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PART 2

Design of Wall Footing

Due to the lower strength of brick than

concrete, the critical section for

continuous wall is at b/4 within the wall

width

4/1

A strip of 1.0 m in the short Wall

direction is to be designed

for moment and shear. b/4

Minimum steel is to be

taken in the longitudinal

direction, punching will be

. safe

1

b

May 10, 2017 . Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 2

ECCENTRICALLY LOADED

FOOTINGS

M P 6* e

Eccentricity , e M 1 1

P 2 B* L L

2 1

2

Soil Pressure

1

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 4

Soil Stress Distribution P M

+

=

OR

OR

Soil Stress

1 qall soil ( 1)

3 Cases may be encountered (2)

Case (1): 2 compression ( 2)

Case (2): 2 = zero ( = 2)

Case (3): 2 tension ( 2)

Cases (1) and (2) are acceptable, ( 2) ( 1)

Case (3) needs special treatment

( 3)

Option (1): Offsetting the column distance (e)

Option (2): Calculate the actual soil pressure, and

design the footing for such case.

(e) :(1)

May 10, 2017

:( 2 )

Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 6

P M

Soil stresses under

eccentrically loaded e

footings

P/A

+

M/Z

=

e < L/6

OR

e = L/6

OR

e > L/6

If the resultant lies P

within core of

section, no tension, if

it lies outside core

there will be tension e

B

B/6

L/6

Moving the footing P

M

under the column,

used with the moment

is fixed in value and

direction e

)

(

For footing subjected to Mx and My:

Option (2): Removing the tension zone

from the footing area to be L' * B'

L' = L 2 eL

B' = B 2 eB

:(2)

eL

eB

B'

B

L'

L

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 10

Example (2):

Eccentrically Loaded Isolated Footing

Design a reinforced concrete isolated footing to

support the followings column loads at the ground

surface:

D.L. = 800 kN, L.L. = 600 kN

MD.L. = 250 kN.m, ML.L. = 150 kN.m

HD.L = 50 kN, HL.L=25 kN.

Column dimensions, 80 x 40 cm

qall soil = 1.50 kg/cm2, fcu = 30 N/mm2, fy = 360 N/mm2.

F.L. = - 2.00 m from the ground level (G.L.).

Design a footing such that the soil pressure will be

approximately

May 10, 2017

uniform.

Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 11

P

H M

G.L.

2.0 m

F.L.

L

0.40

B

0.80

Solution

-Column Service Loads Pc = PD.L. + PL.L.

- Pc = 800 + 600 = 1400 kN = 140.0 ton

-P at F.L. = 1.10 x Pc = 140.0 x 1.08 = 151.2 ton

Dimensions of P.C. footing

AR.C. = P / qall = 151.20 / 15.0 = 10.08 m2

a -b 0.8 - 0.40

L p .c . A p.c. 10.08 3.37 3.40 m

2 2

a -b 0.8 - 0.40

B p .c . A p.c. - 10.08 - 2.97 3.00 m

2 2

-M at F.L. = MD.L. + ML.L. + MH

-MH = (HD.L. + HL.L. )* DF.L.

-MH = (5.0 + 2.5) * 2.0 = 15.0 t.m

-M at F.L. = 25.0 + 15.0 + 15.0 = 55.0 t.m

M 55.0

e 0.364 0.36 m

P 151.20

P 6* e

1 1

2 B* L L

151.20 6 * 0.36

1 1 14.82 * (1 0.64)

2 3.0 * 3.4 3.40

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 14

P

M

0.36

3.40 m

Uniform soil pressure

0.36

P

fn

3.00 m

AR.C. 0.40

151.20 0.80

14.82 t/m 2

3.4 * 3.0

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 15

-Ultimate Column Load

Pcu = 1.4*PD.L. + 1.6*PL.L.

- Pcu = 1.4*80.0 + 1.6*60.0 = 208.0 ton

-Pu at F.L. = 1.08 x Pc = 208.0 x 1.08 = 224.64 ton

-Ultimate Contact Pressure:

3.40 m

Pu

f un

AR.C.

