You are on page 1of 14

PSYCHOTICISM

THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL


THE SIX-FACTOR MODEL
PRESENTED BY: MAHRUKH.
PSYCHOTICISM

High in psychoticism are, aggressive, unfriendly, insensible, determined


and selfish.
They do not care about the feelings of others but only care about
themselves, they are insensitive and narcissist.
They indulge more in drug abuse and crimes.
Highly creative as compared to people with low score.
Society makes every individual to make best use of its abilities in a
positive way but it is a persons own will how he wants to mold his
behavior.
PRIMARY ROLE OF HEREDITY

Researches shows that there is is a major role of genetics in extraversion,


neuroticism and psychoticism.
Hans Eysenck suggested that there is no environmental influence on
personality, he believed that effects of environment were limited.
Eysenck researched on comparison between identical twins (monozygotic)
and fraternal twins (dizygotic), and it showed that identical twins had
greater similarities than fraternal twins. The identical twins were grown up
by different parents in a different environment, still they showed behavior
of their biological parents and environment had no influence on them.
ROBERT MCCRAE AND PAUL COSTA:
THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL

These factors are neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and


conscientiousness.
These factors were confirmed by different assessment techniques like self-
rating, objective tests, and observers report.
The test to assess personality was called as, the NEO personality
Inventory. Researches suggested various other assessment tests but NEO
remains the more frequently used technique.
STABILITY OF THE FACTORS

Longitudinal researches suggested that the behavior shown in childhood


were likely to remain same in adulthood.
Men and women college graduates were tested for extraversion when they
were students and then again in later life. The researchers found positive
correlation, suggesting that those who were extraverted in college
remained extraverted in their midlife.
EMOTIONAL CORRELATES
Extraversion was positively related to emotional well-being and
neuroticism was negatively related to emotional well-being.
People scoring high in extraversion were able to cope with everyday life
stress better than those scoring low in extraversion.
Studies on college students showed that people who scored higher in
extraversion enjoyed higher status and fame among their friends than
those who scored low in extraversion.
Other researches on students showed that extraverts experienced more
positive events for example getting good grades, marriage etc. Students
who scored high in neuroticism had negative events more for example,
illness, weight gain, rejection by other people.
In another study, persons high in agreeableness and conscientiousness
showed greater emotional well-being than persons low in these traits.
People high in neuroticism were more depressed , anxious, substance use
and self-blame.
Many physical and psychological illness are associated with high score in
neuroticism.
BEHAVIOURAL CORRELATES

People high in openness have intellectual interests and seek challenges.


People high in both extraversion and openness are more likely to be self-
employed.
Extraverts are also more active during their retirement years.
People high in conscientiousness tend to be reliable, responsible, punctual,
efficient and dependable, and usually earn better grades in school, they
are more organized, disciplined.
People high in conscientiousness tend to live longer and healthier.
People high in agreeableness factor were found to be cooperative, helpful,
honest and selfless.
Research on people diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
found that symptoms such as hyperactivity, inattention and cognitive and
behavioral disorganization were significantly lower in those who scored
higher in agreeableness than those who scored lower in agreeableness.
Those high in agreeableness experienced less conflict with acquaintances,
and they maintain contact with parents and siblings.
MICHAEL ASHTON AND KIBEOM LEE
HEXACO: THE SIX-FACTOR MODEL.

Ashton and Lee proposed a six-factor model of personality.


The two of factors, i.e. extraversion and conscientiousness are similar to
those found in five-factor model.
The dimensions of six factor model can be assessed by two self-report
inventories, the 100-item HEXACO Personality Inventory, or the 60-item
HEXACO-60.
PERSONALITY TRAITS AND THE INTERNET

Personality traits influences our internet behavior, from the way we


interact with others on social media and even online shopping.
People who scored high in conscientiousness had more Facebook friends
than those who scored low.
Students who scored high in conscientiousness, agreeableness and
emotional stability were far less likely to post information about personal
matters.
People high in conscientiousness shopped online for convenience, those
high in openness shopped online to have a new adventure, those high in
neuroticism shopped online in order to avoid other people.
People high in neuroticism posted more of their photos on Facebook than
those who scored low.
Research showed that women high in neuroticism were more likely to blog
than women low in neuroticism.