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SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS

PART 2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 1


Design of Wall Footing

Due to the lower strength of brick than
concrete, the critical section for
continuous wall is at b/4 within the wall
width


4/1
A strip of 1.0 m in the short Wall
direction is to be designed
for moment and shear. b/4
Minimum steel is to be
taken in the longitudinal
direction, punching will be
. safe
1
b



May 10, 2017 . Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 2
ECCENTRICALLY LOADED
FOOTINGS

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 3


M P 6* e
Eccentricity , e M 1 1
P 2 B* L L

2 1
2
Soil Pressure
1
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 4
Soil Stress Distribution P M

+
=
OR

OR

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 5


Soil Stress
1 qall soil ( 1)
3 Cases may be encountered (2)
Case (1): 2 compression ( 2)
Case (2): 2 = zero ( = 2)
Case (3): 2 tension ( 2)
Cases (1) and (2) are acceptable, ( 2) ( 1)
Case (3) needs special treatment
( 3)
Option (1): Offsetting the column distance (e)
Option (2): Calculate the actual soil pressure, and
design the footing for such case.
(e) :(1)
May 10, 2017
:( 2 )
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 6
P M
Soil stresses under
eccentrically loaded e
footings
P/A
+
M/Z
=
e < L/6
OR
e = L/6
OR
e > L/6

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 7


If the resultant lies P
within core of
section, no tension, if
it lies outside core
there will be tension e


B
B/6

L/6

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 8


Moving the footing P
M
under the column,
used with the moment
is fixed in value and
direction e

)
(

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 9


For footing subjected to Mx and My:
Option (2): Removing the tension zone
from the footing area to be L' * B'
L' = L 2 eL
B' = B 2 eB
:(2)

eL

eB

B'
B

L'

L
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 10
Example (2):
Eccentrically Loaded Isolated Footing
Design a reinforced concrete isolated footing to
support the followings column loads at the ground
surface:
D.L. = 800 kN, L.L. = 600 kN
MD.L. = 250 kN.m, ML.L. = 150 kN.m
HD.L = 50 kN, HL.L=25 kN.
Column dimensions, 80 x 40 cm
qall soil = 1.50 kg/cm2, fcu = 30 N/mm2, fy = 360 N/mm2.
F.L. = - 2.00 m from the ground level (G.L.).
Design a footing such that the soil pressure will be
approximately
May 10, 2017
uniform.
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 11
P
H M
G.L.
2.0 m
F.L.
L

0.40
B

0.80

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 12


Solution
-Column Service Loads Pc = PD.L. + PL.L.
- Pc = 800 + 600 = 1400 kN = 140.0 ton
-P at F.L. = 1.10 x Pc = 140.0 x 1.08 = 151.2 ton
Dimensions of P.C. footing
AR.C. = P / qall = 151.20 / 15.0 = 10.08 m2
a -b 0.8 - 0.40
L p .c . A p.c. 10.08 3.37 3.40 m
2 2
a -b 0.8 - 0.40
B p .c . A p.c. - 10.08 - 2.97 3.00 m
2 2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 13


-M at F.L. = MD.L. + ML.L. + MH
-MH = (HD.L. + HL.L. )* DF.L.
-MH = (5.0 + 2.5) * 2.0 = 15.0 t.m
-M at F.L. = 25.0 + 15.0 + 15.0 = 55.0 t.m
M 55.0
e 0.364 0.36 m
P 151.20
P 6* e
1 1
2 B* L L
151.20 6 * 0.36
1 1 14.82 * (1 0.64)
2 3.0 * 3.4 3.40

1 = at F.L. = MD.L. + ML.L. + MH


May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 14
P
M

0.36

3.40 m
Uniform soil pressure
0.36
P
fn
3.00 m

AR.C. 0.40
151.20 0.80
14.82 t/m 2

3.4 * 3.0
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 15
-Ultimate Column Load
Pcu = 1.4*PD.L. + 1.6*PL.L.
- Pcu = 1.4*80.0 + 1.6*60.0 = 208.0 ton
-Pu at F.L. = 1.08 x Pc = 208.0 x 1.08 = 224.64 ton
-Ultimate Contact Pressure:
3.40 m
Pu
f un
AR.C.
0.36
224.64
3.00 m

