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– Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
ShortCircuit Analysis
IEC Standard
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 2
CORTO CIRCUITO
Estándar de ANSI/IEEE & IEC.
Análisis de fallas transitorias
(IEC 61363).
Efecto de Arco (NFPA 70E
2000)
Integrado con coordinación de
dispositivos de protección.
Evaluación automática de
dispositivos.
Características principales:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 3
Purpose of ShortCircuit
Studies
•
A ShortCircuit Study can be used to determine
any or all of the following:
–
Verify protective device close and latch capability
–
Verify protective device interrupting capability
–
Protect equipment from large mechanical forces
(maximum fault kA)
–
I
2
t protection for equipment (thermal stress)
–
Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination
Types of ShortCircuit Faults
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 4
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 5
Types of SC Faults
•ThreePhase Ungrounded Fault
•ThreePhase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Ground Fault
Fault Current
•I
LG
can range in utility systems from a few percent to
possibly 115 % ( if X
o
< X
1
) of I
3phase
(85% of all faults).
•In industrial systems the situation I
LG
> I
3phase
is rare.
Typically I
LG
≅ .87 * I
3phase
•In an industrial system, the threephase fault condition
is frequently the only one considered, since this type of
fault generally results in Maximum current.
Types of ShortCircuit Faults
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 6
) t Sin( Vm v(t) θ ω + ∗ ·
i(t) v(t)
ShortCircuit Phenomenon
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 7
Offset) (DC
Transient State Steady
t
)  sin(
Z
Vm
)  t sin(
Z
Vm
i(t)
(1) ) t Sin( Vm
dt
di
L Ri v(t)
L
R

e × × + + × ·
+ × · + ·
φ θ φ θ ω
θ ω
expression following the yields 1 equation Solving
i(t)
v(t)
DC Current
AC Current (Symmetrical) with
No AC Decay
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 8
AC Fault Current Including the
DC Offset (No AC Decay)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 9
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 10
Machine Reactance ( λ = L I )
AC Decay Current
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 11
Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 12
IEC ShortCircuit
Calculation (IEC 909)
•
Initial Symmetrical ShortCircuit Current (I"k)
•
Peak ShortCircuit Current (ip)
•
Symmetrical ShortCircuit Breaking Current
(Ib)
•
SteadyState ShortCircuit Current (Ik)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 13
IEC ShortCircuit
Calculation Method
•
Ik” = Equivalent V @ fault location divided by
equivalent Z
•
Equivalent V is based bus nominal kV and c
factor
•
XFMR and machine Z adjusted based on
c
max
, component Z & operating conditions
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 14
Transformer Z Adjustment
• K
T
 Network XFMR
• K
S
,K
SO
– Unit XFMR for faults on system side
• K
T,S
,K
T,SO
– Unit XFMR for faults in auxiliary
system, not between Gen & XFMR
• K=1
– Unit XFMR for faults between Gen &
XFMR
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 15
Syn Machine Z Adjustment
• K
G
– Synchronous machine w/o unit XFMR
• K
S
,K
SO
– With unit XFMR for faults on system
side
• K
G,S
,K
G,SO
– With unit XFMR for faults in
auxiliary system, including points between
Gen & XFMR
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 16
Types of ShortCircuits
•
NearToGenerator ShortCircuit
–
This is a shortcircuit condition to which at least
one synchronous machine contributes a
prospective initial shortcircuit current which is
more than twice the generator’s rated current, or
a shortcircuit condition to which synchronous
and asynchronous motors contribute more than
5% of the initial symmetrical shortcircuit current
( I"k) without motors.
NearToGenerator ShortCircuit
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 17
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 18
Types of ShortCircuits
•
FarFromGenerator ShortCircuit
–
This is a shortcircuit condition during which the
magnitude of the symmetrical ac component of
available shortcircuit current remains essentially
constant.
FarFromGenerator ShortCircuit
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 19
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 20
Factors Used in I
f
Calc
• κ
– calc i
p
based on I
k
”
• μ
– calc i
b
for neartogen & not meshed network
• q
– calc induction machine i
b
for neartogen & not
meshed network
•
Equation (75) of Std 609090, adjusting Ik for
neartogen & meshed network
• λ
min
& λ
max
– calc i
k
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 21
IEC ShortCircuit Study Case
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 22
Types of ShortCircuits
•
Maximum voltage factor is used
•
Minimum impedance is used (all negative
tolerances are applied and minimum
resistance temperature is considered)
When these options
are selected
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 23
Types of ShortCircuits
•
Minimum voltage factor is used
•
Maximum impedance is used (all positive
tolerances are applied and maximum
resistance temperature is considered)
When this option is
selected
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 24
Voltage Factor (c)
•
Ratio between equivalent voltage &
nominal voltage
•
Required to account for:
•
Variations due to time & place
•
Transformer taps
•
Static loads & capacitances
•
Generator & motor subtransient
behavior
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 25
Calculation Method
•
Breaking kA is more
conservative if the option
No Motor Decay is
selected
IEC SC 909 Calculation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 26
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 27
Device Duty Comparison
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 28
Mesh & NonMesh I
f
•
ETAP automatically determines mesh &
nonmeshed contributions according to
individual contributions
•
IEC Short Circuit Mesh Determination
Method – 0, 1, or 2 (default)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 29
LG Faults
LG Faults
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 30
Symmetrical Components
LG Faults
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 31
Sequence Networks
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 32
0
Z Z Z
V 3
I
I 3 I
0 2 1
efault Pr
f
a f
0
·
+ +
×
·
× ·
g
Z if
LG Fault Sequence
Network Connections
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 33
2 1
efault Pr
f
a a
Z Z
V 3
I
I I
1 2
+
×
·
− ·
LL Fault Sequence Network
Connections
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 34
0
Z Z
Z Z
Z
V
I
I 0 I I I
2 0
2 0
1
efault Pr
f
a a a a
0 1 2
·
,
`
.

+
+
·
· · + +
g
Z if
LLG Fault Sequence
Network Connections
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 35
Transformer Zero Sequence Connections
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 36
grounded.
solidly are er transform Connected Y/
or Generators if case the be may This
I
: then true are conditions this If
&
: if greater
be can faults G  L case. severe most
the is fault phase  3 a Generally
1 f3
1 0 2 1
∆
<
< ·
φ φ f
I
Z Z Z Z
Solid Grounded Devices
and LG Faults
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 37
Zero Sequence Model
•
Branch susceptances and static
loads including capacitors will be
considered when this option is
checked
•
Recommended by IEC for
systems with isolated neutral,
resonant earthed neutrals &
earthed neutrals with earth fault
factor > 1.4
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 38
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
•LG Faults
•LLG Faults
•LL Faults
Oneline diagram displayed results that
include:
•LG/LLG/LL fault current
contributions
•Sequence voltage and currents
•Phase Voltages
Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 39
Total Fault Current Waveform
Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 40
Percent DC Current Waveform
Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 41
AC Component of Fault Current Waveform
Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 42
Top Envelope of Fault Current Waveform
Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 43
Top Envelope of Fault Current Waveform
Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
IEC Transient Fault Current
Calculation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 44
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 45
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
•LG Faults
•LLG Faults
•LL Faults
Oneline diagram displayed results that
include:
•LG/LLG/LL fault current
contributions
•Sequence voltage and currents
•Phase Voltages
Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 46
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 47
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 48
TEMA 2
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
Protective Device Coordination
ETAP Star
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 50
ETAP START PROTECCION Y COORDINACION
Curvas para más de 75,000
dispositivos.
Actualización automática de
Corriente de Corto Circuito.
Coordinación tiempocorriente de
dispositivos.
Autocoordinación de dispositivos.
Integrados a los diagramas
unifilares.
Rastreo o cálculos en diferentes
tiempos.
Características principales:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 51
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 52
Agenda
•
Concepts & Applications
•
Star Overview
•
Features & Capabilities
•
Protective Device Type
•
TCC Curves
•
STAR Shortcircuit
•
PD Sequence of Operation
•
Normalized TCC curves
•
Device Libraries
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 53
Definition
•
Overcurrent Coordination
–
A systematic study of current responsive
devices in an electrical power system.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 54
Objective
•
To determine the ratings and settings of
fuses, breakers, relay, etc.
•
To isolate the fault or overloads.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 55
Criteria
•
Economics
•
Available Measures of Fault
•
Operating Practices
•
Previous Experience
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 56
Design
•
Open only PD nearest (upstream) of the fault
or overload
•
Provide satisfactory protection for overloads
•
Interrupt SC as rapidly (instantaneously) as
possible
•
Comply with all applicable standards and
codes
•
Plot the Time Current Characteristics of
different PDs
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 57
Analysis
When:
•
New electrical systems
•
Plant electrical system expansion/retrofits
•
Coordination failure in an existing plant
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 58
Spectrum Of Currents
•
Load Current
–
Up to 100% of fullload
–
115125% (mild overload)
•
Overcurrent
–
Abnormal loading condition (LockedRotor)
•
Fault Current
–
Fault condition
–
Ten times the fullload current and higher
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 59
Protection
•
Prevent injury to personnel
•
Minimize damage to components
–
Quickly isolate the affected portion of the system
–
Minimize the magnitude of available shortcircuit
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 60
Coordination
•
Limit the extent and duration of service
interruption
•
Selective fault isolation
•
Provide alternate circuits
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 61
Coordination
t
I
C
B
A
C
D
D B
A
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 62
Protection vs. Coordination
•
Coordination is not an exact science
•
Compromise between protection and
coordination
–
Reliability
–
Speed
–
Performance
–
Economics
–
Simplicity
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 63
Required Data
• Oneline diagrams (Relay diagrams)
• Power Grid Settings
• Generator Data
• Transformer Data
– Transformer kVA, impedance, and connection
Motor Data
• Load Data
• Fault Currents
• Cable / Conductor Data
• Bus / Switchgear Data
• Instrument Transformer Data (CT, PT)
• Protective Device (PD) Data
– Manufacturer and type of protective devices (PDs)
– Oneline diagrams (Relay diagrams)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 64
Study Procedure
• Prepare an accurate oneline diagram (relay diagrams)
• Obtain the available system current spectrum (operating
load, overloads, fault kA)
• Determine the equipment protection guidelines
• Select the appropriate devices / settings
• Plot the fixed points (damage curves, …)
• Obtain / plot the device characteristics curves
• Analyze the results
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 65
Time Current Characteristics
•
TCC Curve / Plot / Graphs
•
4.5 x 5cycle loglog graph
•
Xaxis: Current (0.5 – 10,000 amperes)
•
Yaxis: Time (.01 – 1000 seconds)
•
Current Scaling (…x1, x10, x100, x100…)
•
Voltage Scaling (plot kV reference)
•
Use ETAP Star AutoScale
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 66
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 67
TCC Scaling Example
•
Situation:
–
A scaling factor of 10 @ 4.16 kV is selected for
TCC curve plots.
•
Question
–
What are the scaling factors to plot the 0.48 kV
and 13.8 kV TCC curves?
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 68
TCC Scaling Example
•
Solution
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 69
Fixed Points
•
Cable damage curves
•
Cable ampacities
•
Transformer damage curves & inrush points
•
Motor starting curves
•
Generator damage curve / Decrement curve
•
SC maximum fault points
Points or curves which do not change regardless
of protective device settings:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 70
Capability / Damage Curves
t
I
I
2
2
t
Gen
I
2
t
Motor
Xfmr
I
2
t
Cable
I
2
t
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 71
Cable Protection
• Standards & References
– IEEE Std 8351994 IEEE Standard Power Cable Ampacity
Tables
– IEEE Std 8481996 IEEE Standard Procedure for the
Determination of the Ampacity Derating of FireProtected
Cables
– IEEE Std 7381993 IEEE Standard for Calculating the
Current Temperature Relationship of Bare Overhead
Conductors
– The Okonite Company Engineering Data for Copper and
Aluminum Conductor Electrical Cables, Bulletin EHB98
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 72
Cable Protection
2
2
1
t
A
T 234
0.0297log
T 234
Ι
·
] +
]
+
]
The actual temperature rise of a cable when exposed to
a short circuit current for a known time is calculated by:
Where:
A= Conductor area in circularmils
I = Short circuit current in amps
t = Time of short circuit in seconds
T
1
= Initial operation temperature (75
0
C)
T
2
=Maximum short circuit temperature
(150
0
C)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 73
Cable ShortCircuit Heating Limits
Recommended
temperature rise:
B) CU 75200C
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 74
Shielded
Cable
The normal tape
width is 1½
inches
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 75
NEC Section 110 14 C ‑
• (c) Temperature limitations. The temperature rating associated with the
ampacity of a conductor shall be so selected and coordinated as to not exceed
the lowest temperature rating of any lowest temperature rating of any connected termination connected termination, conductor, or
device. Conductors with temperature ratings higher than specified for
terminations shall be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment, correction,
or both.
• (1) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated 100 amperes or less,
or marked for Nos. 14 through 1 conductors, shall be used only for conductors
rated 600C (1400F).
• Exception No. 1: Conductors with higher temperature ratings shall be permitted
to be used, provided the ampacity of such conductors is determined based on
the 6O0C (1400F) ampacity of the conductor size used.
• Exception No. 2: Equipment termination provisions shall be permitted to be
used with higher rated conductors at the ampacity of the higher rated
conductors, provided the equipment is listed and identified for use with the
higher rated conductors.
• (2) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated over 100 amperes, or
marked for conductors larger than No. 1, shall be used only with conductors
rated 750C (1670F).
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 76
Transformer Protection
• Standards & References
– National Electric Code 2002 Edition
– C37.912000; IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power
Transformers
– C57.12.59; IEEE Guide for DryType Transformer ThroughFault Current
Duration.
– C57.1091985; IEEE Guide for LiquidImmersed Transformer Through
FaultCurrent Duration
– APPLIED PROCTIVE RELAYING; J.L. Blackburn; Westinghouse Electric
Corp; 1976
– PROTECTIVE RELAYING, PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS; J.L.
Blackburn; Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1987
– IEEE Std 2421986; IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and
Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems
–
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 77
Transformer Category
ANSI/IEEE C57.109
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 78
Transformer Categories I, II
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 79
Transformer Categories III
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 80
Transformer
t
(sec)
I (pu)
Thermal
200
2.5
I
2
t = 1250
2
25
Isc
Mechanical
K=(1/Z)
2
t
(DD LL) 0.87
(DR LG) 0.58
Frequent Fault
Infrequent Fault
Inrush
FLA
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 81
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 82
Transformer Protection
MAXIMUM RATING OR SETTING FOR OVERCURRENT DEVICE
PRIMARY SECONDARY
Over 600 Volts Over 600 Volts 600 Volts or Below
Transformer
Rated
Impedance
Circuit
Breaker
Setting
Fuse
Rating
Circuit
Breaker
Setting
Fuse
Rating
Circuit Breaker
Setting or Fuse
Rating
Not more than
6%
600 %
300 %
300 %
250%
125%
(250% supervised)
More than 6%
and not more
than 10%
400 %
300 %
250%
225%
125%
(250% supervised)
Table 4503(a) source: NEC
Any Location – NonSupervised
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 83
Transformer Protection
• Turn on or inrush current
• Internal transformer faults
• External or through faults of major
magnitude
• Repeated large motor starts on the
transformer. The motor represents a
major portion or the transformers KVA
rating.
• Harmonics
• Over current protection – Device 50/51
• Ground current protection – Device
50/51G
• Differential – Device 87
• Over or under excitation – volts/ Hz –
Device 24
• Sudden tank pressure – Device 63
• Dissolved gas detection
• Oil Level
• Fans
• Oil Pumps
• Pilot wire – Device 85
• Fault withstand
• Thermal protection – hot spot, top of oil
temperature, winding temperature
• Devices 26 & 49
• Reverse over current – Device 67
• Gas accumulation – Buckholz relay
• Over voltage –Device 59
• Voltage or current balance – Device 60
• Tertiary Winding Protection if supplied
• Relay Failure Scheme
• Breaker Failure Scheme
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 84
Recommended Minimum
Transformer Protection
Protective system
Winding and/or power system
grounded neutral grounded
Winding and/or power system
neutral ungrounded
Up to 10 MVA
Above 10 MVA
Up to 10 MVA Above
10 MVA
Differential