0.36

224.64

3.00 m

3.4 * 3.0 1.66 m

0.94 m

0.80

Flexural Design I

Critical Section for Moment

Long Direction LR.C.

LR .C . - a

x1

2

e a 1.0

b

x1

3.40 - 0.80

0.36 1.66 m

2

M u / m' f un *

x12 * 1.0 x1 I

2

1.66 2 * 1.0

M u / m' 22.02 * 30.34 m.t/m'

2

Flexural Design

Mu

R 2 From Chart, for R

f cu * bs * d

30.34 * 10 5 = 0.033, = 0.04

R 2

0.033

300 * 100 * 55

f cu As = 18.33 cm2

As * * bs * d

fy As = 10 16 /m'

30

As 0.040 * * 1000 * 550 1833.33 mm 2

360

0.6 0.6

As min bs d * 1000 * 550 917 mm 2

fy 360

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 18

Flexural Design

Critical Section for Moment in Short Direction

y1

3.00 - 0.40

1.30 m

2 1.30 2 * 1.0

M u / m' 22.02 *

2

y * 1.0 2

M u / m' f un 1

18.61 m.t/m'

2

1.0

5

18.61* 10

R

300 * 100 * 55 2

y1

0.021

b

BR.C.

0.021, = 0.025 a

LR.C.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 19

Flexural Design

Critical Section for Moment in Short Direction

30

As 0.021 * * 1000 * 550 962.50 mm 2

360

As = 9.63 cm2

As = 5 16 /m'

Check of Shear

x2

LR .C . - a - d

e

2

x2

3.40 - 0.80 - 0.55

0.36 1.385 1.39 m

2

LR.C. fun

Check of Shear:

Qsh a d/2

qu qcu b BR.C.

BR.C. * d

91.82 * 1000

qu 5.56 kg/cm 2

300 * 55

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb

x2 21

Check of Shear

Allowable Shear

f cu

qcu 0.16

c c = 1.50

30

qcu 0.16 0.72 N/mm 2

1.50

7.20 kg/cm 2

Check of Punching

ap = (a+d) = 0.80 + 0.55 = 1.35 m

bp = (b+d) = 0.40 + 0.55 = 0.95 m

Punching Section Perimeter:

bpunch = 2 [(a+d) + (b+d)]

bpunch = 2 [(1.35) + (0.95)] = 4.60 m

Qp=fun [LR.C. BR.C. ap*bp ] LR.C.

Qp= 22.02*[3.40*3.00 ap

1.35*0.95] = 196.36 t BR.C. d/2

bp

d/2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 23

Check of Punching

f cu 30

qcup 0.316 0.316 1.41 1.6 N/mm 2

c 1 .5

ap f cu

qcup 0.316 0.50

b c

p

0.40 30

qcup 0.316 0.50 1.41 N/mm 2

0.80 1.5

d f cu

qcup 0.80 0.20

b p c

4 * 0.55 30.0

qcup 0.80 0.20 2.43 N/mm 2

4.60 1.50

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 24

Check of Punching

Qup 196.36 * 1000

qup 7.76 kg/cm 2

b punch * d 460 * 55

qup (7.76 kg/cm2) < qcup 14.10 kg/cm2 ) O.K.

For footing subjected to large lateral loads, check of

sliding should be performed. Sliding resistance will

be: Footing base resistance with underlying soils.

Passive earth pressure due to wall embedment

:

Example (3): Isolated Footing Under

Moment and Horizontal Forces

Design a reinforced concrete isolated footing to

support the followings column loads at the ground

surface:

D.L. = 800 kN, L.L. = 600 kN

MD.L. = 250 kN.m, ML.L. = 150 kN.m

HD.L = 50kN, HL.L=25 kN.

Column dimensions, 80 x 40 cm

qall soil = 1.50 kg/cm2, fcu = 30 N/mm2, fy = 360 N/mm2.

F.L. = - 2.00 m from the ground level (G.L.).