22.02 t/m 2 0.40


3.4 * 3.0 1.66 m
0.94 m
0.80

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 16


Flexural Design I
Critical Section for Moment
Long Direction LR.C.
LR .C . - a
x1
2
e a 1.0
b
x1
3.40 - 0.80
0.36 1.66 m
2

M u / m' f un *
x12 * 1.0 x1 I
2
1.66 2 * 1.0
M u / m' 22.02 * 30.34 m.t/m'
2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 17


Flexural Design
Mu
R 2 From Chart, for R
f cu * bs * d
30.34 * 10 5 = 0.033, = 0.04
R 2
0.033
300 * 100 * 55
f cu As = 18.33 cm2
As * * bs * d
fy As = 10 16 /m'
30
As 0.040 * * 1000 * 550 1833.33 mm 2
360
0.6 0.6
As min bs d * 1000 * 550 917 mm 2

fy 360
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 18
Flexural Design
Critical Section for Moment in Short Direction

y1
3.00 - 0.40
1.30 m
2 1.30 2 * 1.0
M u / m' 22.02 *
2
y * 1.0 2
M u / m' f un 1
18.61 m.t/m'
2

1.0
5
18.61* 10
R
300 * 100 * 55 2

y1
0.021
b
BR.C.

From Chart, for R =


0.021, = 0.025 a
LR.C.
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 19
Flexural Design
Critical Section for Moment in Short Direction
30
As 0.021 * * 1000 * 550 962.50 mm 2

360
As = 9.63 cm2
As = 5 16 /m'

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 20


Check of Shear

x2
LR .C . - a - d
e
2
x2
3.40 - 0.80 - 0.55
0.36 1.385 1.39 m
2

Qsh = 22.02* 1.39 * 3.00 = 91.82 ton


LR.C. fun
Check of Shear:
Qsh a d/2
qu qcu b BR.C.
BR.C. * d
91.82 * 1000
qu 5.56 kg/cm 2
300 * 55
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb
x2 21
Check of Shear
Allowable Shear
f cu
qcu 0.16
c c = 1.50
30
qcu 0.16 0.72 N/mm 2

1.50
7.20 kg/cm 2

qu (5.56 kg/cm2) < qcu (7.20 kg/cm2) O.K.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 22


Check of Punching
ap = (a+d) = 0.80 + 0.55 = 1.35 m
bp = (b+d) = 0.40 + 0.55 = 0.95 m
Punching Section Perimeter:
bpunch = 2 [(a+d) + (b+d)]
bpunch = 2 [(1.35) + (0.95)] = 4.60 m
Qp=fun [LR.C. BR.C. ap*bp ] LR.C.
Qp= 22.02*[3.40*3.00 ap
1.35*0.95] = 196.36 t BR.C. d/2
bp
d/2
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 23
Check of Punching
f cu 30
qcup 0.316 0.316 1.41 1.6 N/mm 2
c 1 .5
ap f cu
qcup 0.316 0.50
b c
p

0.40 30
qcup 0.316 0.50 1.41 N/mm 2

0.80 1.5
d f cu
qcup 0.80 0.20
b p c

4 * 0.55 30.0
qcup 0.80 0.20 2.43 N/mm 2
4.60 1.50
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 24
Check of Punching
Qup 196.36 * 1000
qup 7.76 kg/cm 2

b punch * d 460 * 55
qup (7.76 kg/cm2) < qcup 14.10 kg/cm2 ) O.K.
For footing subjected to large lateral loads, check of
sliding should be performed. Sliding resistance will
be: Footing base resistance with underlying soils.
Passive earth pressure due to wall embedment

:

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 25


Example (3): Isolated Footing Under
Moment and Horizontal Forces
Design a reinforced concrete isolated footing to
support the followings column loads at the ground
surface:
D.L. = 800 kN, L.L. = 600 kN
MD.L. = 250 kN.m, ML.L. = 150 kN.m
HD.L = 50kN, HL.L=25 kN.
Column dimensions, 80 x 40 cm
qall soil = 1.50 kg/cm2, fcu = 30 N/mm2, fy = 360 N/mm2.
F.L. = - 2.00 m from the ground level (G.L.).