√

√
Time over current
√ √ √ √
Instantaneous restricted
ground fault
√ √
 
Time delayed ground
fault
√ √
 
Gas detection
√

√
Over excitation

√ √ √
Overheating

√

√
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 85
Question
What is ANSI Shift Curve?
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 86
Answer
•
For deltadelta connected transformers, with
linetoline faults on the secondary side, the
curve must be reduced to 87% (shift to the
left by a factor of 0.87)
•
For deltawye connection, with single lineto
ground faults on the secondary side, the
curve values must be reduced to 58% (shift
to the left by a factor of 0.58)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 87
Question
What is meant by Frequent and
Infrequent for transformers?
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 88
Infrequent Fault Incidence Zones for Category II & III Transformers
* Should be selected by reference to the frequent fault incidence protection curve or for
transformers serving industrial, commercial and institutional power systems with secondary side
conductors enclosed in conduit, bus duct, etc., the feeder protective device may be selected by
reference to the infrequent fault incidence protection curve.
Source: IEEE C57
Source
Transformer primary side protective device
(fuses, relayed circuit breakers, etc.) may be
selected by reference to the infrequent fault 
incidence protection curve
Category II or III Transformer
Fault will be cleared by transformer
primary side protective device
Optional main secondary –side protective device.
May be selected by reference to the infrequent fault
incidence protection curve
Feeder protective device
Fault will be cleared by transformer primary side
protective device or by optional main secondary 
side protection device
Fault will be cleared by
feeder protective device
Infrequent Fault
Incidence Zone*
Feeders
Frequent Fault
Inciden ce Zone*
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 89
Motor Protection
• Standards & References
– IEEE Std 6201996 IEEE Guide for the Presentation of
Thermal Limit Curves for Squirrel Cage Induction
Machines.
– IEEE Std 12552000 IEEE Guide for Evaluation of
Torque Pulsations During Starting of Synchronous Motors
– ANSI/ IEEE C37.962000 Guide for AC Motor Protection
– The Art of Protective Relaying – General Electric
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 90
Motor Protection
•
Motor Starting Curve
•
Thermal Protection
•
Locked Rotor Protection
•
Fault Protection
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 91
Motor Overload Protection
(NEC Art 43032 – ContinuousDuty Motors)
•
Thermal O/L (Device 49)
•
Motors with SF not less than 1.15
–
125% of FLA
•
Motors with temp. rise not over 40°C
–
125% of FLA
•
All other motors
–
115% of FLA
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 92
Motor Protection – Inst. Pickup
LOCKED
ROTOR
S d
1
I
X X "
·
+
PICK UP
LOCKED ROTOR
I
RELAY PICK UP 1.2 TO 1.2
I
· ∗
PICK UP
LOCKED ROTOR
I
RELAY PICK UP 1.6 TO 2
I
· ∗
with a time delay of 0.10 s (six cycles at 60 Hz)
Recommended Instantaneous Setting:
If the recommended setting criteria cannot be met, or where more sensitive
protection is desired, the instantaneous relay (or a second relay) can be set more
sensitively if delayed by a timer. This permits the asymmetrical asymmetrical starting component
to decay out. A typical setting for this is:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 93
Locked Rotor Protection
•
Thermal Locked Rotor (Device 51)
•
Starting Time (TS < TLR)
•
LRA
–
LRA sym
–
LRA asym (1.51.6 x LRA sym) + 10% margin
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 94
Fault Protection
(NEC Art / Table 43052)
•
NonTime Delay Fuses
–
300% of FLA
•
Dual Element (TimeDelay Fuses)
–
175% of FLA
•
Instantaneous Trip Breaker
–
800%  1300% of FLA*
•
Inverse Time Breakers
–
250% of FLA
*can be set up to 1700% for Design B (energy efficient) Motor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 95
Low Voltage Motor Protection
•
Usually preengineered (selected from
Catalogs)
•
Typically, motors larger than 2 Hp are
protected by combination starters
•
Overload / Shortcircuit protection
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 96
Lowvoltage Motor
Ratings Range of ratings
Continuous amperes
9250 —
Nominal voltage (V)
240600 —
Horsepower
1.51000 —
Starter size (NEMA)
— 009
Types of protection Quantity NEMA designation
Overload: overload relay
elements
3 OL
Short circuit:
circuit breaker current
trip elements
3 CB
Fuses
3 FU
Undervoltage: inherent
with integral control
supply and threewire
control circuit
— —
Ground fault (when
specified): ground relay
with toroidal CT
— —
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 97
Minimum Required Sizes of a NEMA
Combination Motor Starter System
MAXIMUM CONDUCTOR LENGTH FOR ABOVE AND
BELOW GROUND CONDUIT SYSTEMS. ABOVE GROUND
SYSTEMS HAVE DIRECT SOLAR EXPOSURE. 75
0
C
CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE, 45
0
C AMBIENT
CIRCUIT BREAKER
SIZE
F
U
S
E
S
I
Z
E
C
L
A
S
S
J
F
U
S
E
M
O
T
O
R
H
P
4
6
0
V
N
E
C
F
L
C
S
T
A
R
T
E
R
S
I
Z
E
M
I
N
I
M
U
M
S
I
Z
E
G
R
O
U
N
D
I
N
G
C
O
N
D
U
C
T
O
R
F
O
R
A
5
0
%
C
U
R
R
E
N
T
C
A
P
A
C
I
T
Y
M
I
N
I
M
U
M
W
I
R
E
S
I
Z
E
M
A
X
I
M
U
M
L
E
N
G
T
H
F
O
R
1
%
V
O
L
T
A
G
E
D
R
O
P
N
E
X
T
L
A
R
G
E
S
T
W
I
R
E
S
I
Z
E
U
S
E
N
E
X
T
L
A
R
G
E
R
G
R
O
U
N
D
C
O
N
D
U
C
T
O
R
M
A
X
I
M
U
M
L
E
N
G
T
H
F
O
R
1
%
V
O
L
T
A
G
E
D
R
O
P
W
I
T
H
L
A
R
G
E
R
W
I
R
E
250%
200%
150%
1 2.1 0 12 12 759 10 1251 15 15
15
5
1½ 3 0 12 12 531 10 875 15 15
15
6
2 3.4 0 12 12 468 10 772 15 15
15
7
3 4.8 0 12 12 332 10 547 20 20
15
10
5 7.6 0 12 12 209 10 345 20 20
15
15
7½ 11 1 12 10 144 8 360
30
25 20 20
10 14 1 10 8 283 6 439 35
30
25 30
15 21 2 10 8 189 6 292 50
40
30 45
20 27 2 10 6 227 4 347 70
50
40 60
25 34 2 8 4 276 2 407 80
70
50 70
30 40 3 6 2 346 2/0 610 100
70
60 90
40 52 3 6 2 266 2/0 469 150 110
90
110
50 65 3 2 2/0 375 4/0 530 175 150
100
125
60 77 4 2 2/0 317 4/0 447 200 175
125
150
75 96 4 2 4/0 358 250 393 250 200
150
200
100 124 4 1 250 304 350 375 350 250
200
250
125 156 5 2/0 350 298 500 355 400 300
250
350
150 180 5 4/0 500 307 750 356 450 350
300
400
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 98
Required Data  Protection of a
Medium Voltage Motor
• Rated full load current
• Service factor
• Locked rotor current
• Maximum locked rotor time (thermal limit curve) with the motor at ambient and/or
operating temperature
• Minimum no load current
• Starting power factor
• Running power factor
• Motor and connected load accelerating time
• System phase rotation and nominal frequency
• Type and location of resistance temperature devices (RTDs), if used
• Expected fault current magnitudes
• First ½ cycle current
• Maximum motor starts per hour
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 99
MediumVoltage Class E Motor Controller
Ratings Class El
(without
fuses)
Class E2 (with
fuses)
Nominal system voltage 23006900 23006900
Horsepower 08000 08000
Symmetrical MVA interrupting
capacity at nominal
system voltage
2575 160570
Types of Protective Devices Quantity NEMA Designation
Overload, or locked Rotor, or
both:
Thermal overload relay
TOC relay
IOC relay plus time delay
3
3
3
OL OC TR/O
Thermal overload relay 3 OL
TOC relay 3 OC
IOC relay plus time delay 3 TR/OC
Short Circuit:
Fuses, Class E2 3 FU
IOC relay, Class E1 3 OC
Ground Fault
TOC residual relay 1 GP
Overcurrent relay with
toroidal CT
1 GP
NEMA Class E2 medium
voltage starter
NEMA Class E1
medium voltage starter
Phase Balance
Current balance relay 1 BC
Negativesequence voltage
relay (per bus), or both
1 —
Undervoltage:
Inherent with integral
control supply and three
wire control circuit, when
voltage falls sufficiently to
permit the contractor to
open and break the sealin
circuit
— UV
Temperature:
Temperature relay,
operating from resistance
sensor or thermocouple in
stator winding
— OL
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 100
Starting Current of a 4000Hp, 12 kV,
1800 rpm Motor
First half cycle current showing
current offset.
Beginning of run up current
showing load torque pulsations.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 101
Starting Current of a 4000Hp, 12 kV,
1800 rpm Motor 
Motor pull in current showing motor
reaching synchronous speed
Oscillographs
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 102
Thermal Limit Curve
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 103
Thermal Limit Curve
Typical
Curve
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 104
200 HP
MCP
O/L
Starting Curve
I
2
T
(49)
MCP (50)
(51)
t
s
t
LR
LRA
s
LRA
asym
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 105
Protective Devices
•
Fuse
•
Overload Heater
•
Thermal Magnetic
•
Low Voltage Solid State Trip
•
ElectroMechanical
•
Motor Circuit Protector (MCP)
•
Relay (50/51 P, N, G, SG, 51V, 67, 49, 46, 79, 21, …)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 106
Fuse (Power Fuse)
•
Non Adjustable Device (unless electronic)
•
Continuous and Interrupting Rating
•
Voltage Levels (Max kV)
•
Interrupting Rating (sym, asym)
•
Characteristic Curves
–
Min. Melting
–
Total Clearing
•
Application (rating type: R, E, X, …)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 107
Fuse Types
•
Expulsion Fuse (NonCLF)
•
Current Limiting Fuse (CLF)
•
Electronic Fuse (S&C Fault Fiter)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 108
Minimum Melting
Time Curve
Total Clearing
Time Curve
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 109
Current Limiting Fuse
(CLF)
•
Limits the peak current of shortcircuit
•
Reduces magnetic stresses (mechanical
damage)
•
Reduces thermal energy
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 110
Current Limiting Action
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
p
e
a
k
a
m
p
s
)
t
m
t
a
I
p’
I
p
t
c
t
a
= t
c
– t
m
t
a
= Arcing
Time
t
m
= Melting Time
t
c
= Clearing Time
I
p
= Peak Current
I
p’
= Peak Letthru Current
Time (cycles)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 111
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 112
Symmetrical RMS Amperes
P
e
a
k
L
e
t