P

H M

G.L.

2.0 m

F.L.

L

0.40

B

0.80

Solution

Dimensions of P.C. footing to avoid tension in

the soil:

L 6 e to avoid tension on the soil

L = 6*e + a

Or to be calculated by the usual method,

whichever is larger

6

M 55.0

e 0.36 m

P 151.20

L1p.c. = 6*e + a = 6 * 0.36 + 0.80 = 2.96 3.00 m

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 28

-Column Service Loads Pc = PD.L. + PL.L.

- Pc = 800 + 600 = 1400 kN = 140.0 ton

-P at F.L. = 1.10 x Pc = 140.0 x 1.08 = 151.2 ton

Dimensions of P.C. footing

AR.C. = P / qall = 151.20 / 15.0 = 10.08 m2

a -b 0.8 - 0.40

L2 p .c . A p.c. 10.08 3.37 3.40 m

2 2

Therefore, Lp.c. is chosen to be 3.40 m

a -b 0.8 - 0.40

B p .c . A p.c. - 10.08 - 2.97 3.00 m

2 2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 29

P 6* e 151.20 6 * 0.36

1 1 1

2 B* L L 3.0 * 3.4 3.4

1 = 14.82*(1 + 0.635)

= 24.23 t/m2 > 15.0 t/m2, unsafe

2 = 14.82*(1 - 0.635)

= 5.41 t/m2 > 0.0 (no tension), safe

The footing length is increased to 5.00 m to

reduce the soil stress 1. For such large footing,

increase the footing weight to be 0.15 of the

column load.

5.00

.

May 10, 2017 . 0.15 30

Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb

-P at F.L. = 1.15 x Pc = 140.0 x 1.15 = 161.0 ton

M 55.0

e 0.34 m

P 161.0

P 6* e 161.0 6 * 0.34

1 1 1

2 B* L L 3.0 * 5.0 5.0

1 = 10.73*(1 + 0.408)

= 15.11 t/m2 15.0 t/m2, considered safe

2 = 10.73*(1 0.408)

= 6.35 t/m2 > 0.0 (no tension), safe

161

Column

R.C.

55.0 P.C.

6.35 t/m2

15.11 t/m2

Soil Pressure under the P.C. footing

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 32

- Assume tp.c. = 40 cm

- Reinforced Concrete Dimensions:

LR.C. = Lp.c. 2 x = 5.00 2 * 0.40 = 4.20 m

BR.C. = Bp.c. 2 x = 3.00 2 * 0.40 = 2.20 m

AR.C. = LR.C. * BR.C. = 4.20 * 2.20 = 9.24 m2

R.C. Footing Design

Forces and Moments at the interface between

reinforced and plain concrete footings:

-Ultimate Column Load

Pcu = 1.4*PD.L. + 1.6*PL.L.

- Pcu = 1.4*80.0 + 1.6*60.0 = 208.0 ton

4.20 m

R.C.

2.20 m

3.00 m

0.40

0.80

P.C.

5.00 m

-Mu at R.C. top level = 1.4 MD.L. + 1.6 ML.L. + MH

-MHu = (HD.L. + HL.L. )* DR.C.

-MH = (1.4*5.0 + 1.6*2.5) * 1.60 = 17.60 t.m

-M at R.C.-P.C. Interface

= 1.4*25.0 + 1.6*15.0 + 17.6 = 76.60 t.m

DR.C. = DF.L. tp.c. = 2.00 0.40 = 1.60 m

M u 76.60

e1 0.368 0.37 m

Pu 208.0

208.0 6 * 0.37

f u1 1 22.51 * (1 0.53)

2 4.2 * 2.20 4.20

fu1 = 22.51*(1 + 0.53) = 34.44 t/m 2

fu2 = 22.51*(1 0.53) = 10.58 t/m 2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 35

Contact Pressure between R.C. & P.C.