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 26


P
H M
G.L.
2.0 m
F.L.
L

0.40
B

0.80

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 27


Solution
Dimensions of P.C. footing to avoid tension in
the soil:
L 6 e to avoid tension on the soil
L = 6*e + a
Or to be calculated by the usual method,
whichever is larger
6

M 55.0
e 0.36 m
P 151.20
L1p.c. = 6*e + a = 6 * 0.36 + 0.80 = 2.96 3.00 m
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 28
-Column Service Loads Pc = PD.L. + PL.L.
- Pc = 800 + 600 = 1400 kN = 140.0 ton
-P at F.L. = 1.10 x Pc = 140.0 x 1.08 = 151.2 ton
Dimensions of P.C. footing
AR.C. = P / qall = 151.20 / 15.0 = 10.08 m2
a -b 0.8 - 0.40
L2 p .c . A p.c. 10.08 3.37 3.40 m
2 2
Therefore, Lp.c. is chosen to be 3.40 m
a -b 0.8 - 0.40
B p .c . A p.c. - 10.08 - 2.97 3.00 m
2 2
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 29
P 6* e 151.20 6 * 0.36
1 1 1
2 B* L L 3.0 * 3.4 3.4
1 = 14.82*(1 + 0.635)
= 24.23 t/m2 > 15.0 t/m2, unsafe
2 = 14.82*(1 - 0.635)
= 5.41 t/m2 > 0.0 (no tension), safe
The footing length is increased to 5.00 m to
reduce the soil stress 1. For such large footing,
increase the footing weight to be 0.15 of the
column load.
5.00
.
May 10, 2017 . 0.15 30
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb
-P at F.L. = 1.15 x Pc = 140.0 x 1.15 = 161.0 ton
M 55.0
e 0.34 m
P 161.0
P 6* e 161.0 6 * 0.34
1 1 1
2 B* L L 3.0 * 5.0 5.0
1 = 10.73*(1 + 0.408)
= 15.11 t/m2 15.0 t/m2, considered safe
2 = 10.73*(1 0.408)
= 6.35 t/m2 > 0.0 (no tension), safe

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 31


161
Column

R.C.

55.0 P.C.

6.35 t/m2
15.11 t/m2
Soil Pressure under the P.C. footing

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 32
- Assume tp.c. = 40 cm
- Reinforced Concrete Dimensions:
LR.C. = Lp.c. 2 x = 5.00 2 * 0.40 = 4.20 m
BR.C. = Bp.c. 2 x = 3.00 2 * 0.40 = 2.20 m
AR.C. = LR.C. * BR.C. = 4.20 * 2.20 = 9.24 m2
R.C. Footing Design
Forces and Moments at the interface between
reinforced and plain concrete footings:
-Ultimate Column Load
Pcu = 1.4*PD.L. + 1.6*PL.L.
- Pcu = 1.4*80.0 + 1.6*60.0 = 208.0 ton

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 33


4.20 m

R.C.
2.20 m
3.00 m

0.40
0.80

P.C.
5.00 m

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 34


-Mu at R.C. top level = 1.4 MD.L. + 1.6 ML.L. + MH
-MHu = (HD.L. + HL.L. )* DR.C.
-MH = (1.4*5.0 + 1.6*2.5) * 1.60 = 17.60 t.m
-M at R.C.-P.C. Interface
= 1.4*25.0 + 1.6*15.0 + 17.6 = 76.60 t.m
DR.C. = DF.L. tp.c. = 2.00 0.40 = 1.60 m
M u 76.60
e1 0.368 0.37 m
Pu 208.0
208.0 6 * 0.37
f u1 1 22.51 * (1 0.53)
2 4.2 * 2.20 4.20
fu1 = 22.51*(1 + 0.53) = 34.44 t/m 2
fu2 = 22.51*(1 0.53) = 10.58 t/m 2
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 35
Contact Pressure between R.C. & P.C.