T
h
r
o
u
g
h
A
m
p
e
r
e
s
100 A
60 A
7% PF (X/R = 14.3)
12,500
5,200
230,000
300 A
100,000
LetThrough Chart
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 113
Fuse
Generally:
•
CLF is a better shortcircuit protection
•
NonCLF (expulsion fuse) is a better
Overload protection
•
Electronic fuses are typically easier to
coordinate due to the electronic control
adjustments
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 114
Selectivity Criteria
Typically:
•
NonCLF: 140% of full load
•
CLF: 150% of full load
•
Safety Margin: 10% applied to Min
Melting (consult the fuse manufacturer)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 115
Molded Case CB
•
ThermalMagnetic
•
Magnetic Only
•
Motor Circuit Protector
(MCP)
•
Integrally Fused (Limiters)
•
Current Limiting
•
High Interrupting Capacity
•
NonInterchangeable Parts
•
Insulated Case (Interchange
Parts)
Types
•
Frame Size
•
Poles
•
Trip Rating
•
Interrupting Capability
•
Voltage
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 116
MCCB
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 117
MCCB with SST Device
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 118
Thermal Minimum
Thermal Maximum
Magnetic
(instantaneous)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 119
LVPCB
•
Voltage and Frequency Ratings
•
Continuous Current / Frame Size / Sensor
•
Interrupting Rating
•
ShortTime Rating (30 cycle)
•
Fairly Simple to Coordinate
•
Phase / Ground Settings
•
Inst. Override
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 120
CB 2
CB 1
IT
ST PU
ST Band
LT PU
LT Band
480 kV
CB 2
CB 1
I
f
=30 kA
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 121
Inst. Override
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 122
Overload Relay / Heater
•
Motor overload protection is provided by a
device that models the temperature rise of
the winding
•
When the temperature rise reaches a point
that will damage the motor, the motor is de
energized
•
Overload relays are either bimetallic, melting
alloy or electronic
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 123
Overload Heater (Mfr. Data)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 124
Question
What is Class 10 and Class 20 Thermal
OLR curves?
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 125
Answer
• At 600% Current Rating:
– Class 10 for fast trip, 10
seconds or less
– Class 20 for, 20 seconds or
less (commonly used)
– There is also Class 15, 30
for long trip time (typically
provided with electronic
overload relays)
6
20
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 126
Answer
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 127
Overload Relay / Heater
• When the temperature at the combination motor starter is more than
±10 °C (±18 °F) different than the temperature at the motor, ambient
temperature correction of the motor current is required.
• An adjustment is required because the output that a motor can safely
deliver varies with temperature.
• The motor can deliver its full rated horsepower at an ambient
temperature specified by the motor manufacturers, normally + 40 °C.
At high temperatures (higher than + 40 °C) less than 100% of the
normal rated current can be drawn from the motor without shortening
the insulation life.
• At lower temperatures (less than + 40 °C) more than 100% of the
normal rated current could be drawn from the motor without shortening
the insulation life.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 128
Overcurrent Relay
•
TimeDelay (51 – I>)
•
ShortTime Instantaneous ( I>>)
•
Instantaneous (50 – I>>>)
•
Electromagnetic (induction Disc)
•
Solid State (Multi Function / Multi Level)
•
Application
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 129
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Protective Device Coordination
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 130
TimeOvercurrent Unit
•
Ampere Tap Calculation
–
Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x A.T. Setting
– Relay Current (I
R
) = Actual Line Current (I
L
) / CT
Ratio
– Multiples of A.T. = I
R
/A.T. Setting
= I
L
/(CT Ratio x A.T.
Setting)
I
L
I
R
CT
51
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 131
Instantaneous Unit
•
Instantaneous Calculation
–
Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x IT Setting
– Relay Current (I
R
) = Actual Line Current (I
L
) / CT
Ratio
– Multiples of IT = I
R
/IT Setting
= I
L
/(CT Ratio x IT Setting)
I
L
I
R
CT
50
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 132
Relay Coordination
•
Time margins should be maintained between T/C
curves
•
Adjustment should be made for CB opening time
•
Shorter time intervals may be used for solid state
relays
•
Upstream relay should have the same inverse T/C
characteristic as the downstream relay (CO8 to
CO8) or be less inverse (CO8 upstream to CO6
downstream)
•
Extremely inverse relays coordinates very well with
CLFs
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 133
Situation
Calculate Relay Setting (Tap, Inst. Tap & Time Dial)
For This System
4.16 kV
DS
5 MVA
Cable
13/C 500 kcmil
CU  EPR
CB
I
sc
= 30,000 A
6 %
50/51
Relay: IFC 53 CT 800:5
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 134
Solution
A
Inrsuh
328 , 8 694 12 I · × ·
A 338 . 4
800
5
I I
L R
· × ·
Transformer: A
kV
kVA
L
694
16 . 4 3
000 , 5
I ·
×
·
I
L
CT
R
I
R
Set Relay:
A 55 1 . 52
800
5
328 , 8 ) 50 (
1
) 38 . 1 (6/4.338 0 . 6
4 . 5 338 . 4 % 125
· > · × ·
·
·
· ×
·
A Inst
TD
A TAP
A
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 135
Question
What T/C Coordination interval should be maintained between relays?
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 136
Answer
A
t
I
B
CB Opening Time
+
Induction Disc Overtravel (0.1 sec)
+
Safety margin (0.2 sec w/o Inst. & 0.1 sec w/ Inst.)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 137
Recloser
• Recloser protects electrical transmission systems from temporary
voltage surges and other unfavorable conditions.
• Reclosers can automatically "reclose" the circuit and restore normal
power transmission once the problem is cleared.
• Reclosers are usually designed with failsafe mechanisms that prevent
them from reclosing if the same fault occurs several times in
succession over a short period. This insures that repetitive line faults
don't cause power to switch on and off repeatedly, since this could
cause damage or accelerated wear to electrical equipment.
• It also insures that temporary faults such as lightning strikes or
transmission switching don't cause lengthy interruptions in service.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 138
Recloser Types
•
Hydraulic
•
Electronic
–
Static Controller
–
Microprocessor Controller
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 139
Recloser Curves
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 140
TEMA 3
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
Transient Stability
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 142
Topics
•
What is Transient Stability (TS)
•
What Causes System Unstable
•
Effects When System Is Instable
•
Transient Stability Definition
•
Modeling and Data Preparation
•
ETAP TS Study Outputs
•
Power System TS Studies
•
Solutions to Stability Problems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 143
What is Transient Stability
•
TS is also called Rotor Angle Stability
Something between mechanical system and
electrical system – energy conversion
•
It is a Electromechanical Phenomenon
Time frame in milliseconds
•
All Synchronous Machines Must Remain in
Synchronism with One Another
Synchronous generators and motors
This is what system stable or unstable means
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 144
What is Transient Stability
•
Torque Equation (generator case)
T = mechanical torque
P = number of poles
φ
air
= airgap flux
F
r
= rotor field MMF
δ = rotor angle
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 145
What is Transient Stability
•
Swing Equation
M = inertia constant
D = damping constant
P
mech
= input mechanical power
P
elec
= output electrical power
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 146
What Causes System Unstable
•
From Torque Equation
T (prime mover)
Rotor MMF (field winding)
AirGap Flux (electrical system)
•
From Swing Equation
Pmech
Pelec
Different time constants in mechanical and
electrical systems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 147
What Causes System Unstable
•
In real operation
Shortcircuit
Loss of excitation
Prime mover failure
Loss of utility connections
Loss of a portion of inplant generation
Starting of a large motor
Switching operations
Impact loading on motors
Sudden large change in load and generation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 148
Effects When System Is Instable
Case 1: Steadystate stable
Case 2: Transient stable
Case 3: Smallsignal unstable
Case 4: First swing unstable
•
Swing in Rotor Angle (as well as in V, I, P,
Q and f)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 149
Effects When System Is Instable
•
A 2Machine
Example
•
At δ = 180º
(OutofStep,
Slip the Pole)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 150
Effects When System Is Instable
•
Synchronous machine slip poles –
generator tripping
•
Power swing
•
Misoperation of protective devices
•
Interruption of critical loads
•
Lowvoltage conditions – motor dropoffs
•
Damage to equipment
•
Area wide blackout
•
…
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 151
•
Examine One Generator
•
Power Output Capability Curve
∀
δ is limited to 180º
Transient Stability Definition
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 152
Transient Stability Definition
•
Transient and Dynamic Stability Limit
After a severe disturbance, the synchronous
generator reaches a steadystate operating
condition without a prolonged loss of
synchronism
Limit: δ < 180° during swing
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 153
•
Synchronous Machine
Machine
Exciter and AVR
Prime Mover and Governor / Load Torque
Power System Stabilizer (PSS) (Generator)
Modeling and Data Preparation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 154
Modeling and Data Preparation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 155
Modeling and Data Preparation
•
Typical synchronous machine data
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 156
Modeling and Data Preparation
•
Induction Machine
Machine
Load Torque
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 157
Modeling and Data Preparation
•
Power Grid
ShortCircuit Capability
Fixed internal voltage and infinite inertia
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 158
Modeling and Data Preparation
•
Load
Voltage dependency
Frequency dependency
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 159
Modeling and Data Preparation
•
Load
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 160
Modeling and Data Preparation
•
Events and Actions
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 161
Modeling and Data Preparation
Device Type Action
Bus 3P Fault LG Fault Clear Fault
Branch Fraction Fault Clear Fault
PD Trip Close
Generator Droop / Isoch Start Loss Exc. P Change V Change Delete
Grid P Change V Change Delete
Motor Accelerate Load
Change
Delete
Lumped Load Load Change Delete
MOV Start
Wind Turbine Disturbance Gust Ramp
MG Set Emergency Main
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 162
Power System TS Studies
•
Fault
3phase and single phase fault
Clear fault
Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)
Critical System Separation Time (CSST)
•
Bus Transfer
Fast load transferring
•
Load Shedding
Underfrequency
Undervoltage
•
Motor Dynamic Acceleration
Induction motor
Synchronous motor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 163
Power System TS Studies
•
Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)
•
Critical Separation Time (CSST)
u
n
s
t
a
b
l
e
u
n
s
t
a
b
l
e
Cycle
Clear fault Clear fault
1 cycle
u
n
s
t
a
b
l
e
s
t
a
b
l
e
1 cycle
Clear fault Clear fault
CFCT
Fault
u
n
s
t
a
b
l
e
u
n
s
t
a
b
l
e
Cycle
1 cycle
u
n
s
t
a
b
l
e
s
t
a
b
l
e
1 cycle
CSST
Separation Separation Separation Separation Fault
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 164
Power System TS Studies
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Vmotor
s
•
Fast Bus Transfer
Motor residual voltage
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 165
• Fast Bus Transfer
T
transfer
≤ 10 cycles
δ ≤ 90 degrees
E
R
≤ 1.33 per unit (133%)
Power System TS Studies
E
S
= System equivalent per unit
volts per hertz
E
M
= Motor residual per unit per
hertz
E
R
= Resultant vectorial voltage
in per unit volts per hertz
δ
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 166
Power System TS Studies
•
Load Shedding
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 167
Power System TS Studies
• Motor Dynamic Acceleration
Important for islanded system operation
Motor starting impact
Generator AVR action
Reacceleration
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 168
•
Improve System Design
Increase synchronizing power
•
Design and Selection of Rotating
Equipment
Use of induction machines
Increase moment of inertia
Reduce transient reactance
Improve voltage regulator and exciter
characteristics
Solution to Stability Problems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 169
•
Application of Power System Stabilizer
(PSS)
•
Add System Protections
Fast fault clearance
Load shedding
System separation
OutOfStep relay
…
Solution to Stability Problems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 171
TEMA 4
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
Harmonic Analysis
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 173
ARMONICAS
Exploración de frecuencia.
Flujo Armónico de Carga.
Dimensionamiento y Diseño de
Filtros.
Evaluación Automática del límite
de distorsión.
Factores de la influencia del
teléfono (TIF & I*T)
Características principales:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 174
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 175
Types of Power Quality
Problems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 176
Waveform Distortion
•
Primary Types of Waveform Distortion
–
DC Offset
–
Harmonics
–
Interharmonics
–
Notching
–
Noise
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 177
Harmonics
•
One special category of power quality
problems
•
“Harmonics are voltages and/or currents
present in an electrical system at some
multiple of the fundamental frequency.”
(IEEE Std 399, Brown Book)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 178
Nonlinear Loads
•
Sinusoidal voltage
applied to a simple
nonlinear resistor
•
Increasing the
voltage by a few
percent may cause
current to double
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 179
Fourier Representation
•
Any periodic waveform
can be expressed as a
sum of sinusoids
•
The sum of the sinusoids
is referred to as Fourier
Series (6pulse)
) cos(
13 cos
13
1
11 cos
11
1
7 cos
7
1
3 cos
5
1
(cos
3 2
1
h
h
h
d ac
t h I
t t t t t I I
Φ + ⇒
+ − + − ·
∑
∞
·
ω
ω ω ω ω ω
π
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 180
Harmonic Sources
•
Utilities (Power Grid)
–
Known as “Background Harmonic”
–
Pollution from other irresponsible customers
–
SVC, HVDC, FACTS, …
–
Usually a voltage source
•
Synchronous Generators
–
Due to Pitch (can be eliminated by fractional
pitch winding) and Saturation
–
Usually a voltage source
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 181
Harmonic Sources (cont’d)
•
Transformers
–
Due to magnetizing branch saturation
–
Only at lightly loaded condition
–
Usually a current source
•
Power Electronic Devices
–
Charger, Converter, Inverter, UPS, VFD, SVC, HVDC,
FACTS (Flexible alternating current transmission systems) …
–
Due to switching actions
–
Either a voltage source or a current source
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 182
Harmonic Sources (cont’d)
• Other NonLinear Loads
– Arc furnaces, discharge lighting, …
– Due to unstable and nonlinear process
– Either a voltage source or a current source
• In general, any load that is applied to a power
system that requires other than a sinusoidal
current
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 183
Harmonic I and V
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 184
Classification of Harmonics
•
Harmonics may be classified as:
–
Characteristic Harmonics
Generally produced by power converters
–
NonCharacteristic Harmonics
Typically produced by arc furnaces and discharge
lighting (from nonperiodical waveforms)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 185
Phase Angle Relationship
•
Fundamental Frequency
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 186
Phase Angle Relationship
•
Third Order
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 187
Phase Angle Relationship
•
Fifth Order
•
Seventh Order
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 188
Order vs. Sequence
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 189
Characteristic Harmonics
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 190
Characteristic Harmonics
(cont’d)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 191
Harmonic Spectrum
%
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 192
HarmonicRelated Problems
• Motors and Generators
– Increased heating due to iron and copper losses
– Reduced efficiency and torque
– Higher audible noise
– Cogging or crawling
– Mechanical oscillations
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 193
HarmonicRelated Problems
(cont’d)
•
Transformers
–
Parasitic heating
–
Increased copper, stray flux and iron losses
•
Capacitors (var compensators)
–
Possibility of system resonance
–
Increased heating and voltage stress
–
Shortened capacitor life
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 194
HarmonicRelated Problems
(cont’d)
•
Power Cables
–
Involved in system resonance
–
Voltage stress and corona leading to dielectric
failure
–
Heating and derating
•
Neutrals of fourwire systems (480/277V; 120/208V)
–
Overheating
•
Fuses
–
Blowing
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 195
HarmonicRelated Problems
(cont’d)
•
Switchgears
–
Increased heating and losses
–
Reduced steadystate current carrying capability
–
Shortened insulation components life
•
Relays
–
Possibility of misoperation
•
Metering
–
Affected readings
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 196
HarmonicRelated Problems
(cont’d)
• Communication Systems
– Interference by higher frequency electromagnetic field
• Electronic Equipment (computers, PLC)
– Misoperation
• System
– Resonance (serial and parallel)
– Poor power factor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 197
Parallel Resonance
•
Total impedance at resonance frequency
increases
•
High circulating current will flow in the
capacitanceinductance loop
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 198
Parallel Resonance
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 199
Capacitor Banks
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 200
Capacitor Banks
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 201
Capacitor Banks
Say, Seventh Harmonic Current = 5% of 1100A = 55 A
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 202
Capacitor Banks
Resistance = 1% including cable and transformer
CAF = X/R = 7*0.0069/0.0012 =40.25
Resonant Current = 55*40.25 = 2214 A
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 203
Parallel Resonance (cont’d)
Cause:
Impacts:
1. Excessive capacitor fuse
operation
2. Capacitor failures
3. Incorrect relay tripping
4. Telephone interference
5. Overheating of equipment
Source inductance resonates with
capacitor bank at a frequency
excited by the facilities harmonic
sources
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 204
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements
• Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
– Also known as Harmonic Distortion Factor (HDF), is
the most popular index to measure the level of
harmonic distortion to voltage and current
– Ratio of the RMS of all harmonics to the fundamental
component
– For an ideal system THD = 0%
– Potential heating value of the harmonics relative to
the fundamental
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 205
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
1
2
2
F
F
THD
i ∑
∞
·
Where F
i
is the amplitude of the i
th
harmonic,
and F
1
is that for the fundamental component.
–
Good indicator of additional losses due to
current flowing through a conductor
–
Not a good indicator of voltage stress in a
capacitor (related to peak value of voltage
waveform, not its heating value)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 206
Harmonic Distortion
Example
Find THD for this waveform
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 207
Harmonic Example
•
Find THD for this Harmonic Spectrum
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 208
Adjustable Speed Drive –
Current Distortion
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 209
Adjustable Speed Drive –
Voltage Distortion
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 210
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
•
Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD)
 Ratio of a given harmonic to fundamental
 To track magnitude of individual harmonic
1
F
F
IHD
i
·
•
Root Mean Square (RMS)  Total
 Root Mean Square of fundamental plus all
harmonics
 Equal to fundamental RMS if Harmonics are
zero
∑
∞
·
1
2
i
F RMS
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 211
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
