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The University of Guyana

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Faculty of Technology
MEC 4203

BOLTED
JOINTS
Group 1
Amar Lall Ram (1010851)
Mike David (1014141)
Bobby Lakhan (1007455)
Haimwant Dhanie (1020728)
INTRODUCTION
History

Research Council on
Wilson and Thomas
Batho and Bateman Riveted and Bolted
1938
1934 Structural Joints (RCRBSJ)
Fatigue strength of smaller
High-strength bolts could be 1947
Rivets used to assemble steel
structures and could be
high-strength bolts was as
great as well driven rivets if
the nuts were screwed up to
Formed to carry on
investigations to determine
tightened enough to prevent the suitability of various
give a high tension in the
slip in structural joints. [1] types of joints used in
bolt. [2]
structural frames. [3]
INTRODUCTION
History

The American Society for 1950


German Committee for
Testing and Materials Installation procedures, slip RCRBSJ
Structural Steelwork
(ASTM) + (RCRBSJ) resistance of joints having 1951
(GCSS)
1949 different surface Specification for structural
1956
Tentative specification for treatments, and behavior of joints using high-strength
Issue a preliminary code of
the materials for high- joints under repeated bolts. [6]
practice. [7]
strength bolts. [4] loadings were studied. [5]
INTRODUCTION
History

First Edition Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted


BS 3294 and Riveted Connections
British Standard (BS) 1974
1960
1959 Provided a valuable summary of connection and
BS 3139 For dealing with bolt Issued to establish the design connector behavior. Presentation of the strength and
material. [8] procedure deformation statements in their most fundamental
and basic forms made the guide directly useful for
and field practice. [8] those using the limit states design formats that
emerged in the late 1970s. [8]
TYPES OF BOLTED JOINT
1. Tensile or Tension Joint

Loads and forces are applied in a direction parallel to the axes of the bolts.
TYPES OF BOLTED JOINT
2. Shear Joint

Line of action of the forces is perpendicular to the axes of the bolts.


Activities involved in the design of bolted joints
Define approximate
geometry

Accept design or
repeat one or more of
the earlier steps Estimate service
above loads on joint and
bolts

Estimate chances of
achieving desired
range of clamp during Select bolts
assembly

Estimate maximum clamp force


parts can stand considering yield, Estimate minimum clamp
gasket crush, scc, flange rotation force required to avoid slip,
etc.compare to combined leaks, self-loosening, fatigue,
service loads etc.

[9]
Equations
Shear loads

=
Equations
Torsional loads
P= Thread pitch ()
Equations
Bending loads


Forces the bolt to bend as it is tightened (tensile stresses)
Equations
Turning a nut
Equations
Work done to Tightening nut to clamp bolt

Bolt (tension energy)


Equations
Work done to twist the bolt (torsional energy)

Work done to Bend the bolt (bending energy)

Equations
Work to compress the joint (compressive energy)

Work done to compress the nut (compressive energy)


Equations
Friction force between nut and bolt

Equations
Work done between nut and joint members (heat energy)

The parameters for bolted joints


Material
o Properties that affect the clamping force
Corrosion

Thermal expansion and contraction

Hardness

Corrosion
The parameters for bolted joints
o Standard of choice

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

International Standards Organization (ISO)

Industrial Fastener Institute (IFI)

o Nut selection is also important


The parameters for bolted joints
Strength and Stress considerations

Tensile strength and stress

Thread stripping strength

Shear strength and stress

Strength at high and low temperatures


The parameters for bolted joints
Stiffness and Strain considerations

o Change in length of bolt


o The joint
Steps In A Case Study
Analysis carried out on Bolts and Joints

Step 1:
Identify and Introduce the Case
Step 2:
Mathematical Procedure
Step 3:
Finite element models for a bolted joint
Step 4:
Verification of the finite element models for a bolted joint
Step 5:
Conclusions
References
[1]C Batho and E H Bateman, "Investigations on Bolts and Bolted Joints," London, Second report of Steel Structures Research
Committee 1934.

[2]W M Wilson and F P Thomas, "Fatigue Tests on Riveted Joints," in Bulletin 302, Engineering Experiment Station. Urbana: University of
Illinois, 1938.

[3]Geoffrey L Kulak, John W Fisher, and John H A Struik, Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints, 2nd ed. Chicago, IL:
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION, Inc., 2001.

[4]American Society for Testing and Materials, "High-Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints," in ASTM Designation A325-84. Philadelphia,
1985 (originally issued 1949).

[5]ASCE-Manual 48, Bibliography on Bolted and Riveted Joints. New York: Headquarters of the Society, 1967.

[6]Research Council on Riveted and Bolted Structural Joints of the Engineering Foundation, "Specifications for Assembly of Structural Joints
Using High-Strength Bolts," in Research Council on Structural Connections, Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490
Bolts., 1985 (originally issued 1951).

[7]Deutscher Stahlbau-Verband, Preliminary Directives for the Calculation, Design and Assembly of Non-Slip Bolted Connections. Cologne:
Stahlbau Verlag, 1956.

[8]Geoffrey L Kulak, J W Fisher, and J H A Struik, Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Connections. New York: Wiley, 1974.

[9]John H Bickford, Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints, Forth ed., L L Faulkner, Ed. Florida, United States of America:
CRC Press - Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.