208 t
x1
76.6

10.58 t/m2
fu3 =24.76 t/m2
34.4 t/m2
1.70

f u 3 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 24.76 t/m 2

4.20
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 36
Flexural Design
Critical Section for Moment
Long Direction
LR .C . - a x1
4.20 - 0.80
1.70 m
x1 2
2
f u1 f u 2 34.40 24.76
f un avg 29.58 t/m 2
2 2
x1 1.7
M u / m' f un avg * x1 * 29.58 * 1.7 * 42.75 m.t/m'
2 2
5
Mu 42.75 * 10
R R 2
0.047
f cu * bs * d 2 300 * 100 * 55
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 37
Flexural Design
From Chart, for R = 0.047, = 0.058
f cu
As * * bs * d
fy
30
As 0.058 * * 1000 * 550 2658.33 mm 2

360
As = 26.58 cm2 As = 7 22 /m'
0.6 0.6
As min bs d * 1000 * 550 917 mm 2

fy 360
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 38
Flexural Design
Critical Section for Moment in Short Direction
1.00
f u 4 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 28.73 t/m 2
4.20
f u1 f u 2 34.40 28.73
f uns avg 31.57 t/m 2
2 2

y1
2.20 - 0.40
0.90 m

1.0
2
y12 * 1.0
M u / m' f un

y1
2
b
BR.C.

0.90 2 * 1.0
M u / m' 31.57 *
2 a
12.79 m.t/m'
LR.C.
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 39
Flexural Design
Critical Section for Moment in Short Direction
12.79 * 10 5
R 2
0.014 From Chart, for R =
300 * 100 * 55 0.014, = 0.020
f cu
As * * bs * d
fy
30
As 0.020 * * 1000 * 550 916.67 mm 2

360
As = 9.17 cm2, As = 5 16 /m'

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 40


Check of Shear
x2
LR .C . - a - d x2
4.20 - 0.80 - 0.55
1.43 m
2 2
1.43
f u shear 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 26.29 t/m 2
4.20
f u1 f u shear 34.40 26.29
f unshear avg 30.35 t/m 2
2 2
Qsh = 30.35* 1.43 * 2.20 = 95.48 ton
LR.C.
Check of Shear:
a d/2
b BR.C.
Qsh
qu qcu
BR.C. * d
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb
x2 41
Check of Shear
95.48 * 1000
qu 7.89 kg/cm 2
220 * 55

f cu
Allowable Shear : qcu 0.16
c c = 1.50
30
qcu 0.16 0.72 N/mm 2 7.20 kg/cm 2
1.50
qu (7.89 kg/cm2) > qcu (7.20 kg/cm2) Unsafe.
Increase d to 60 cm, and t to 65 cm, then x2 = 1.40
m, fu-shear-avg = 30.43 t/m2, Qsh =93.72 ton,
qu = 7.10 kg/cm2 < 7.20 kg/cm2, O.K.
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 42
Contact Pressure for Punching

208
d/2
1.40 m 1.40 m

76.6

10.58 t/m2 34.4 t/m2


fu6 =18.52 t/m2 fu5 =26.46 t/m2
1.40
f u 5 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 26.46 t/m 2
4.20
2.80
f u 6 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 18.52 t/m 2
May 10, 2017
4.20
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 43
Check of Punching
fu-punch-avg = (26.46 + 18.52)/2 = 22.49 t/m2
ap = (a+d) = 0.80 + 0.60 = 1.40 m
bp = (b+d) = 0.40 + 0.60 = 1.00 m
Punching Section Perimeter:
bpunch = 2 [(a+d) + (b+d)]
bpunch = 2 [(1.40) + (1.00)] = 4.80 m LR.C.
Qp=fun [LR.C. BR.C. ap*bp ]
ap
Qp= 22.49*[4.20*2.20 BR.C. d/2
1.40*1.00] = 176.32 t bp
d/2
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 44
Check of Punching
f cu 30
qcup 0.316 0.316 1.41 1.6 N/mm 2
c 1 .5
ap f cu
qcup 0.316 0.50
b c
p