•
Arithmetic Summation (ASUM)
–
Arithmetic summation of magnitudes of all
components (fundamental and all harmonics)
–
Directly adds magnitudes of all components to
estimate crest value of voltage and current
–
Evaluation of the maximum withstanding ratings
of a device
∑
∞
·
1
i
F ASUM
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 212
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
•
Telephone Influence Factor (TIF)
–
Weighted THD
–
Weights based on interference to an audio
signal in the same frequency range
–
Current TIF shows impact on adjacent
communication systems
( )
2
1
2
1
∑
∑
∞
∞
·
i
i i
F
F W
TIF
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 213
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
•
I*T Product (I*T)
–
A product current components (fundamental
and harmonics) and weighting factors
∑
·
⋅ · •
H
h
h h
T I T I
1
2
) (
where I
h
= current component
T
h
= weighting factor
h = harmonic order (h=1 for fundamental)
H = maximum harmonic order to account
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 214
Triplen Harmonics
•
Odd multiples of the
third harmonic
(h = 3, 9, 15, 21, …)
•
Important issue for
groundedwye systems
with neutral current
•
Overloading and TIF problems
•
Misoperation of devices due to presence of
harmonics on the neutral
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 215
Triplen Harmonics
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 216
Winding Connections
•
Delta winding provides ampere turn balance
• Triplen Harmonics cannot flow
• When currents are balanced Triplens
behave as Zero Sequence currents
• Used in Utility Distribution Substations
• Delta winding connected to Transmission
•
Balanced Triplens can flow
• Present in equal proportions on both sides
• Many loads are served in this fashion
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 217
Implications
•
Neutral connections are susceptible to overheating
when serving singlephase loads on the Y side that
have high 3rd Harmonic
•
Measuring current on delta side will not show the
triplens and therefore do not give a true idea of the
heating the transformer is subjected to
•
The flow of triplens can be interrupted by appropriate
isolation transformer connection
•
Removing the neutral connection in one or both Y
windings blocks the flow of Triplen harmonic current
•
Three legged core transformers behave as if they have
a “phantom” delta tertiary winding
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 218
Modeling in Harmonic
Analysis
•
Motors and Machines
–
Represented by their equivalent negative
sequence reactance
•
Lines and Cables
–
Series impedance for low frequencies
–
Long line correction including transposition and
distributed capacitance
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 219
Modeling in Harmonic
Analysis (cont’d)
•
Transformers
–
Leakage impedance
–
Magnetizing impedance
•
Loads
–
Static loads reduce peak resonant impedance
–
Motor loads shift resonant frequency due to
motor inductance
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 220
Reducing System
Harmonics
•
Add Passive Filters
–
Shunt or Single Tuned Filters
–
Broadband Filters or Band Pass Filters
–
Provide low impedance path for harmonic
current
–
Least expensive
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 221
Reducing System
Harmonics (cont’d)
•
Increase Pulse Numbers
–
Increasing pulse number of convert circuits
–
Limited by practical control problems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 222
Reducing System
Harmonics (cont’d)
•
Apply Transformer Phase Shifting
–
Using Phase Shifting Transformers
–
Achieve higher pulse operation of the total
converter installation
•
In ETAP
–
Phase shift is specified in the tab page of the
transformer editor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 223
Reducing System
Harmonics (cont’d)
•
Either standard phase shift or special phase
shift can be used
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 224
Reducing System
Harmonics (cont’d)
•
Add Active Filters
–
Instantly adapts to changing source and load
conditions
–
Costly
–
MVA Limitation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 225
Voltage Distortion Limits
Recommended Practices for Utilities (IEEE
519):
Bus Voltage
At
PCC
Individual
Distortion
(%)
Total Voltage
Distortion
THD (%)
69 kV and below 3.0 5.0
69.001 kV through 161kV 1.5 2.5
161.001 and above 1.0 1.5
In ETAP:
Specify Harmonic Distortion Limits in Harmonic
Page of Bus Editor:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 226
Current Distortion Limits
Recommended Practices for General
Distribution Systems (IEEE 519):
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 227
TEMA 5
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
Motor Starting
Dynamic Acceleration
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 229
ARRANQUE DE MOTORES
Aceleración dinámica de
motores.
Parpadeo (Flicker) de tensión.
Modelos dinámicos de motores.
Arranque estático de motores.
Varios dispositivos de arranque.
Transición de carga.
Características principales:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 230
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 231
Why to Do MS Studies?
•
Ensure that motor will start with voltage drop
• If T
st
<T
load
at s=1, then motor will not start
• If T
m
=T
load
at s<s
r
, motor can not reach rated speed
• Torque varies as (voltage)^2
•
Ensure that voltage drop will not disrupt other loads
•
Utility bus voltage >95%
• 3% Sag represents a point when light flicker becomes visible
•
5% Sag represents a point when light flicker becomes irritating
• MCC bus voltage >80%
•
Generation bus voltage > 93%
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 232
Why to Do MS Studies?
•
Ensure motor feeders sized adequately
(Assuming 100% voltage at Switchboard or MCC)
• LV cable voltage drop at starting < 20%
•
LV cable voltage drop when running at fullload < 5%
• HV cable voltage drop at starting < 15%
• HV cable voltage drop when running at fullload < 3%
•
Maximum motor size that can be started across the line
• Motor kW < 1/6 kW rating of generator (islanded)
• For 6 MW of islanded generation, largest motor size < 1 MW
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 233
Motor Sizing
•
Positive Displacement Pumps / Rotary Pumps
•
p = Pressure in psi
• Q = fluid flow in gpm
• n = efficiency
•
Centrifugal Pumps
• H = fluid head in feet
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 234
Motor Types
•
Synchronous
•
Salient Pole
•
Round Rotor
•
Induction
•
Wound Rotor (slipring)
• Single Cage CKT Model
•
Squirrel Cage (brushless)
• Double Cage CKT Model
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 235
Induction Motor Advantages
• Squirrel Cage
• Slightly higher efficiency and power factor
• Explosive proof
• Wound Rotor
• Higher starting torque
• Lower starting current
• Speed varied by using external resistances
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 236
Typical Rotor Construction
•
Rotor slots are not parallel to the shaft but
skewed
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 237
Wound Rotor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 238
Operation of Induction
Motor
•
AC applied to stator winding
•
Creates a rotating stator magnetic field in air gap
•
Field induces currents (voltages) in rotor
•
Rotor currents create rotor magnetic field in air gap
•
Torque is produced by interaction of air gap fields
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 239
Slip Frequency
•
Slip represents the inability of the rotor to
keep up with the stator magnetic field
•
Slip frequency
S = (ω
s
ωn)/ω
s
where ω
s
= 120f/P
ω
n
= mech speed
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 240
Static Start  Example
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 241
Static Start  Example
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 242
Service Factor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 243
Inrush Current
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 244
Resistance / Reactance
•
Torque Slip Curve is changed by altering
resistance / reactance of rotor bars.
•
Resistance ↑ by ↓cross sectional area or
using higher resistivity material like brass.
•
Reactance ↑ by placing conductor deeper in
the rotor cylinder or by closing the slot at the
air gap.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 245
Rotor Bar Resistance ↑
•
Increase Starting Torque
•
Lower Starting Current
•
Lower Full Load Speed
•
Lower Efficiency
•
No Effect on Breakdown Torque
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 246
Rotor Bar Reactance ↑
•
Lower Starting Torque
•
Lower Starting Current
•
Lower Breakdown Torque
•
No effect on Full Load Conditions
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 247
Motor Torque Curves
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 248
Rotor Bar Design
•
Cross section Large (low
resistance) and positioned deep in
the rotor (high reactance).
(Starting Torque is normal and
starting current is low).
•
Double Deck with small conductor
of high resistance. During starting,
most current flows through the
upper deck due to high reactance
of lower deck. (Starting Torque is
high and starting current is low).
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 249
Rotor Bar Design
•
Bars are made of Brass or
similar high resistance
material. Bars are close to
surface to reduce leakage
reactance. (Starting torque is
high and starting current is
low).
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 250
Load Torque – ID Fan
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 251
Load Torque – FD Fan
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 252
Load Torque – C. Pump
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 253
Motor Torque – Speed Curve
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 254
Double Cage Motor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 255
Motor Full Load Torque
•
For example, 30 HP 1765 RPM Motor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 256
Motor Efficiency
•
kW Saved = HP * 0.746 (1/Old – 1/New)
•
$ Savings = kW Saved * Hrs /Year * $/kWh
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 257
Acceleration Torque
•
Greater
Acceleration
Torque means
higher inertia
that can be
handled by the
motor without
approaching
thermal limits
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 258
Acceleration Torque
P
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 259
Operating Range
•
Motor, Generator, or Brake
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 260
0.8 1.0
kvar
L
o
a
d
(
k
v
a
)
Terminal Voltage
T
e
r
m
i
n
a
l
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
Terminal Voltage
0.8 1.0
P = Tm Wm , As Vt ( terminal voltage ) changes from 0.8 to 1.1 pu, Wm
changes by a very small amount. There fore, P is approx constant since
Tm (α w²m) is approx. constant
L
1
I
r
Rated Conditions
•
Constant Power
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 261
0.9 1.0
Kva
LR
Terminal Voltage
Terminal Voltage
0.9 1.0
.8 kva
LR
Vt (pu)
Vt (pu)
.9 I LR
I LR
P
It
KVA LR = Loched  rotor KVA at rated voltage = 2HP
2 ≡ Code letter factor ≡ Locked – rotor KVA ∕ HP
Z st = KVA B KVR ²
KVA LR KVB
Pu, Rst = Zst cos θ st , Xst= Zst sin θ st ______ ____
KVR = rated voltage KVB = Base voltage KVAB = Base power
Starting Conditions
•
Constant Impedance
Starting Conditions Constant Impedance
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 262
ws wm
v1
p
R
Load
Voltage Variation
0
I
80% voltage
100% voltage
ws wm
0
T T st T’
st
Tst α ( operating voltage) ²
Rated voltage
_____________
Rated voltage
_____________
Ist α ( operating voltage)
•
Torque is proportional to V^2
•
Current is proportional to V
I
80% V
100% V
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 263
Frequency Variation
•
As frequency decreases, peak torque shifts toward lower
speed as synchronous speed decreases.
•
As frequency decrease, current increases due reduced
impedance.
T
em
WS1 WS2 Wm
F1
F2 › F1
0
I
WS1 WS2 Wm
F1
F2 › F1
0
W3 = 120f
P
___
RPM
Adjustable speed drive : Typical speed range for variable torque loads such as pumps and fans is 3/1,maximun is 8/1 ( 1.5 to 60 Hz)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 264
Number of Poles Variation
•
As Pole number increases, peak torque shifts toward lower
speed as synchronous speed decreases.
T
em
W′S WS
Wm
0
2 P  poles
P  poles
P
R
Load
Nro. of poles variation
W′S =
WS
___
2
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 265
Rotor Z Variation
•
Increasing rotor Z will shift peak torque towards lower
speed.
S
R
Q
P
r1
r2 r3
r4
r1 › r2 › r3 › r4
Rotor – Resistance Variation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 266
Modeling of Elements
•
Switching motors – Zlr, circuit model, or
characteristic model
•
Synch generator  constant voltage behind
X’d
•
Utility  constant voltage behind X”d
•
Branches – Same as in Load Flow
•
Nonswitching Load – Same as Load flow
•
All elements must be initially energized,
including motors to start
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 267
Motor Modeling
1. Operating Motor
–
Constant KVA Load
1. Starting Motor
–
During Acceleration – Constant Impedance
–
LockedRotor Impedance
–
Circuit Models
Characteristic Curves
After Acceleration – Constant KVA Load
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 268
LockedRotor Impedance
•
ZLR = RLR +j XLR (10 – 25 %)
•
PFLR is much lower than operating PD. Approximate
starting PF of typical squirrel cage induction motor:
P
O
W
E
R
F
A
C
T
O
R
HORSE POWER RATING
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 269
Circuit Model I
•
Single Cage Rotor
–
“Single1” – constant rotor resistance and
reactance
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 270
Circuit Model II
•
Single Cage Rotor
–
“Single2”  deep bar effect, rotor resistance and
reactance vary with speed [Xm is removed]
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 271
Circuit Model III
•
Double Cage Rotor
–
“DB1” – integrated rotor cages
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 272
Circuit Model IV
•
Double Cage Rotor
–
“DB2” – independent rotor cages
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 273
Characteristic Model
•
Motor Torque, I, and PF as function of Slip
–
Static Model
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 274
Calculation Methods I
•
Static Motor Starting
–
Time domain using static model
–
Switching motors modeled as Zlr during starting and
constant kVA load after starting
–
Run load flow when any change in system
•
Dynamic Motor Starting
–
Time domain using dynamic model and inertia model
–
Dynamic model used for the entire simulation
–
Requires motor and load dynamic (characteristic) model
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 275
Calculation Methods II
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 276
Static versus Dynamic
•
Use Static Model When
–
Concerned with effect of motor starting on other
loads
–
Missing dynamic motor information
•
Use Dynamic Model When
–
Concerned with actual acceleration time
–
Concerned if motor will actually start
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 277
MS Simulation Features
• Start/Stop induction/synchronous motors
• Switching on/off static load at specified loading category
• Simulate MOV opening/closing operations
• Change grid or generator operating category
• Simulate transformer LTC operation
• Simulate global load transition
• Simulate various types of starting devices
• Simulate load ramping after motor acceleration
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 278
Automatic Alert
•
Starting motor terminal V
•
Motor acceleration failure
•
Motor thermal damage
•
Generator rating
•
Generator engine continuous
& peak rating
•
Generator exciter peak rating
•
Bus voltage
•
Starting motor bus
•
Grid/generator bus
•
HV, MV, and LV bus
•
User definable minimum time
span
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 279
Starting Devices Types
•
AutoTransformer
•
Stator Resistor
•
Stator Reactor
•
Capacitor at Bus
•
Capacitor at Motor
Terminal
•
Rotor External Resistor
•
Rotor External Reactor
•
Y/D Winding
•
Partial Wing
•
Soft Starter
•
Stator Current Limit
–
Stator Current Control
–
Voltage Control
–
Torque Control
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 280
Starting Device
•
Comparison of starting conditions
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 281
Starting Device – AutoXFMR
• C4 and C3 closed initially
• C4 opened, C2 is closed with C3 still closed. Finally C3 is open
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 282
Starting Device – AutoXFMR
•
Autotransformer starting
MCC
M
Autotransformer starter
line
Vmcc
EX. 50% Tap
VMCC
50%
tap
5VMCC
IST
3IST
VM
PFST ( with autotransformer) = PFST ( without autotransformer)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 283
Starting Device – YD Start
• During Y connection Vs = VL / √3
• Phase current Iy = Id / √3 and 3 to 1 reduction in torque
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 284
Starting Device – Rotor R
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 285
Starting Device – Stator R
•
Resistor
VMCC
50%
tap
5VMCC VM
RLR
XLR
RL XL
PFST ( with resistor) = 1[pu tap setting ]² * [ 1 (PFST without resistor)²]
= 1 (0.5)² * [1(PFST)²]
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 286
VMCC
50%
tap
5VMCC VM
RLR
XLR
RL XL
Starting Device Stator X
•
Reactor
PFST ( with reactor) = [pu tap setting ] * PFST (without reactor)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 287
Transformer LTC Modeling
•
LTC operations can be simulated in motor
starting studies
•
Use global or individual Tit and Tot
V limit
Tit Tot
T
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 288
MOV Modeling I
•
Represented as an impedance load during
operation
–
Each stage has own impedance based on I, pf, Vr
–
User specifies duration and load current for each stage
•
Operation type depends on MOV status
–
Open statusclosing operation
–
Close statusopening operation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 289
MOV Modeling II
•
Five stages of operation
Opening Closing
Acceleration Acceleration
No load No load
Unseating Travel
Travel Seating
Stall Stall
•
Without hammer blow Skip “No Load” period
•
With a micro switch Skip “Stall” period
• Operating stage time extended if V
mtr
< V
limit
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 290
MOV Closing
•
With Hammer Blow MOV Closing
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 291
MOV Opening
•
With Hammer Blow MOV Opening
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 292
UNSETTING
TRAVEL
VMTR < V LIMIT
STALL ACCL
I
MOV Voltage Limit
•
Effect of Voltage Limit Violation
Tacc Tpos
Travel Tstl
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 293
TEMA 6
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
ShortCircuit
ANSI Standard
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 295
CORTO CIRCUITO
Estándar de ANSI/IEEE & IEC.
Análisis de fallas transitorias
(IEC 61363).
Efecto de Arco (NFPA 70E
2000)
Integrado con coordinación de
dispositivos de protección.
Evaluación automática de
dispositivos.
Características principales:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 296
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 297
Types of SC Faults
•ThreePhase Ungrounded Fault
•ThreePhase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Ground Fault
Fault Current
•I
LG
can range in utility systems from a few percent to
possibly 115 % ( if X
o
< X
1
) of I
3phase
(85% of all faults).
•In industrial systems the situation I
LG
> I
3phase
is rare.
Typically I
LG
≅ .87 * I
3phase
•In an industrial system, the threephase fault condition
is frequently the only one considered, since this type of
fault generally results in Maximum current.
ShortCircuit Analysis
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 298
Purpose of ShortCircuit
Studies
•
A ShortCircuit Study can be used to determine
any or all of the following:
–
Verify protective device close and latch capability
–
Verify protective device Interrupting capability
–
Protect equipment from large mechanical forces
(maximum fault kA)
–
I
2
t protection for equipment (thermal stress)
–
Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 299
System Components
Involved in SC Calculations
•
Power Company Supply
•
InPlant Generators
•
Transformers (using negative tolerance)
•
Reactors (using negative tolerance)
•
Feeder Cables and Bus Duct Systems (at
lower temperature limits)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 300
System Components
Involved in SC Calculations
•
Overhead Lines (at lower temperature limit)
•
Synchronous Motors
•
Induction Motors
•
Protective Devices
• Y
0
from Static Load and Line Cable
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 301
Elements That Contribute
Current to a ShortCircuit
•
Generator
•
Power Grid
•
Synchronous Motors
•
Induction Machines
•
Lumped Loads
(with some % motor load)
•
Inverters
• I
0
from YgDelta Connected Transformer
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 302
Elements Do Not Contribute
Current in PowerStation
•
Static Loads
•
Motor Operated Valves
•
All Shunt Y Connected Branches
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 303
) t Sin( Vm v(t) θ ω + ∗ ·
i(t) v(t)
ShortCircuit Phenomenon
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 304
Offset) (DC
Transient State Steady
t
)  sin(
Z
Vm
)  t sin(
Z
Vm
i(t)
(1) ) t Sin( Vm
dt
di
L Ri v(t)
L
R

