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Chapter 4 - Style Approach

Leadership

Chapter 4 - Style Approach

Northouse, 4th edition

Chapter 4 - Style Approach

Overview
 Style Approach Perspective
 Ohio State Studies
 University of Michigan Studies
 Blake & Mouton’s Leadership Grid
 How Does the Style Approach Work?

Chapter 4 .Style Approach Style Approach Description Perspective Definition Comprised of two general  Emphasizes the kinds of Behaviors behavior of the Task behaviors leader Facilitate goal  Focuses exclusively accomplishment: Help group on what leaders do members achieve objectives and how they act Relationship behaviors Help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves. each other. and the situation .

Style Approach Ohio State Studies Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) – Identify number of times leaders engaged in specific behaviors  150 questions – Participant settings (military. educational) – Results  Particular clusters of behaviors were typical of leaders . industrial.Chapter 4 .

Style Approach Ohio State Studies.  LBDQ-XII (Stogdill. giving structure to the work context. 1963) – Shortened version of the LBDQ – Most widely used leadership assessment instrument – Results .Leaders nurture subordinates • Relationship behaviors – building camaraderie. & liking between leaders & followers . defining role responsibility.Two general types of leader behaviors:  Initiating structure – Leaders provide structure for subordinates • Task behaviors . cont’d. trust.organizing work.Chapter 4 . respect. scheduling work activities  Consideration .

Style Approach University of Michigan Studies  Exploring leadership behavior – Specific emphasis on impact of leadership behavior on performance of small groups  Results .possible orientation to both at the same time .Two types of leadership behaviors conceptualized as opposite ends of a single continuum – Employee orientation  Strong human relations emphasis – Production orientation  Stresses the technical aspects of a job – Later studies reconceptualized behaviors as two independent leadership orientations .Chapter 4 .

1) – Middle-of-the-Road Management (5.1) – Opportunism .5) – Team Management (9.9) – Impoverished Management (1.Chapter 4 . 9.9) – Paternalism/Maternalism (1.1) – Country Club Management (1.Style Approach Blake & Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid  Historical Perspective  Leadership Grid Components – Authority-Compliance (9. 9.

Style Approach Historical Perspective Blake & Mouton’s Managerial Leadership Grid Development Purpose  Developed in  Designed to explain how leaders help organizations to early 1960s reach their purposes  Used extensively – Two factors in organizational  Concern for production training & • How a leader is concerned with achieving development organizational tasks  Concern for people • How a leader attends to the members of the organization who are trying to achieve its goals . Chapter 4 .

Chapter 4 . hard- driving & overpowering .people regarded as tools to that end  9.1) Definition Role Focus  Efficiency in  Heavy emphasis on task operations results and job requirements and from arranging less emphasis on people conditions of work  Communicating with such that human subordinates outside task interference is instructions not emphasized minimal  Results driven .1 leaders – seen as controlling. demanding.Style Approach Authority-Compliance (9.

friendly interpersonal relationships organizational  De-emphasizes production. comforting.9) Definition Role Focus  Thoughtful attention  Low concern for task to the needs of accomplishment coupled people leads to a with high concern for comfortable. atmosphere and work leaders stress the attitudes tempo and feelings of people  1. eager to help.Chapter 4 . noncontroversial .9 leaders – try to create a positive climate by being agreeable.Style Approach Country Club (1.

and apathetic . organizational but uninvolved and membership withdrawn  1. Chapter 4 .1 leaders .have little contact with followers and are described as indifferent. noncommittal.Style Approach Impoverished (1.1) Definition Role Focus  Minimal effort  Leader unconcerned with exerted to get work both task and done is appropriate interpersonal relationships to sustain  Going through the motions. resigned.

leader necessity of getting avoids conflict while emphasizing work done while maintaining moderate levels of production and satisfactory morale interpersonal relationships  5. swallows convictions in the interest of “progress” .5 leaders .5) Definition Role Focus  Adequate  Leaders who are organizational compromisers. prefers the middle ground. soft-pedals disagreement.Style Approach Middle-of-the-Road (5. have performance intermediate concern for task possible through and people who do task balancing the  To achieve equilibrium. Chapter 4 .described as expedient.

 Promotes high degree of interdependence participation & teamwork. behaves open-mindedly and enjoys working . via a “common satisfies basic need of employee stake” in the to be involved & committed to organization’s their work purpose.Style Approach Team (9. Chapter 4 . follows trust and respect through.9) Definition Role Focus  Work accomplished  Strong emphasis on both tasks through committed and interpersonal relationships people. relationships of makes priorities clear.9 leaders . acts determined. which  9.stimulates leads to participation.

1 without integrating the two bestowed on  The “benevolent dictator”.  Treats people as though they failure to comply were disassociated from the leads to task punishment .Style Approach Paternalism/Maternalism Definition Role Focus  Reward and  Leaders who use both 1.Chapter 4 .9 approval are and 9. people in return acts gracious for purpose of for loyalty and goal accomplishment obedience.

Chapter 4 .Style Approach Opportunism Definition Role Focus  People adapt and  Performance occurs shift to any grid according to a system of style needed to selfish gain gain maximum  Leader uses any combination advantage of the basic five styles for the purpose of personal advancement  Leader usually has a dominant grid style used in most situations and a backup style that is reverted to when under pressure .

Chapter 4 .Style Approach How Does the Style Approach Work?  Focus of Style Approach  Strengths  Criticisms  Application .

as behavior with a task behaviors of leaders and relationship dimension .Style Approach Style Approach Focus Overall Scope  Primarily a  Offers a means of framework for assessing in a assessing leadership general way the in a broad way.Chapter 4 .

Chapter 4 .Style Approach Strengths  Style Approach marked a major shift in leadership research from exclusively trait focused to include behaviors and actions of leaders  Broad range of studies on leadership style validates and gives credibility to the basic tenets of the approach  At conceptual level.leaders can learn a lot about themselves and how they come across to others by trying to see their behaviors in light of the task and relationship dimensions . a leader’s style is composed of two major types of behaviors: task and relationship  The style approach is heuristic .

research finding support is limited .Chapter 4 . high task/high relationship).Style Approach Criticisms  Research has not adequately demonstrated how leaders’ styles are associated with performance outcomes  No universal style of leadership that could be effective in almost every situation  Implies that the most effective leadership style is High-High style (i..e.

managers can determine how they are perceived by others and how they could change their behaviors to become more effective. .  By assessing their own style.Chapter 4 .Style Approach Application  Many leadership training and development programs are designed along the lines of the style approach.  The style approach applies to nearly everything a leader does.