208 t

x1

76.6

10.58 t/m2

fu3 =24.76 t/m2

34.4 t/m2

1.70

f u 3 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 24.76 t/m 2

4.20

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 36

Flexural Design

Critical Section for Moment

Long Direction

LR .C . - a x1

4.20 - 0.80

1.70 m

x1 2

2

f u1 f u 2 34.40 24.76

f un avg 29.58 t/m 2

2 2

x1 1.7

M u / m' f un avg * x1 * 29.58 * 1.7 * 42.75 m.t/m'

2 2

5

Mu 42.75 * 10

R R 2

0.047

f cu * bs * d 2 300 * 100 * 55

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 37

Flexural Design

From Chart, for R = 0.047, = 0.058

f cu

As * * bs * d

fy

30

As 0.058 * * 1000 * 550 2658.33 mm 2

360

As = 26.58 cm2 As = 7 22 /m'

0.6 0.6

As min bs d * 1000 * 550 917 mm 2

fy 360

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 38

Flexural Design

Critical Section for Moment in Short Direction

1.00

f u 4 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 28.73 t/m 2

4.20

f u1 f u 2 34.40 28.73

f uns avg 31.57 t/m 2

2 2

y1

2.20 - 0.40

0.90 m

1.0

2

y12 * 1.0

M u / m' f un

y1

2

b

BR.C.

0.90 2 * 1.0

M u / m' 31.57 *

2 a

12.79 m.t/m'

LR.C.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 39

Flexural Design

Critical Section for Moment in Short Direction

12.79 * 10 5

R 2

0.014 From Chart, for R =

300 * 100 * 55 0.014, = 0.020

f cu

As * * bs * d

fy

30

As 0.020 * * 1000 * 550 916.67 mm 2

360

As = 9.17 cm2, As = 5 16 /m'

Check of Shear

x2

LR .C . - a - d x2

4.20 - 0.80 - 0.55

1.43 m

2 2

1.43

f u shear 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 26.29 t/m 2

4.20

f u1 f u shear 34.40 26.29

f unshear avg 30.35 t/m 2

2 2

Qsh = 30.35* 1.43 * 2.20 = 95.48 ton

LR.C.

Check of Shear:

a d/2

b BR.C.

Qsh

qu qcu

BR.C. * d

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb

x2 41

Check of Shear

95.48 * 1000

qu 7.89 kg/cm 2

220 * 55

f cu

Allowable Shear : qcu 0.16

c c = 1.50

30

qcu 0.16 0.72 N/mm 2 7.20 kg/cm 2

1.50

qu (7.89 kg/cm2) > qcu (7.20 kg/cm2) Unsafe.

Increase d to 60 cm, and t to 65 cm, then x2 = 1.40

m, fu-shear-avg = 30.43 t/m2, Qsh =93.72 ton,

qu = 7.10 kg/cm2 < 7.20 kg/cm2, O.K.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 42

Contact Pressure for Punching

208

d/2

1.40 m 1.40 m

76.6

fu6 =18.52 t/m2 fu5 =26.46 t/m2

1.40

f u 5 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 26.46 t/m 2

4.20

2.80

f u 6 34.40 - 34.40 - 10.58 * 18.52 t/m 2

May 10, 2017

4.20

Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 43

Check of Punching

fu-punch-avg = (26.46 + 18.52)/2 = 22.49 t/m2

ap = (a+d) = 0.80 + 0.60 = 1.40 m

bp = (b+d) = 0.40 + 0.60 = 1.00 m

Punching Section Perimeter:

bpunch = 2 [(a+d) + (b+d)]

bpunch = 2 [(1.40) + (1.00)] = 4.80 m LR.C.

Qp=fun [LR.C. BR.C. ap*bp ]

ap

Qp= 22.49*[4.20*2.20 BR.C. d/2

1.40*1.00] = 176.32 t bp

d/2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 44

Check of Punching

f cu 30

qcup 0.316 0.316 1.41 1.6 N/mm 2

c 1 .5

ap f cu

qcup 0.316 0.50

b c

p

0.40 30

qcup 0.316 0.50 1.41 N/mm 2

0.80 1.5

d f cu

qcup 0.80 0.20

b p c

4 * 0.60 30.0

qcup 0.80 0.20 2.50 N/mm 2

4.80 1.50

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 45

Check of Punching

Qup 176.32 * 1000

qup 6.12 kg/cm 2

b punch * d 480 * 60

qup (6.12 kg/cm2) < qcup 14.10 kg/cm2 ) O.K.