e × × + + × ·
+ × · + ·
φ θ φ θ ω
θ ω
expression following the yields 1 equation Solving
i(t)
v(t)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 305
DC Current
AC Current (Symmetrical) with
No AC Decay
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit ANSI
Slide 305
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 306
AC Fault Current Including the
DC Offset (No AC Decay)
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit ANSI Slide 306
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 307
Machine Reactance ( λ = L I )
AC Decay Current
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 308
Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 309
1) The ANSI standards handle the AC Decay by varying
machine impedance during a fault.
2) The ANSI standards handle the the dc
offset by applying multiplying factors. The
ANSI Terms for this current are:
•Momentary Current
•Close and Latch Current
•First Cycle Asymmetrical Current
ANSI
ANSI Calculation Methods
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 310
Sources
•
Synchronous Generators
•
Synchronous Motors & Condensers
•Induction Machines
•Electric Utility Systems (Power Grids)
Models
All sources are modeled by an internal
voltage behind its impedance.
E = Prefault Voltage
R = Machine Armature Resistance
X = Machine Reactance (X”d, X’d, Xd)
Sources and Models of Fault
Currents in ANSI Standards
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 311
Synchronous Reactance
Transient Reactance
Subtransient Reactance
Synchronous Generators
Synchronous Generators are modeled
in three stages.
Synchronous Motors &
Condensers
Act as a generator to supply fault
current. This current diminishes as the
magnetic field in the machine decays.
Induction Machines
Treated the same as synchronous
motors except they do not contribute to
the fault after 2 sec.
Electric Utility Systems
The fault current contribution tends to
remain constant.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 312
½ Cycle Network
This is the network used to calculate momentary shortcircuit current
and protective device duties at the ½ cycle after the fault.
1 ½ to 4 Cycle Network
This network is used to calculate the interrupting shortcircuit current
and protective device duties 1.54 cycles after the fault.
30Cycle Network
This is the network used to calculate the steadystate shortcircuit
current and settings for over current relays after 30 cycles.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 313
½ Cycle 1 ½ to 4 Cycle 30 Cycle
Utility
X”d X”d X”d
Turbo Generator
X”d X”d X’d
HydroGen with
Amortisseur winding
X”d X”d X’d
HydroGen without
Amortisseur winding
0.75*X”d 0.75*X”d X’d
Condenser
X”d X”d
α
Synchronous Motor
X”d 1.5*X”d α
Reactance Representation for
Utility and Synchronous Machine
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 314
½ Cycle 1 ½ to 4
Cycle
>1000 hp , <= 1800
rpm
X”d 1.5*X”d
>250, at 3600 rpm
X”d 1.5*X”d
All others, >= 50 hp
1.2*X”d 3.0*X”d
< 50 hp
1.67*X”d
α
Reactance Representation for Induction
Machine
Note: X”d = 1 / LRC
pu
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 315
½ Cycle Currents
(Subtransient Network)
1 ½ to 4 Cycle Currents
(Transient Network)
HV Circuit Breaker
Closing and Latching
Capability
Interrupting
Capability
LV Circuit Breaker
Interrupting Capability

