You are on page 1of 24

Prokaryotes and Protists

CH 16
PROKARYOTES
Prokaryotes have inhabited Earth for
billions of years
Prokaryotes are the oldest life-forms and
remain the most numerous and widespread
organisms

Colorized SEM 650


Figure 16.7
First Cells
RNA might have acted as templates
for the formation of polypeptides
Assisted in RNA replication
Self-replication of RNA RNA

Self-replicating RNA acts as


template on which poly-
peptide forms.

Polypeptide

Polypeptide acts as primitive


enzyme that aids RNA
replication.
Membranes may have separated various
aggregates of self-replicating molecules which
could be acted on by natural selection

Membrane
RNA

LM 650

Polypeptide

Figure 16.6B, C
Prokaryotes
Small, relatively simple cells
Do not have a membrane-bound nucleus

Figure 4.3B
Branches of Prokaryote
Evolution
Bacteria and Archaea
Distinguished on the basis of nucleotide
sequences and other molecular and
cellular features
Prokaryote Shapes
Cocci
Bacilli
Spirochetes
Structural Features
Gram staining
Cell wall differences
Gram + (purple)
Simple cell wall
Thick peptidogylcan layer
Gram (pink)
More complex cell wall with lipids
bonded to carbohydrates
Thin peptidoglycan layer
Structural Features
Capsule
Pili
Flagella
Growth & Reproduction
Binary Fission
Endospore
Innards
Lacks membrane bound organelles
Respiratory / photosynthetic
membrane
Small, circular genome
Ribosomes
Nourishment
Phototrophs & Chemotrophs
Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
Biofilms Energy source

Light Chemical

CO2
Photoautotrophs Chemoautotrophs
Carbon
source

Organic Photoheterotrophs Chemoheterotrophs


compounds
Archea Extremes
Extremophiles
Halophiles
Thermophiles
Methanogens
Bacteria
Proteobacteria
Chlamydias
Spirochetes
Gram-positive bacteria
Cyanobacteria
Disease
Exotoxins
Endotoxins
Bacteria Uses
Biological weaponry
Bioremediation
Bioremediation
Recycle chemicals and clean up the
environment
Prokaryotes are decomposers in
Sewage treatment and can clean up oil spills
and toxic mine wastes

Rotating
spray arm

Rock bed
coated with
aerobic
bacteria
and fungi

Liquid wastes Outflow

Figure 16.16A, B
Protists are an extremely diverse
assortment of mostly unicellular
eukaryotes The parasitic Giardia

Plasmodium causes malaria

Colorized SEM 4,000


Single celled algae

TEM 26,000
SEM 2,300

Apex

Red blood cell


Protists and Evolution
Multicellularity evolved in several
different lineages probably by
specialization of the cells of colonial
protists Gamete

Locomotor
cells
Somatic
1 2 3
cells

Food-
synthesizing
cells

Unicellular protist Colony Early multicellular organism Later organism that


with specialized, interdepen- produces gametes
dent cells
Symbiosis
Endosymbiosis
Secondary endosymbiosis
Green alga Remnant of
Nucleus green alga
Secondary
Chloroplast endosymbiosis

Euglenozoans
Cyanobacterium

Remnant of
Primary red alga
endosymbiosis Autotrophic Heterotrophic
eukaryotes eukaryotes
Nucleus Dinoflagellates
Heterotrophic Evolved into
eukaryote chloroplast
Secondary
endosymbiosis
Apicomplexans
Nucleus
Chloroplast
Red alga

Stramenopiles
Protists
Diplomanads
Parabasalids
Euglenozoans
Alveolates
Dinoflagellates
Ciliates
Apicomplexans
Protists
Stramenopiles
Watermolds
Diatoms
Brown Algae
Amoebozoans
Feed via pseudopodia
Plasmodial slime mold
Plasmodium
Cellular slime molds
Protists
Foraminiferans
Radiolarians
Algae
Red
Green