Check of footing sliding, F.S. = FResisting/FSliding:

FSliding = Horizontal forces

FResisting = P tan for sand, = up to

FResisting = Ca * L for clay, Ca 0.80 C,

L = footing length

Ignore passive resistance for shallow depths, and

take it for relatively large depths.

F.S.

May > 1.50

10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 46

Check of Development Length

Ld = 60 for deformed high grade bars

(long direction)

Ld1 = 60*2.20 = 132 cm

x1 = 170 cm > Ld O.K.

5 16 /m'

7 22 /m'

(short direction)

Ld2 = 60*1.60 = 96 cm (short direction)

y1 = 90 cm < Ld2, bend bars upward

DESIGN OF COMBINED

FOOTINGS

FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

1- Site Investigation

2- Design of Shallow Foundations:

a- Design of Isolated Footings.

b- Design of Isolated Footings under

Eccentric Loads.

c- Design of Combined Footings.

d- Design of Strap Beam.

e- Design of Raft Foundations

Combined Footing Pc2

Pc1

Reinforced Concrete

Plain Concrete

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 50

Combined Footings are used in:

1- Two adjacent columns with interfering footings.

2- To connect neighbor column with an interior

column

:

1- .

2- .

Property

Line

Neighbor

Column

Pc1 Pc2

R

xr

L

Pc 2 * S

Resultant: R = Pc1 + Pc2 xr

Pc1 Pc2

For the plain concrete footing:

LP.C. = 2 * xr + C1/2 + C2/2 + (1 ~ up to 2 m)

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 53

1.10 * Pc1 Pc2 B P .C .

AP .C .

AP .C .

qall - soil LP.C.

Dimensions of Plain Concrete = LP.C. * BP.C.

Choose Plain Concrete thickness, tP.C.

Projection distance, x = tP.C.

Dimensions of Reinforced Concrete:

LR.C. = LP.C. 2 * x BR.C. = BP.C. 2 * x

Assume the thickness of R.C.

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 54

Ultimate Column Loads

Puc1 = 1.4 * Pc1 Dead + 1.6 * Pc1 Live

Puc2 = 1.4 * Pc2 Dead + 1.6 * Pc2 Live

For Columns C1 and C2 respectively

(2) ( 1)

f un1

Puc 1 Puc2

t/m'

LR.C.

Combined Footing Pressure and Deflections

Puc1 R Puc2

xr

fun1 (t/m')

Mmax. 1 LR.C.

Mmax. 3 Mmax. 2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 57

Puc1 R Puc2

xr

fun1 (t/m')

LR.C.

d/2 d/2

Qsh1

Qsh2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 58

Design for Flexure in the Longitudinal Direction

Reinforced concrete depth and main upper

Reinforcements are determined using Mmax1

Mmax1

Lower longitudinal reinforcements under

column (2) are determined using Mmax2

( 2)

Mmax2

Pc1 Pc2

Longitudinal Reinforcements

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 60

Design for Flexure in the Short Direction

Assume that all the column load is distributed

under the column as a hidden beam on width

only with extension of d/2 from each side

d/2

Puc1 Puc2

Hidden Beams

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 62

Puc1 Puc2

d/2

d/2 d/2 d/2

Check of Punching

ap1 ap2

d/2 d/2

d/2 bp2 d/2

bp1

Qp2 =Puc2 - fun *[ap2*bp2 ]

Example (4): Design of Combined Footing

From Dr. Mashour Ghonaim Book

Design a combined footing to support the two

columns shown in Figure.