Fuse
Interrupting Capability

SWGR / MCC
Bus Bracing

Relay
Instantaneous Settings

Device Duty and Usage of Fault Currents
from Different Networks
30 Cycle currents are used for determining overcurrent settings.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 316
MF
m
is calculated based on:
• Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks)
• Location of fault (Remote / Local generation)
SC Current Duty Device Rating
HV CB Asymmetrical RMS
Crest
C&L RMS
C&L RMS
HV Bus
Asymmetrical RMS
Crest
Asymmetrical RMS
Crest
LV Bus Symmetrical RMS
Asymmetrical RMS
Symmetrical RMS
Asymmetrical RMS
Comparisons of Momentary capability (1/2 Cycle)
Momentary Multiplying
Factor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 317
SC Current Duty Device Rating
HV CB
Adj. Symmetrical RMS* Adj. Symmetrical RMS*
LV CB & Fuse
Adj. Symmetrical RMS*** Symmetrical RMS
Comparisons of Interrupting Capability (1 ½ to 4 Cycle)
MF
i
is calculated based on:
• Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks)
• Location of Fault (Remote / Local
generation)
• Type and Rating of CB
Interrupting Multiplying
Factor
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 318
Calculate ½ Cycle Current (I
mom, rms, sym
) using ½ Cycle Network.
• Calculate X/R ratio and Multiplying factor MF
m
•
I
mom, rms, Asym=
MF
m
* I
mom, rms, sym
HV CB Closing and
Latching Duty
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 319
Calculate 1½ to 4 Cycle Current (I
mom, rms, sym
) using ½ Cycle Network.
•
Determine Local and Remote contributions (A “local” contribution is
fed predominantly from generators through no more than one
transformation or with external reactances in series that is less than
1.5 times generator subtransient reactance. Otherwise the
contribution is defined as “remote”).
• Calculate no AC Decay ratio (NACD) and multiplying factor MF
i
NACD = I
Remote
/ I
Total
I
Total
= I
Local
+ I
Remote
(NACD = 0 if all local & NACD = 1 if all remote)
• Calculate I
int, rms, adj
= MF
i
* I
int, rms, Symm
HV CB Interrupting Duty
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 320
•
CB Interrupting kA varies between Max kA and Rated kA as
applied kV changes – MVAsc capability.
•
ETAP’s comparison between CB Duty of Adj. Symmetrical kA
and CB capability of Adjusted Int. kA verifies both symmetrical
and asymmetrical rating.
•
The Option of C37.0101999 standard allows user to specify
CPT.
•
Generator CB has higher DC rating and is always compared
against maximum through SC kA.
HV CB Interrupting
Capability
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 321
LV CB Interrupting Duty
•
LV CB take instantaneous action.
•
Calculate ½ Cycle current I
rms, Symm
(I’
f
) from the ½ cycle
network.
•
Calculate X/R ratio and MF
i
(based on CB type).
•
Calculate adjusted interrupting current I
adj, rms, symm
= MF
i
*
I
rms, Symm
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 322
Calculate ½ Cycle current I
int, rms, symm
from ½ Cycle Network.
•
Same procedure to calculate I
int, rms, asymm
as for CB.
Fuse Interrupting Duty
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 323
LG Faults
LG Faults
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 324
Symmetrical Components
LG Faults
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 325
Sequence Networks
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 326
0
Z Z Z
V 3
I
I 3 I
0 2 1
efault Pr
f
a f
0
·
+ +
×
·
× ·
g
Z if
LG Fault Sequence
Network Connections
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 327
2 1
efault Pr
f
a a
Z Z
V 3
I
I I
1 2
+
×
·
− ·
LL Fault Sequence Network
Connections
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 328
0
Z Z
Z Z
Z
V
I
I 0 I I I
2 0
2 0
1
efault Pr
f
a a a a
0 1 2
·
,
`
.

