covering of the cell that


separates the contents of the cell from its
external environment.
Plasma membrane is a living, thing, delicate,
elastic, selectively permeable membrane made
up of proteins and lipids and is present in both
plants and animals cells.
Functions of plasma
membrane
It gives definite shape to the cell.
It separates the contents of a cell from its
surrounding medium.
It provides mechanical barrier for the protection
of the internal contents of the cell.
It is selectively permeable membrane.

It regulates the movement of ions in and out of


the cell.
CELL WALL

Plant cells have a rigid outer protective covering


called the cell wall which lies outside the plasma
membrane. The cell wall is non-living, freely
permeable and mainly composed of cellulose.
Functions of
Functions of cell
cell
wall
wall
It provides structural strength to the plants cells.
It permits the cells of plants, fungi and bacteria
to withstand very dilute external media without
bursting.
It gives a definite shape to the cells.

Because of cell walls, plant cells can withstand


much greater changes in the surrounding
medium than animal cells.
Cell wall protects the cells against pathogens and
mechanical injury.
Cytoplasm

It is the fluid part content of the cell which


occurs between the plasma membrane and
the nuclear envelope. It contains various cell
organelles which perform different functions
of the cell.
Functions of
Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm helps in exchange of material between
cell organelles.
It acts as a store of vital chemicals such as amino
acids, glucose, vitamins, ions, etc.
It is the site of certain metabolic pathways such
as glycolysis. Synthesis of fatty acids, nucleotides
and some amino acids also take place in the
cytoplasm.
GolgiApparatus
Golgi Apparatus

It is an organelle in animal cells consisting of a set of


membrane bound smooth, flattened cisternae
stacked one above the other, large spherical
vacuoles and small and spherical fluid-filled
vesicles. In the plants, Golgi bodies are called
dictyosomes. The Golgi apparatus is the secretory
organelle of the cell. It arises from the membrane of
the smooth ER.
Function of Golgi
apparatus
Storage, modification and packaging of products
in vesicles.
Formation of complex sugars from simple sugars.

Secretion is the main function of Golgi complex.


The secretory proteins and lipids are packed and
released on the surface by exocytosis.
It helps in the formation of cell plate during cell
division.
The Golgi apparatus is also involved in the
formation of lysosomes and peroxisomes.
Endoplasmic
Reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum(ER) is a large network of


membrane-bound tubes and sheets extending from
outer nuclear membrane to the plasma membrane. It
occurs in the three forms-
Cisternae, vesicles and tubules. Depending upon the
presence and absence of ribosome's on the surface of
ER, these are two types- RER with ribosome's
attached to its surface for synthesizing proteins.
Functions of ER
It gives mechanical support by forming a network
in the cytoplasm.
ER serves as channels for the transport of
materials between various regions of cytoplasm
or between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
Certain enzymes present in the smooth ER fats,
steroids and cholesterol.
Rough ER is concerned with the transport of
proteins which are synthesized by ribosome's in
their in their surface.
Lysosomes

These are membrane-bound vesicular structures found


in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic animal cells expect
mammalian RBCs. Each lysosomes is surrounded by a
single membrane and contains powerful digestive
enzymes. These enzymes are made by RER. Lysosomes
are involved in intracellular digestion of foreign food or
microbes and are called digestive bags. These are
involved in autolysis of cells after their death, hence
they are also called suicidal bags. Lysosomes are a kind
of waste disposal system of a cell.
Functions of
lysosomes
Lysosomes destroy any foreign material which enter
the cell such as bacteria and virus, thus protect the
cells from infection.
They help in removing dead and worn-out cell
organelles by digesting them.
They bring self-destruction of a cell by releasing their
enzymes within the cell. Thus, they act like suicidal
bags in damaged cells.
MITOCHONDRIA
These are rod-shaped
structures present in the
cytoplasm of all the
eukaryotes except
mammalian RBCs.
Mitochondria are called
power house of the cells. They
store energy in the form of
ATP molecules by cellular
respiration. It is a self-
replicating organelles. They
contain DNA, RNA and
ribosome's to carry out
protein synthesis.
Mitochondria are the largest
organelles in the animal
cells.
Functions of
Mitochondria
Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration.
They provide energy for the vital activities of
living cells.
Mitochondria are able to make some of their own
proteins, so they are regarded as
semiautonomous organelles.
They provide intermediates for synthesis of

various chemicals like fatty acids, steroids, amino


acid, etc.
Ribosomes

They are dense, spherical and granular particles,


which occur freely in the matrix or remain attached
to the surface of the ER. These are smallest known
electron microscopic, ribonucleoprotein particles
found in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotes and
eukaryotes. Ribosome's are sites of protein
synthesis and hence are called protein factories of
the cells.
Nucleus

Robert brown in 1831 discovered the nucleus is the


largest cell structure. It is spherical or oval
prominent structure, usually located in the
centre of the cell. Nucleus has the following
important parts:
Nuclear membrane: it is a double layered membrane,
which separates nucleus from the cytoplasm. It has
pores called nuclear pores which allow the transfer of
material from inside the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
Nucleolus: it is a homogeneous and granular dense
fluid present inside the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
Chromatin material: it consists of long, coiled
network of thread-like structures. The chromatin
material is made up of DNA which is responsible for
storing and transmitting the hereditary information
from one generation to the other. It condenses into
compact rod-like bodies called chromosomes at the
time of cell division.
Nucleolus: it is more or less round structure found

inside the nucleus. The nucleolus contains RNA and


proteins.RNA is helpful in protein synthesis in the
cytoplasm.
Vacuoles

There are fluid-filled or solid filled membrane bound


spaces in cytoplasm. In animal cells, they are small-
sized and many, but in plant cells, a single
prominent very large vacuole occupies about 50-90%
of the cell volume. In the plant cells, vacuole is
bounded by a membrane called tonoplast. The
vacuole is filled with cell sap which is a watery
solution rich in amino acids, sugars, various organic
acids and some proteins.
Difference
Difference
between
between
prokaryotic
prokaryotic
and
and eukaryotic
eukaryotic
cells
cells
Prokaryotic cell Eukaryotic cell
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN:
Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells

Size of the cell is


generally small.
Nuclear region is poorly Size of the cell is generally large.
Nuclear region is well-defined and
defined due to absence

surrounded by a nuclear
of nuclear membrane membrane.

and known as nucleoid. It contains more than one


chromosome.
It contains single
chromosome.
.
Nucleolus is present.
Nucleolus is absent. Cell organelles such as
Membrane bound cell organelles are absent. mitochondria, plastids, ER,
Cell division takes place by budding. lysosomes,etc are present.
Centrioles absent. Cell division occurs by meiotic
Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria, blue- cell division.
green algae. Centrioles are present in animals
cells.
Eukaryotic cells are found in
fungi, plant and animal cells.