Column C1, 0.30 * 0.40 m, working load = 1320 kN

Column C2, 0.30 * 0.70 m, working load = 1960 kN

Allowable soil pressure = 175 kN/m2

Concrete, fcu = 25 N/mm2; Steel, fy = 400 N/mm2

0.40 0.70

0.30 0.30

S = 3.60 m

C1 C2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 65

Solution Pc1=132t Pc2=196t

R

xr =2.15

S = 3.60 m

L

Resultant: R = Pc1 + Pc2 = 132.0 + 196.0 = 328.0 ton

Pc 2 * S 196 * 3.60

xr 2.15 m

Pc1 Pc2 132 196

For the plain concrete footing:

LP.C. = 2 * xr + C1/2 + C2/2 + (1 ~ up to 2 m)

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 66

LP.C. = 2 * 2.15 + 0.20 + 0.35 + 1.15 = 6.00 m

1.10 * Pc 1 Pc2 1.10 * 132 196

AP .C . 20.62 m 2

qall - soil 17.50

AP .C . 20.62

BP .C . 3.44 3.45 m

LP.C. 6.00

Plain concrete footing dimensions:

Lp.c. = 6.00 m, Bp.c. = 3.45 m, tp.c. Taken 40 cm

R

0.40 2.15 m 0.70

0.30 0.30 3.45

S = 3.60 m

3.0 m 3.0 m

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 67

Dimensions of Reinforced Concrete:

Projection distance x = tp.c. = 40 cm

LR.C. = LP.C. 2 * x = 6.00 2 * 0.40 = 5.20 m

BR.C. = BP.C. 2 * x = 3.45 2 * 0.40 = 2.65 m

Assume the thickness of R.C. = 80 cm

Puc1 = 1.5 * Pc1 = 1.50 * 132.0 = 198.0 ton

Puc2 = 1.5 * Pc2 = 1.50 * 196.0 = 294.0 ton

Ultimate contact pressure per meter run

f un 1 /m'

Puc 1 Puc2 198.0 294.0

94.62 t/m'

LR.C. 5.20

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 68

198 294

0.45 1.15

P2 4 3 3.60 2 1 P1

94.62 t/m'

x=2.09 5.20 m

Point of zero shear:

Puc1 = fun1 * x , 198 = 94.62 * x, x = 2.09 m

Moment at point of zero shear (Mmax1):

2.09 2

M max 1 198.0 * 2.09 - 0.45 - 94.62 * 118.07 m.t

2

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 69

1.15 2

M max 2 94.62 * 62.57 m.t

2

2

0.45

M max 3 94.62 * 9.58 m.t

2

Moments at different points

Point M (m.t)

(1) 30.27

(2) 3.55

(3) -19.61

(4) 2.96

198 R 294

0.45 2.15 1.15

4 3 3.60 2 1

94.62 t/m'

5.20 m

118.07 Bending Moment Diagram

19.61

19.61

30.27

May 10, 2017 62.57

Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 71

198 R 294

0.45 d/2 2.15 d/2 1.15

P2 4 3 3.60 2 1 P1

94.62 t/m'

5.20 m

Shear Force Diagram

185.19

117.54

42.58

101.96 41.16

May 10, 2017 155.42 108.81

Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 72

Flexural Design in the Long Direction

For a concrete cover of 7 cm, d = 80 7 = 73 cm

M max 1 118.07

M max / m' 44.55 m.t/m'

BR.C. 2.65

Mu 44.55 * 10 5

R

f cu * bs * d R 250 * 100 * 73 2 0.033

2

f cu

For R = 0.033, = 0.04 As * * bs * d

fy

25

As 0.040 * * 1000 * 730 1825.0 mm 2 / m'

400

As = 6 20/m'

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 73

Flexural Design in the Long Direction

0.6 0.6

As min bs d * 1000 * 730 1095 mm 2

fy 400

As min = 10.95 cm2, As min = 6 16 mm/m'

Under column C2, M1 = 30.27 m.t

M 1 30.27

M 1 / m' 11.43 m.t/m'