+
+
·
· · + +
g
Z if
LLG Fault Sequence
Network Connections
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 329
Transformer Zero Sequence Connections
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 330
grounded.
solidly are er transform Connected Y/
or Generators if case the be may This
I
: then true are conditions this If
&
: if greater
be can faults G  L case. severe most
the is fault phase  3 a Generally
1 f3
1 0 2 1
∆
<
< ·
φ φ f
I
Z Z Z Z
Solid Grounded Devices
and LG Faults
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 331
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
•LG Faults
•LLG Faults
•LL Faults
Oneline diagram displayed results that
include:
•LG/LLG/LL fault current
contributions
•Sequence voltage and currents
•Phase Voltages
Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 332 © 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit ANSI Slide 332
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 333 © 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit ANSI Slide 333
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 334
SC Study Case Info Page
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 335
SC Study Case Standard
Page
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 336
Tolerance
Adjustments
•Transformer
Impedance
•Reactor
Resistance
•Overload
Heater
Resistance
Temperature
Corrections
•Transmission Line
Resistance
•Cable Resistance
Adjust Fault
Impedance
•LG fault
Impedance
SC Study Case Adjustments
Page
Length
Adjustments
•Cable Length
•Transmission
Line Length
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 337
Tolerance Length Length
Tolerance Length Length
Tolerance Z Z
onLine Transmissi onLine Transmissi
Cable Cable
r Transforme r Transforme
) 1 ( * '
) 1 ( * '
) 1 ( * '
t ·
t ·
t ·
Adjustments can be applied Individually or Globally
Tolerance Adjustments
Positive tolerance value is used for IEC Minimum I
f
calculation.
Negative tolerance value is used for all other calculations.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 338
C in limit e temperatur Conductor Tc
C in e temperatur base Conductor Tb
e temperatur operating at Resistance R'
re tempereatu base at Resistance R
Tb
Tc
R R
Tb
Tc
R R
BASE
BASE Alumi
BASE Copper
·
·
·
·
+
+
·
+
+
·
) 1 . 228 (
) 1 . 228 (
* '
) 5 . 234 (
) 5 . 234 (
* ' '
Temperature Correction can be applied
Individually or Globally
Temperature Correction
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 339
Transformers
T1 X/R
PS =12
PT =12
ST =12
T2 X/R = 12
Power Grid U1
X/R = 55
Lump1
Y open grounded
Gen1
Voltage Control
Design Setting:
%Pf = 85
MW = 4
Max Q = 9
Min Q = 3
System for SC Study
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit ANSI Slide 339
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 340
System for SC Study
Tmin = 40, Tmax = 90
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 341
System for SC Study
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 342
ShortCircuit Alerts
•
Bus Alert
•
Protective Device Alert
•
Marginal Device Limit
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 343
Type of Device Monitored Parameter Condition Reported
MV Bus (> 1000 Volts)
Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Bracing Asymmetrical
Momentary Asymmetrical. crest kA Bracing Crest
LV Bus (<1000Volts)
Momentary Symmetrical. rms kA Bracing Symmetrical
Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Bracing Asymmetrical
Bus SC Rating
Device Type ANSI Monitored Parameters IEC Monitored Parameters
LVCB
Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking
HV CB
Momentary C&L Making
Momentary C&L Crest kA N/A
Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking
Fuse
Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking
SPDT Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Making
SPST Switches Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Making
Protective Device Rating
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 344
Run a 3phase Duty SC calculation for a
fault on Bus4. The display shows the
Initial Symmetrical ShortCircuit Current.
3Phase Duty SC Results
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit ANSI Slide 344
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 345
Unbalance Fault Calculation
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit ANSI Slide 345
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 346
TEMA 7
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
Transient Stability
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 348
Time Frame of Power System
Dynamic Phenomena
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 349
Introduction
•
TS is also called Rotor Stability, Dynamic
Stability
•
Electromechanical Phenomenon
•
All synchronous machines must remain in
synchronism with one another
•
TS is no longer only the utility’s concern
•
Cogeneration plants face TS problems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 350
Analogy
•
Which vehicles will pushed hardest?
•
How much energy gained by each vehicle?
•
Which direction will they move?
•
Height of the hill must they climb to go over?
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 351
Introduction (cont’d)
•
System protection requires consideration of:
Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)
Critical Separation Time (CST)
Fast load transferring
Load Shedding
…
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 352
Causes of Instability
•
Shortcircuits
•
Loss of utility connections
•
Loss of a portion of inplant generation
•
Starting of a large motor
•
Switching operations (lines or capacitors)
•
Impact loading on motors
•
Sudden large change in load and
generation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 353
Consequences of Instability
•
Synchronous machine slip poles –
generator tripping
•
Power swing
•
Misoperation of protective devices
•
Interruption of critical loads
•
Lowvoltage conditions – motor dropoffs
•
Damage to equipment
•
Area wide blackout
•
…
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 354
Synchronous Machines
•
Torque Equation (generator case)
T = mechanical torque
P = number of poles
φ
air
= airgap flux
F
r
= rotor field MMF
δ = rotor angle
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 355
Swing Equation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 356
Synchronous Machines
(cont’d)
•
Swing Equation
M = inertia constant
D = damping constant
P
mech
= input mechanical power
P
elec
= output electrical power
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 357
Rotor Angle Responses
• Case 1: Steadystate stable
• Case 2: Transient stable
• Case 3: Smallsignal unstable
• Case 4: First swing unstable
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 358
Power and Rotor Angle
(Classical 2Machine
Example)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 359
Power and Rotor Angle
(cont’d)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 360
Power and Rotor Angle
(Parallel Lines)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 361
Both Lines In Service
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 362
One Line Out of Service
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 363
Equal Area Criterion
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 364
Equal Area Criterion
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 365
Equal Area  Stable
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 366
Equal Area – Unstable
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 367
Equal Area  Unstable
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 368
Power System Stability
Limit
•
SteadyState Stability Limit
After small disturbance, the synchronous
generator reaches a steady state operating
condition identical or close to the pre
disturbance
Limit: δ < 90°
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 369
Power System Stability
Limit (con’d)
•
Transient and Dynamic Stability Limit
After a severe disturbance, the synchronous
generator reaches a steadystate operating
condition without a prolonged loss of
synchronism
Limit: δ < 180° during swing
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 370
Generator Modeling
•
Machine
Equivalent Model / Transient Model / Subtransient Model
•
Exciter and Automatic Voltage Regulator
(AVR)
•
Prime Mover and Speed Governor
•
Power System Stabilizer (PSS)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 371
Generator Modeling (con’d)
•
Typical synchronous machine data
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 372
Factors Influencing TS
•
PostDisturbance Reactance seen from generator.
Reactance ↓ Pmax ↓
•
Duration of the fault clearing time.
Fault time ↑ Rotor Acceleration ↑ Kinetic Energy ↑
Dissipation Time during deceleration ↑
•
Generator Inertia.
Inertia ↑ Rate of change of Angle ↓ Kinetic Energy ↓
•
Generator Internal Voltage
Internal Voltage ↓ Pmax ↓
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 373
Factors Influencing TS
•
Generator Loading Prior To Disturbance
Loading ↑ Closer to Pmax. Unstable during acceleration
•
Generator Internal Reactance
Reactance ↓ Peak Power ↑ Initial Rotor Angle ↓
Dissipation Time during deceleration ↑
•
Generator Output During Fault
Function of Fault Location and Type of Fault
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 374
Solution to Stability
Problems
•
Improve system design
Increase synchronizing power
•
Design and selection of rotating equipment
Use of induction machines
Increase moment of inertia
Reduce transient reactance
Improve voltage regulator and exciter
characteristics
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 375
Solution to Stability
Problems
•
Reduction of Transmission System
Reactance
•
High Speed Fault Clearing
•
Dynamic Braking
•
Regulate Shunt Compensation
•
Steam Turbine Fast Valving
•
Generator Tripping
•
Adjustable Speed Synchronous Machines
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 376
Solution to Stability
Problems
•
HVDC Link Control
•
Current Injection from VSI devices
•
Application of Power System Stabilizer
(PSS)
•
Add system protections
Fast fault clearance
Load Shedding
System separation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 377
TEMA 8
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC
Load Flow Analysis
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 379
FLUJO DE CARGA
Cálculo de los flujos de potencia.
Diversas representaciones de las
cargas.
Cálculo de los perfiles de tensión.
Corrección del factor de potencia.
Diagnóstico automático de equipos.
Corrección automática de impedancias
por temperatura.
Cálculo de pérdidas activas y reactivas.
Características principales:
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 380
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 381
System Concepts
System Concepts
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 382
jQ P
I V
S S
I V S
LL
LN
+ ·
× ·
× ·
·
*
1 3
*
1
3
3
φ φ
φ
Lagging Power Factor Leading Power Factor
Inductive loads have lagging Power Factors.
Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.
Current and Voltage
Power in Balanced 3Phase
Systems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 383
Leading
Power
Factor
Lagging
Power
Factor
ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors as
negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.
jQ P +
Leading & Lagging Power
Factors
P  jQ P + jQ
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 384
B
2
B
B
B
B
B
MVA
) kV (
Z
kV 3
kVA
I
·
·
B
actual
pu
B
actual
pu
Z
Z
Z
I
I
I
·
·
B
actual
pu
B
actual
pu
S
S
S
V
V
V
·
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
·
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
·
B
2
B
B
B
B
B
S
V
Z
V 3
S
I
ZI 3 V
VI 3 S
If you have two bases:
Then you may calculate the other two
by using the relationships enclosed in
brackets. The different bases are:
•I
B
(Base Current)
•Z
B
(Base Impedance)
•V
B
(Base Voltage)
•S
B
(Base Power)
ETAP selects for LF:
•100 MVA for S
B
which is fixed for the
entire system.
•The kV rating of reference point is
used along with the transformer turn
ratios are applied to determine the
base voltage for different parts of the
system.
3Phase Per Unit System
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 385
Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP converts the branch
impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF reports show
the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31
and the X/R = 12.14
2
B
1
B
kV
2 N
1 N
kV ·
Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is used
by ETAP to determine the base voltage for different parts
of the system. Different turn ratios are applied starting from
the utility kV rating.
To determine base voltage use:
2
pu
pu
R
X
1
R
X
Z
X
]
]
]
+
]
]
]
×
·
Transformer T7: The following equations are used to find
the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.
]
]
]
·
R
X
x
R
pu
pu
1
B
kV
2
B
kV
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 386
Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base
impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.
06478 . 0
) 14 . 12 ( 1
) 14 . 12 ( 065 . 0
X
2
pu
·
+
·
005336 . 0
14 . 12
06478 . 0
R
pu
· ·
The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the
following relation must be used, where “n” stands for new and “o” stands for old.
) 3538 . 1 j 1115 . 0 (
5
100
5 . 13
8 . 13
) 06478 . 0 j 10 33 . 5 (
S
S
V
V
Z Z
2
3
o
B
n
B
2
n
B
o
B
o
pu
n
pu
+ ·
,
`
.

,
`
.

