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# Analog-Digital Converters

In presenting Order:
Josh Navikonis
Moiz H
Mike Hochman
Brian Post

ME 6405
9/29/2009

Agenda
 Characteristics of ADC in MC9S12C
 Application and Selection of ADC

 How does it work?

What is ADC?  ADC (Analog to Digital Converter) is an electronic device that converts a continuous analog input signal to discrete digital numbers (binary)  Analog  Real world signals that contain noise  Continuous in time  Digital  Discrete in time and value  Binary digits that contain values 0 or 1 .

Why is ADC Important?  All microcontrollers store information using digital logic  Compress information to digital form for efficient storage  Medium for storing digital data is more robust  Digital data transfer is more efficient  Digital data is easily reproducible  Provides a link between real-world signals and data storage .

How ADC Works 2 Stages:  Sampling  Sample-Hold Circuit  Aliasing  Quantizing and Encoding  Resolution Binary output .

voltage stored in capacitor (hold operation)  Must hold sampled value constant for digital conversion Simple Sample and Hold Circuit Response of Sample and Hold Circuit . Sampling  Reduction of a continuous signal to a discrete signal  Achieved through sampling and holding circuit  Switch ON – sampling of signal (time to charge capacitor w/ Vin)  Switch OFF .

Sampling  Sampling rate depends on clock frequency  Use Nyquist Criterion  Increasing sampling rate increases accuracy of conversion  Possibility of aliasing Sampling Signal: Tw 1 Sampling Period: Ts  f s Nyquist Criterion: fs  2  f max .

Aliasing  High and low frequency samples are indistinguishable  Results in improper conversion of the input signal  Usually exists when Nyquist Criterion is violated  fs Can exist even when:  2 f max  Prevented through the use of Low-Pass (Anti-aliasing) Filters .

Quantizing and Encoding  Approximates a continuous range of values and replaces it with a binary number  Error is introduced between input voltage and output binary representation  Error depends on the resolution of the ADC .

0V n3 Qerror   resolution / 2 1V  7V /(23  1)  .5V Resolution . Resolution  Maximum value of quantization error  Error is reduced with more available memory Vrange=Input Voltage Range n= # bits of ADC resolution  Vrange /(2 n  1) Example: Vrange  7.

Resolution  Increase in resolution improves the accuracy of the conversion Minimum voltage step recognized by ADC Analog Signal Digitized Signal.High Digitized Signal.Low Resolution Resolution .

Types of A/D Converters Presenter : Moiz H Flash A/D Converter Successive Approximation A/D Converter Example of Successive Approximation Dual Slope A/D Converter Delta – Sigma A/D Converter .

Elements of a Flash A/D Converter Encoder Comparator .

FLASH A/D CONVERTER Resoluti on 23-1 = 7 Comparators 3 Bit Digital Output .

Flash A/D Converter Contd. Pro Con s • Fastest (in s additional • Each the order of bit of resolution nano seconds) requires twice • Simple the number of operational comparators theory •Expensive • Speed is • Prone to limited only produce glitches by gate and in the output comparator propagation delay .

Elements of Dual-Slope ADC Integrator .

Elements of the Successive Approximation ADC Successive Approximation Register Digital to Analog Converter Takes in a Combination of Bits .

SUCESSIVE APPROXIMATION A/D CONVERTER .

assume that the full scale input voltage of the DAC is 10V.84 V Vref = 10 V . Examp le Show the timing waveforms that would occur in SAR ADC when converting an analog voltage of 6. Vin = 6.84V to 8-bit binary.

3125 9.921875 6. 55 6.71875 D3 0.7500 D4 0.84375 55 D1 0.3750 6.6250 9.2500 8.25 6.5000 7.5000 6.7.83593 D0 0.0390625 9.15625 9.078125 9.0000 5.25 Cumulative DAC Input DAC Vout Voltage 6. 5 7.5625 6.79687 D2 0.0000 D6 2.9609375 7575 6.875 D7 5.83593 6.5625 D5 1.79687 6.84 V .6875 6.

Pros Con • High •s Slow accuracy • Accuracy is • Fewer dependent on adverse the use of affects from precision noise external components . Dual Slope A/D Converter Contd.

#1 Delta-Sigma Modulator . Delta-Sigma ADC contd.

#2 Digital Filter Decimator . Delta-Sigma ADC contd.

Pros Con •High •s Slow due to Resolution over sampling •No need of • Good for low precision bandwidth components . Sigma-Delta A/D Converter Contd.

ADC Comparison Type Speed(relative) Cost(Relative) Dual Slope Slow Med Flash Very fast High Successive approx Medium fast Low Sigma-Delta Slow Low .

ATD10B8C on MC9S12C32  Presented by:  Michael Hochman .

MC9S12C32 Block Diagram .

ATD10B8C Block Diagram .

10 bit  Successive Approximation ADC architecture  8-channel multiplexed inputs  External trigger control  Conversion modes  Single or continuous sampling  Single or multiple channels .ATD10B8C Key Features  Resolution  8/10 bit (manually chosen)  Conversion Time  7 usec.

ATD10B8C External Pins  12 external pins  AN7 / ETRIG / PAD7  Analog input channel 7  External trigger for ADC  General purpose digital I/O  AN6/PAD6 – AN0/PAD0  Analog input  General purpose digital I/O  VRH. VRL  High and low reference voltages for ADC  VDDA. VSSA  Power supplies for analog circuitry .