0.40 30
qcup 0.316 0.50 1.41 N/mm 2

0.80 1.5
d f cu
qcup 0.80 0.20
b p c

4 * 0.60 30.0
qcup 0.80 0.20 2.50 N/mm 2
4.80 1.50
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 45
Check of Punching
Qup 176.32 * 1000
qup 6.12 kg/cm 2

b punch * d 480 * 60
qup (6.12 kg/cm2) < qcup 14.10 kg/cm2 ) O.K.
Check of footing sliding, F.S. = FResisting/FSliding:
FSliding = Horizontal forces
FResisting = P tan for sand, = up to
FResisting = Ca * L for clay, Ca 0.80 C,
L = footing length
Ignore passive resistance for shallow depths, and
take it for relatively large depths.
F.S.
May > 1.50
10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 46
Check of Development Length
Ld = 60 for deformed high grade bars
(long direction)
Ld1 = 60*2.20 = 132 cm
x1 = 170 cm > Ld O.K.
5 16 /m'
7 22 /m'
(short direction)
Ld2 = 60*1.60 = 96 cm (short direction)
y1 = 90 cm < Ld2, bend bars upward

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 47


DESIGN OF COMBINED
FOOTINGS

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 48


FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
1- Site Investigation
2- Design of Shallow Foundations:
a- Design of Isolated Footings.
b- Design of Isolated Footings under
Eccentric Loads.
c- Design of Combined Footings.
d- Design of Strap Beam.
e- Design of Raft Foundations

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 49


Combined Footing Pc2


Pc1

Reinforced Concrete

Plain Concrete
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 50
Combined Footings are used in:
1- Two adjacent columns with interfering footings.
2- To connect neighbor column with an interior
column
:
1- .
2- .

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 51


Property
Line

Neighbor
Column

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 52


Pc1 Pc2
R
xr

L
Pc 2 * S
Resultant: R = Pc1 + Pc2 xr
Pc1 Pc2
For the plain concrete footing:
LP.C. = 2 * xr + C1/2 + C2/2 + (1 ~ up to 2 m)
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 53
1.10 * Pc1 Pc2 B P .C .
AP .C .
AP .C .
qall - soil LP.C.
Dimensions of Plain Concrete = LP.C. * BP.C.
Choose Plain Concrete thickness, tP.C.
Projection distance, x = tP.C.


Dimensions of Reinforced Concrete:
LR.C. = LP.C. 2 * x BR.C. = BP.C. 2 * x
Assume the thickness of R.C.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 54
Ultimate Column Loads
Puc1 = 1.4 * Pc1 Dead + 1.6 * Pc1 Live
Puc2 = 1.4 * Pc2 Dead + 1.6 * Pc2 Live
For Columns C1 and C2 respectively
(2) ( 1)

f un1
Puc 1 Puc2
t/m'
LR.C.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 55


Combined Footing Pressure and Deflections

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 56


Puc1 R Puc2
xr

fun1 (t/m')
Mmax. 1 LR.C.

Mmax. 3 Mmax. 2
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 57
Puc1 R Puc2
xr

fun1 (t/m')
LR.C.

d/2 d/2

Qsh1
Qsh2
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 58
Design for Flexure in the Longitudinal Direction

Reinforced concrete depth and main upper
Reinforcements are determined using Mmax1

Mmax1
Lower longitudinal reinforcements under
column (2) are determined using Mmax2
( 2)
Mmax2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 59


Pc1 Pc2

Longitudinal Reinforcements

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 60
Design for Flexure in the Short Direction

Assume that all the column load is distributed
under the column as a hidden beam on width
only with extension of d/2 from each side

d/2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 61


Puc1 Puc2

d/2 d/2 d/2 d/2

Hidden Beams
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 62
Puc1 Puc2
d/2
d/2 d/2 d/2

Reinforcements in the Short Direction


May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 63


Check of Punching

ap1 ap2
d/2 d/2
d/2 bp2 d/2
bp1

Qp1 =Puc1 - fun *[ap1*bp1 ]


Qp2 =Puc2 - fun *[ap2*bp2 ]