BR.C. 2.65

R = 0.009, take = 0.02, As = 9.13 cm2

Therefore, for moments at points (2), (3), (4)

take the minimum area steel of As = 12.00 cm2

= 6 16/m'

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 74

Flexural

198 Design in the 294

0.25 d1/2Short Direction d1/2 d1/2

bc1=1.01 bc2=1.41

(1) = bc1

(2) = bc2

In the short direction, d1 = d 2 = 73 2 = 71 cm

bc1 = ac1 + 0.25 + d1/2

= 0.40 + 0.25 + 0.71/2 = 1.005 m 1.01 m

bc2 = ac2 + 2*(d1/2) = 0.70 + 2*(0.71/2) = 1.41 m

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 75

Flexural Design in the Short Direction

198 t 294 t

1.18

2.65 2.65

Puc1 198.0

f '

u1 74.72 t/m'

BR.C. 2.65

Puc2 294.0

f u2

'

110.94 t/m'

BR.C. 2.65

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 76

Flexural Design in the Short Direction

2 2

y1 1.18

M u 1 f uc1

' '

74.72 * 52.02 m.t

2 2

2 2

y1 1.18

M u 2 f uc2

' '

110 .94 * 77.24 m.t

2 2

Under column C2, M'u2 = 77.24 m.t

5

Mu 77.24 * 10

R R 2

0.043

f cu * bs * d 2 250 * 141 * 71

f cu

For R = 0.043, = 0.0522 As * * bs * d

fy

25

As 0.052 * * 1410 * 710 3267.0 mm 2

400Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 77

Flexural Design in the Short Direction

As = 32.67 cm2 = 9 22

)(2

1.41

Under column C1, M'u1 = 52.02 m.t

55.02 * 10 5

R 2

0.041 For R = 0.041, = 0.0492

250 * 101 * 71

25

* As 0.0492 * 1005 * 710 2194.0 mm 2

400

As = 21.94 cm2 = 6 22

)(1

1.01

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 78

198 R 294

0.45 d/2 2.15 d/2 1.15

P2 4 3 3.60 2 1 P1

94.62 t/m'

5.20 m

Shear Force Diagram

185.19

117.54

42.58

101.96 41.16

May 10, 2017 155.42 108.81

Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 79

Design for Shear

Qsh

Qsh = 117.54 ton qu qcu

BR.C. * d

Check of Shear:

117 .54 * 1000

qu 6.08 kg/cm 2

265 * 73

f cu

Allowable Shear : qcu 0.16 c = 1.50

c

25

qcu 0.16 0.65 N/mm 2 6.50 kg/cm 2

1.50

Check of Punching Pc1 Pc 2

f un

AR.C.

ap2 = (a2+d) = 0.70 + 0.73 = 1.43 m

bp2 = (b2+d) = 0.30 + 0.73 = 1.03 m 198 294 35.70 t/m 2

5.20 * 2.65

Punching Section Perimeter:

bpunch2 = 2 [(1.43) + (1.03)] = 4.92 m

Qp2=Puc2 - fun [ap2*bp2 ] = 294.0 35.70*[1.43*1.03]

= 241.42 ton

ap1 ap2

bp2

bp1

Check of Punching

f cu 25

qcup 0.316 0.316 1.29 1.6 N/mm 2

c 1.5

ap f cu

qcup 0.316 0.50

b c

p

0.30 25

qcup 0.316 0.50 1.20 N/mm 2

0.70 1.5

d f cu

qcup 0.80 0.20

b p c

4 * 0.73 25.0

qcup 0.80 0.20 2.59 N/mm 2

4.92 1.50

May 10, 2017 Shallow Foundations, P1, Tarek Nageeb 82

Check of Punching

Qup 241.42 * 1000

qup 6.72 kg/cm 2

b punch * d 492 * 73

qup (6.72 kg/cm2) < qcup 12.00 kg/cm2 ) O.K.

Longitudinal Reinforcements,

Reinforcements in the Short Direction

Under

Column C2

Under

Column C1

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