ATD10B8C Registers  6 Control Registers (\$0080 .\$0089)  Allows for analog conversion of internal states  16 Conversion Result Registers (\$0090 .\$009F)  Formatted results (2 bytes)  1 Digital Input Enable Register (\$008D)  Convert channels to digital inputs  1 Digital Port Data Register (\$008F)  Contains logic levels of digital input pins . \$008B)  General status information regarding ADC  2 Test Registers (\$0088 .\$0085)  Configure general ADC operation  2 Status Registers (\$0086.

Control Register 2 .

Control Register 3 .

Control Register 4 .

Control Register 5 .

Single Channel Conversions

Multi-channel Conversions

Status Register 0

Status Register 1 .

Results Registers .

ATD Input Enable Register .

Port Data Register .

Applications For ADC  What are some applications for Analog to Digital Converters?  Measurements / Data Acquisition  Control Systems  PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers)  Sensor integration (Robotics)  Cell Phones  Video Devices  Audio Devices .

Analysis of data from weather balloons by the National Weather Service .Measurements / Data Acquisition NI X-Series Data Acquisition What is Data Acquisition Card  The sampling of the real world to generate data that can be manipulated by a computer  (DSP) Digital Signal Processing first requires a digital signal  Eg.

Control Systems e*(∆t) u*(∆t) 0010 1011 0101 e e* 0011 1001 0101 0010 1010 Controller t t ∆t ∆t e*(∆t) u*(∆t) Digital R + e S/H D/A u Y & CPU & Plant Controll . ADC er Hold Clock Digital Control System Transduc er .

The Old Way…. Analog Computers Comdyna  GP6 .

The New Way e*(∆t) u*(∆t) 0010 1011 0101 e e* 0011 1001 0101 0010 1010 Controller t t ∆t ∆t Analog Analog Output Input ADC D/A .

however most PLC systems have an analog I/O module .Programmable Logic Controllers ADC in PLCs Rockwell PLC  PLCs are the industry standard Analog I/O Module for automation tasks including:  Motion Control  Safety Systems  designed for:  multiple inputs and output arrangements  extended temperature ranges  immunity to electrical noise  resistance to vibration and impact  Most I/O are Boolean.

Sensor Integration (Robotics)  Many robots use microprocessors  ADC allows robots to interpret environmental cues and compensate  If the algorithm needs to be changed it’s a simple matter of modifying the code  Analog control systems require a complete circuit redesign .

 The analog-to- digital and digital-to- analog conversion chips translate the outgoing audio signal from analog to digital and the incoming signal from digital back to analog .Cell Phones Why Digital?  Digital signals can be easily manipulated  Digital phones convert your voice into binary information and then compress it  This compression allows between three and 10 digital calls to occupy the space of a single analog call.

Audio Devices Examples ADC From Sound Card  ADCs are integral to current music reproduction technology  They sample audio streams and store the digital data on media like compact disks  The current crop of AD converters utilized in music can sample at rates up to 192 kilohertz  Sound Cards .

Video Devices TV Tuners  Analog video and audio signals are converted to digital signals for display to user  Slingbox converts analog input stream and rebroadcasts it across the internet in digital form  CCDs use ADCs to process image data .

)  Eg. many ADCs have a relatively slow scan rate (when compared to the sample rate.Selection of an ADC  Important Considerations:  Input Type – Differential or Single Ended  Resolution .8kHz .Most Important  Scaling . To achieve a sample rate of 600Hz on three channels.The channel scan rate is the maximum rate that the ADC can select a new channel and make a measurement. you will need a channel scan rate of at least 1. but 5 times is much better  Channel Scan Rate .allows the user to divide or multiply the input voltage to more closely match the full scale range of the ADC  Sample Rate .The sample rate must be at least twice the frequency the you are measuring.

0%) 100 mV/g  Measurement Range: ±50 g pk  Frequency Range: (±5%) 0. .Example: Selecting an ADC  We want to digitize a vibration signal measured by an accelerometer with the following characteristics (PCB 301A10):  Sensitivity: (±2.5 to 10000 Hz  Select a satisfactory Analog to Digital Converter….

1  6.66 bit  8 bit 2 1 ln(2)  Minimum Sampling Freq: f s min  2 * f max f s min  5 *10000 Hz  Ideal Sampling Freq: f s min  5 * f max  50000 Hz .5 to 10000 Hz 10 Vrange ln(  1)  Resolution: resolution  n n 0.0%) 100 mV/g  Measurement Range: ±50 g pk Solution  Frequency Range: (±5%) 0.Example Continued  Desired Signal:  Sensitivity: (±2.

an internal +2. Overvoltage protection on the analog inputs for the AD7892-1 and AD7892-3 allows the input voltage to go to ±17 V or ±7 V respectively without damaging the ports. The part accepts an analog input range of ±10 V or ±5 V. .5 V reference and on-chip versatile interface structures that allow both serial and parallel connection to a microprocessor.47 µs successive approximation ADC. low power. 12-bit A/D converter that operates from a single +5 V supply.Choosing AD7892  From Analog Devices:  The AD7892 is a high speed. The part contains a 1. an on- chip track/hold amplifier.

me.edu/mechatronics_course  en.tees.tamuk.scm. Ron.engineer.References  Cetinkunt. Sabri.gatech.edu/  www. Mechatronics 2007  www.uk  Bishop.wikipedia.ac. Basic Microprocessors and the 6800  MC912SC Family Data Sheet  MC912SC Reference Manual  MC912SC Programming Reference Guide .org/  www.