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 64


Example (4): Design of Combined Footing
From Dr. Mashour Ghonaim Book
Design a combined footing to support the two
columns shown in Figure.
Column C1, 0.30 * 0.40 m, working load = 1320 kN
Column C2, 0.30 * 0.70 m, working load = 1960 kN
Allowable soil pressure = 175 kN/m2
Concrete, fcu = 25 N/mm2; Steel, fy = 400 N/mm2

0.40 0.70
0.30 0.30
S = 3.60 m
C1 C2
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 65
Solution Pc1=132t Pc2=196t
R
xr =2.15

S = 3.60 m

L
Resultant: R = Pc1 + Pc2 = 132.0 + 196.0 = 328.0 ton
Pc 2 * S 196 * 3.60
xr 2.15 m
Pc1 Pc2 132 196
For the plain concrete footing:
LP.C. = 2 * xr + C1/2 + C2/2 + (1 ~ up to 2 m)
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 66
LP.C. = 2 * 2.15 + 0.20 + 0.35 + 1.15 = 6.00 m
1.10 * Pc 1 Pc2 1.10 * 132 196
AP .C . 20.62 m 2
qall - soil 17.50
AP .C . 20.62
BP .C . 3.44 3.45 m
LP.C. 6.00
Plain concrete footing dimensions:
Lp.c. = 6.00 m, Bp.c. = 3.45 m, tp.c. Taken 40 cm
R
0.40 2.15 m 0.70
0.30 0.30 3.45
S = 3.60 m
3.0 m 3.0 m
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 67
Dimensions of Reinforced Concrete:
Projection distance x = tp.c. = 40 cm
LR.C. = LP.C. 2 * x = 6.00 2 * 0.40 = 5.20 m
BR.C. = BP.C. 2 * x = 3.45 2 * 0.40 = 2.65 m
Assume the thickness of R.C. = 80 cm
Puc1 = 1.5 * Pc1 = 1.50 * 132.0 = 198.0 ton
Puc2 = 1.5 * Pc2 = 1.50 * 196.0 = 294.0 ton
Ultimate contact pressure per meter run

f un 1 /m'
Puc 1 Puc2 198.0 294.0
94.62 t/m'
LR.C. 5.20
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 68
198 294
0.45 1.15
P2 4 3 3.60 2 1 P1

94.62 t/m'
x=2.09 5.20 m
Point of zero shear:
Puc1 = fun1 * x , 198 = 94.62 * x, x = 2.09 m
Moment at point of zero shear (Mmax1):
2.09 2
M max 1 198.0 * 2.09 - 0.45 - 94.62 * 118.07 m.t
2
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 69
1.15 2
M max 2 94.62 * 62.57 m.t
2
2
0.45
M max 3 94.62 * 9.58 m.t
2
Moments at different points
Point M (m.t)
(1) 30.27
(2) 3.55
(3) -19.61
(4) 2.96

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 70


198 R 294
0.45 2.15 1.15
4 3 3.60 2 1

94.62 t/m'
5.20 m
118.07 Bending Moment Diagram

19.61
19.61

2.96 9.58 3.55


30.27
May 10, 2017 62.57
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 71
198 R 294
0.45 d/2 2.15 d/2 1.15
P2 4 3 3.60 2 1 P1

94.62 t/m'
5.20 m
Shear Force Diagram
185.19
117.54
42.58

101.96 41.16
May 10, 2017 155.42 108.81
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 72
Flexural Design in the Long Direction
For a concrete cover of 7 cm, d = 80 7 = 73 cm
M max 1 118.07
M max / m' 44.55 m.t/m'
BR.C. 2.65
Mu 44.55 * 10 5
R
f cu * bs * d R 250 * 100 * 73 2 0.033
2

f cu
For R = 0.033, = 0.04 As * * bs * d
fy
25
As 0.040 * * 1000 * 730 1825.0 mm 2 / m'
400
As = 6 20/m'
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 73
Flexural Design in the Long Direction
0.6 0.6
As min bs d * 1000 * 730 1095 mm 2
fy 400
As min = 10.95 cm2, As min = 6 16 mm/m'
Under column C2, M1 = 30.27 m.t
M 1 30.27
M 1 / m' 11.43 m.t/m'
BR.C. 2.65
R = 0.009, take = 0.02, As = 9.13 cm2
Therefore, for moments at points (2), (3), (4)
take the minimum area steel of As = 12.00 cm2
= 6 16/m'
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 74
Flexural
198 Design in the 294
0.25 d1/2Short Direction d1/2 d1/2