+ × ·
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
−
38 . 135 j 15 . 11 Z 100 Z %
pu
+ · × ·
0695 . 4
31 . 3
5 . 13
2 N
1 N
kV
V
utility
B
· ·
]
]
]
·
165608 . 0
100
) 0695 . 4 (
MVA
V
Z
2 2
B
B
· · ·
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 387
8 . 603 j 38 . 60 Z 100 Z %
pu
+ · × ·
) 0382 . 6 j 6038 . 0 (
1656 . 0
) 1 j 1 . 0 (
Z
Z
Z
B
actual
pu
+ ·
+
· ·
The perunit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base
impedance is known. The perunit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain
the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.
The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance values
in 100 MVA base
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 388
Load Flow Analysis
Load Flow Analysis
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 389
Load Flow Problem
•
Given
–
Load Power Consumption at all buses
–
Configuration
–
Power Production at each generator
•
Basic Requirement
–
Power Flow in each line and transformer
–
Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 390
Load Flow Studies
•
Determine Steady State Operating Conditions
–
Voltage Profile
–
Power Flows
–
Current Flows
–
Power Factors
–
Transformer LTC Settings
–
Voltage Drops
–
Generator’s Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)
–
Total Generation & Power Demand
–
Steady State Stability Limits
–
MW & Mvar Losses
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 391
Size & Determine System
Equipment & Parameters
•
Cable / Feeder Capacity
•
Capacitor Size
•
Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios)
•
Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting
•
Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.
•
MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings
•
Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)
•
Generator’s Mvar Demand
•
Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 392
Optimize Operating
Conditions
•
Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits
•
Voltages are Within Rated Insulation Limits
of Equipment
•
Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the
Maximum Ratings
•
System MW & Mvar Losses are Determined
•
Circulating Mvar Flows are Eliminated
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 393
Assume V
R
Calc: I = S
load
/ V
R
Calc: Vd = I * Z
ReCalc V
R
= Vs  Vd
Calculation Process
• NonLinear System
• Calculated Iteratively
– Assume the Load
Voltage (Initial Conditions)
– Calculate the Current I
– Based on the Current,
Calculate Voltage Drop Vd
– ReCalculate Load Voltage VR
– Reuse Load Voltage as initial condition until the
results are within the specified precision.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 394
1. Accelerated GaussSeidel Method
• Low Requirements on initial values,
but slow in
speed.
1. NewtonRaphson Method
• Fast in speed, but high requirement on
initial values.
• First order derivative is used to speed up
calculation.
3. FastDecoupled Method
• Two sets of iteration equations: real
power – voltage angle,
reactive power – voltage magnitude.
• Fast in speed, but low in solution
precision.
• Better for radial systems and
systems with long lines.
Load Flow Calculation
Methods
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 395
kV
kVA
FLA
kV
kVA
FLA
Eff PF
HP
Eff PF
kW
kVA
Rated
Rated
Rated
Rated
·
×
·
×
×
·
×
·
φ
φ
1
3
3
7457 . 0
Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 %
loading conditions
kV
kVA
1000 I
) kV 3 (
kVA
1000 I
kVA
kW
PF
) kVar ( ) kW ( kVA
1
3
2 2
× ·
×
× ·
·
+ ·
φ
φ
Load Nameplate Data
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 396
Constant Power Loads
• In Load Flow calculations induction,
synchronous and lump loads are treated
as constant power loads.
• The power output remains constant even
if the input voltage changes (constant
kVA).
• The lump load power output behaves like
a constant power load for the specified %
motor load.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 397
• In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads (%
static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor
Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance
Loads.
• The Input Power increases proportionally to the square of
the Input Voltage.
• In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as capacitive
loads for Power Factor Correction.
• MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads
because of their operating characteristics.
Constant Impedance Loads
© 19962008 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 397
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 398
• The current remains constant even if the voltage
changes.
• DC Constant current loads are used to test Battery
discharge capacity.
• AC constant current loads may be used to test
UPS systems performance.
• DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in
ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for
Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.
Constant Current Loads
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 399
Constant Current Loads
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 400
Exponential Load
Polynomial Load
Comprehensive
Load
Generic Loads
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 401
Feedback Voltage
•AVR: Automatic Voltage
Regulation
•Fixed: Fixed Excitation
(no AVR action)
Generator Operation Modes
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 402
Governor Operating Modes
•
Isochronous: This governor setting allows the
generator’s power output to be adjusted based on
the system demand.
•
Droop: This governor setting allows the generator
to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is
fixed.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 403
Isochronous Mode
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 404
Droop Mode
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 405
Droop Mode
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 406
Droop Mode
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 407
Adjusting Steam Flow
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 408
Adjusting Excitation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 409
Swing Mode
•Governor is operating in
Isochronous mode
•Automatic Voltage Regulator
Voltage Control
•Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
•Automatic Voltage Regulator
Mvar Control
•Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
•Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR
action)
PF Control
•Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
•AVR Adjusts to Power Factor
Setting
In ETAP Generators and Power Grids have four operating
modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 410
• If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the model
is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)
• In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary
based on the Power Demand
• In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q & θ are
varied
• In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V & θ are
varied
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 411
Generator Capability Curve
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 412
Generator Capability Curve
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 413
Generator Capability Curve
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 414
Field Winding Heating Limit
Armature Winding Heating Limit
Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)
Steady State Stability Curve
Maximum & Minimum
Reactive Power
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 415
Field Winding
Heating Limit
Machine Rating
(Power Factor Point)
Steady State Stability Curve
Generator Capability Curve
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 416
Load Flow Loading Page
Generator/Power Grid Rating Page
10 Different Generation
Categories for Every
Generator or Power Grid in
the System
Generation Categories
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 417
X
V
) *COS(
X
*V V
Q
) ( *SIN
X
*V V
P
X
V
) ( *COS
X
*V V
j ) ( *SIN
X
*V V
jQ P I * V S
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
− − ·
− ·
]
]
]
− − + − ·
+ · ·
δ δ
δ δ
δ δ δ δ
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
∠ ·
∠ ·
2 2
2
1 1
1
V V
V V
δ
δ
Power Flow
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 418
Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are
connected as shown. If V
1
= 100 /0° , V
2
= 100 /30° and X = 0 +j5
determine the power flow in the system.
I
var 536 5 35 . 10 X  I 
268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 )( 50 j 6 . 86 ( I V
268 j 1000 ) 68 . 2 j 10 ( 100 I V
68 . 2 j 10 I
5 j
) 50 j 6 . 86 ( 0 j 100
X
V V
I
2 2
*
2
*
1
2 1
· × ·
− − · + − + ·
+ − · + − ·
− − ·
+ − +
·
−
·
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 419
2
1
0
1
Real Power Flow
Reactive Power Flow
Power Flow
1
2 −
V E ⋅ ( )
X
sin δ
∆
( ) ⋅
V E ⋅ ( )
X
cos δ
∆
( ) ⋅
V
2
X
−
π 0 δ
∆
The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This
machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and
absorbing reactive power from machine M1.
S
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 420
ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways
•kV value
•Percent of Nominal Bus kV
% 83 . 97 100 %
5 . 13
min
· × ·
·
al No
Calculated
Calculated
kV
kV
V
kV 8 . 13
min
·
al No
kV
% 85 . 96 100 %
03 . 4
min
· × ·
·
al No
Calculated
Calculated
kV
kV
V
kV 16 . 4
min
·
al No
kV
For Bus4:
For Bus5:
Bus Voltage
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 421
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 422
Lump Load Negative
Loading
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 423
Load Flow Adjustments
•
Transformer Impedance
–
Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation
tolerance
•
Reactor Impedance
– Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance
•
Overload Heater
–
Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance
•
Transmission Line Length
– Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length
variation tolerance
•
Cable Length
–
Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 424
Adjustments applied
•Individual
•Global
Temperature Correction
• Cable Resistance
• Transmission Line
Resistance
Load Flow Study Case
Adjustment Page
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 425
Allowable Voltage Drop
NEC and ANSI C84.1
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 426
Load Flow Example 1
Part 1
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc.  Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis
Slide 426
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 427
Load Flow Example 1
Part 2
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 428
Load Flow Alerts
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 429
Bus Alerts Monitor Continuous Amps
Cable Monitor Continuous Amps
Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps
Line Monitor Line Ampacity
Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output
UPS/Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps
Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW
Equipment Overload Alerts
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 430
Protective Devices Monitored parameters % Condition reported
Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad
High Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad
Fuses Rated Current OverLoad
Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad
SPDT / SPST switches Continuous rated Current OverLoad
Protective Device Alerts
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 431
If the Auto Display
feature is active, the
Alert View Window will
appear as soon as the
Load Flow calculation
has finished.
© 19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis Slide 431
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 432
Advanced LF Topics
Advanced LF Topics
Load Flow Convergence
Voltage Control
Mvar Control
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 433
Load Flow Convergence
•
Negative Impedance
•
Zero or Very Small Impedance
•
Widely Different Branch Impedance Values
•
Long Radial System Configurations
•
Bad Bus Voltage Initial Values
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 434
Voltage Control
•
Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be
fixed for proper equipment operation and
insulation ratings be met.
•
Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions:
–
Transformer Replacement
–
Capacitor Addition
–
Transformer Tap Adjustment
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 435
UnderVoltage Example
•
Create Under Voltage
Condition
– Change Syn2 Quantity to 6.
(Info Page, Quantity Field)
–
Run LF
– Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under
Voltage Condition)
•
Method 1  Change Xfmr
– Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8
MVA, will notice slight
improvement on the Bus8 kV
–
Too Expensive and time
consuming
• Method 2  Shunt Capacitor
– Add Shunt Capacitor to Bus8
– 300 kvar 3 Banks
– Voltage is improved
• Method 3  Change Tap
– Place LTC on Primary of T6
– Select Bus8 for Control Bus
– Select Update LTC in the
Study Case
– Run LF
– Bus Voltage Comes within
specified limits
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 436
Mvar Control
• Vars from Utility
– Add Switch to CAP1
– Open Switch
– Run LF
• Method 1 – Generator
– Change Generator from
Voltage Control to Mvar Control
– Set Mvar Design Setting to 5
Mvars
•
Method 2 – Add Capacitor
– Close Switch
–
Run Load Flow
– Var Contribution from the
Utility reduces
•
Method 3 – Xfmr MVA
– Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA
–
Will notice decrease in the
contribution from the Utility
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 437
Panel Systems
Panel Systems
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 438
Panel Boards
•
They are a collection of branch circuits
feeding system loads
•
Panel System is used for representing
power and lighting panels in electrical
systems
Click to drop once on OLV
DoubleClick to drop multiple panels
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 439
A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as an
internal or external load
Advantages:
1. Easier Data Entry
2. Concise System
Representation
Representation
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 440
Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel
ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections
Pin Assignment
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 441
Assumptions
• V
rated
(internal load) = V
rated
(Panel Voltage)
•
Note that if a 1Phase load is connected to a 3
Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel
circuit is (1/√3) times the rated panel voltage
•
The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1Phase 3Wire
panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel
•
There are no losses in the feeders connecting a
load to the panel
•
Static loads are calculated based on their rated
voltage
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 442
LineLine Connections
Load Connected Between Two Phases of a
3Phase System
A
B
C
Load
I
BC
I
C
= I
BC
A
B
C
LoadB
I
B
= I
BC
Angle by which load current I
BC
lags the load voltage = θ°
Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C:
S
BC
= V
BC
.I
BC
P
BC
= V
BC
.I
BC
.cos θ
Q
BC
= V
BC
.I
BC
.sin θ
For load connected to phase B
SB = VB.IB
PB = VB.IB.cos (θ  30)
QB = VB.IB.sin (θ  30)
And, for load connected to phase C
SC = VC.IC
PC = VC.IC.cos (θ + 30)
QC = VC.IC.sin (θ + 30)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 443
3Phase 4Wire Panel
3Phase 3Wire Panel
1Phase 3Wire Panel
1Phase 2Wire Panel
NEC Selection
A, B, C from top to bottom or
left to right from the front of the
panel
Phase B shall be the highest
voltage (LG) on a 3phase, 4
wire delta connected system
(midpoint grounded)
Info Page
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 444
Intelligent kV Calculation
If a 1Phase panel is connected to a 3Phase bus
having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the
default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732
=) 0.277 kV
For IEC, Enclosure Type
is Ingress Protection
(IPxy), where IP00 means
no protection or shielding
on the panel
Select ANSI or IEC
Breakers or Fuses from
Main Device Library
Rating Page
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 445
Schedule Page
Circuit Numbers with
Column Layout
Circuit Numbers with
Standard Layout
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 446
Description Tab
First 14 load items in the list are based on NEC 1999
Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are userdefined
Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the total
panel load
External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the element
type
For External links the load status is determined from the connected load’s demand
factor status
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 447
Rating Tab
Enter per phase VA, W, or
Amperes for this load.
For example, if total Watts
for a 3phase load are 1200,
enter W as 400 (=1200/3)
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 448
Loading Tab
For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category
For both internal and external loads, Amp values are
calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 449
Protective Device Tab
Library Quick Pick 
LV Circuit Breaker
(Molded Case, with
Thermal Magnetic
Trip Device) or
Library Quick Pick –
Fuse will appear
depending on the
Type of protective
device selected.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 450
Feeder Tab
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 451
Action Buttons
Copy the content of the selected
row to clipboard. Circuit number,
Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link
and State are not copied.
Paste the entire content (of the
copied row) in the selected row.
This will work when the Link
Type is other than space or
unusable, and only for fields
which are not blocked.
Blank out the contents of the entire
selected row.
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 452
Summary Page
Continuous Load – Per Phase and Total
NonContinuous Load – Per Phase and Total
Connected Load – Per Phase and Total (Continuous + NonContinuous Load)
Code Demand – Per Phase and Total
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 453
Output Report
©19962009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: ShortCircuit IEC Slide 454
Panel Code Factors
Code demand load depends on Panel Code Factors
The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999
Code demand load calculation for internal loads are done
for each types of load separately and then summed up
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