bc1=1.01 bc2=1.41

(1) = bc1
(2) = bc2
In the short direction, d1 = d 2 = 73 2 = 71 cm
bc1 = ac1 + 0.25 + d1/2
= 0.40 + 0.25 + 0.71/2 = 1.005 m 1.01 m
bc2 = ac2 + 2*(d1/2) = 0.70 + 2*(0.71/2) = 1.41 m
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 75
Flexural Design in the Short Direction

198 t 294 t
1.18
2.65 2.65

f'u1 = 74.72 t/m' f'u2 = 110.94 t/m'


Puc1 198.0
f '
u1 74.72 t/m'
BR.C. 2.65
Puc2 294.0
f u2
'
110.94 t/m'
BR.C. 2.65
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 76
Flexural Design in the Short Direction
2 2
y1 1.18
M u 1 f uc1
' '
74.72 * 52.02 m.t
2 2
2 2
y1 1.18
M u 2 f uc2
' '
110 .94 * 77.24 m.t
2 2
Under column C2, M'u2 = 77.24 m.t
5
Mu 77.24 * 10
R R 2
0.043
f cu * bs * d 2 250 * 141 * 71
f cu
For R = 0.043, = 0.0522 As * * bs * d
fy
25
As 0.052 * * 1410 * 710 3267.0 mm 2

May 10, 2017


400Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 77
Flexural Design in the Short Direction
As = 32.67 cm2 = 9 22
)(2
1.41
Under column C1, M'u1 = 52.02 m.t
55.02 * 10 5
R 2
0.041 For R = 0.041, = 0.0492
250 * 101 * 71
25
* As 0.0492 * 1005 * 710 2194.0 mm 2

400
As = 21.94 cm2 = 6 22
)(1
1.01
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 78
198 R 294
0.45 d/2 2.15 d/2 1.15
P2 4 3 3.60 2 1 P1

94.62 t/m'
5.20 m
Shear Force Diagram
185.19
117.54
42.58

101.96 41.16
May 10, 2017 155.42 108.81
Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 79
Design for Shear
Qsh
Qsh = 117.54 ton qu qcu
BR.C. * d
Check of Shear:
117 .54 * 1000
qu 6.08 kg/cm 2
265 * 73
f cu
Allowable Shear : qcu 0.16 c = 1.50
c
25
qcu 0.16 0.65 N/mm 2 6.50 kg/cm 2
1.50

qu (6.08 kg/cm2) < qcu (6.50 kg/cm2) Safe.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 80


Check of Punching Pc1 Pc 2
f un
AR.C.
ap2 = (a2+d) = 0.70 + 0.73 = 1.43 m
bp2 = (b2+d) = 0.30 + 0.73 = 1.03 m 198 294 35.70 t/m 2
5.20 * 2.65
Punching Section Perimeter:
bpunch2 = 2 [(1.43) + (1.03)] = 4.92 m
Qp2=Puc2 - fun [ap2*bp2 ] = 294.0 35.70*[1.43*1.03]
= 241.42 ton
ap1 ap2

bp2
bp1

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 81


Check of Punching
f cu 25
qcup 0.316 0.316 1.29 1.6 N/mm 2
c 1.5
ap f cu
qcup 0.316 0.50
b c
p

0.30 25
qcup 0.316 0.50 1.20 N/mm 2
0.70 1.5
d f cu
qcup 0.80 0.20
b p c

4 * 0.73 25.0
qcup 0.80 0.20 2.59 N/mm 2

4.92 1.50
May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 82
Check of Punching
Qup 241.42 * 1000
qup 6.72 kg/cm 2

b punch * d 492 * 73
qup (6.72 kg/cm2) < qcup 12.00 kg/cm2 ) O.K.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 83


Longitudinal Reinforcements,

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 84


Reinforcements in the Short Direction

Under
Column C2

Under
Column C1

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 85