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Yuni Permatasari istanti

Sister Callista
RoyBorn October 14, 1969

 Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing

 Master’s Degree in Nursing

 Master’s Degree in Sociology

 Doctorate in Sociology 1977


Origin of Roy’s Adaptation
 Roy adapted some of her theory development
from Harry Helson’s Adaptation Theory.

 Roy incorporated Helson’s theory with Rapoport's
definition of system (Alligood and Tomey 2010).

 1500 scholars and students contributed


Major Elements of Roy’s
Adaptation Model
There are three major elements of Roy’s
adaptation model:

First: Man

Roy develops her concept of man—the
client and the recipient of nursing care

Second: Goal of nursing Roy’s model represents the goal of nursing. Major Elements of Roy’s Adaptation Model cont’d. which is to promote adaptation through adaptive modes .

. the model maps the process of nursing activities.Major Elements of Roy’s Adaptation Model cont’d. Third: Nursing activities Finally. most significant of which are nursing assessment of client behaviors and nursing interventions.

 System is defined as a set of parts connected to function as a whole for some purpose. who. .  A whole is different from and more than the summation of its individual parts. must be considered as a unit or a whole.Man  She considers man a biopsychosocial being.  The recipient of nursing care was identified as an adaptive system. to be properly understood.  Man is an integrated system whose parts have relationships among them (adaptive system). Concept.

)  The adaptive system has two major internal control processes called the regulator and cognator subsystems.  The regulator subsystem responds automatically through neural. .Man ( cont. Concept. chemical.  Stimuli from the internal and external (through the senses) act as input to the nervous system. and endocrine coping processes.  These subsystem are viewed as innate or acquired coping mechanisms used by the adaptive system to respond to changing internal and external environmental stimuli.

 The information is channeled automatically in the appropriate manner and an automatic unconscious response is produced (Roy .Man ( Cont.  The cognator subsystem responds to inputs from external and internal stimuli that involve psychological. . Concept.1991). physical and physiological factors including regulator subsystem outputs.). social .  Regulator & congator activity is manifested through coping behavior in four adaptive modes.

he requires matter. Within this changing world. that is.  Roy identified three classes of stimuli (focal. and information from his environment. the form of stimuli. Man-Environment Interaction  Man is in constant interaction with his environment. man must maintain the integrity of himself. are the inputs into the adaptive system. he must adapt.  The constant interaction of man with his environment is characterized by both internal and external change.  The internal and external environments . contextual and residual).  Since man is a living system. .

Focal Stimuli  Internal or external stimulus most immediately confronting the person .

Contextual Stimuli  All other stimuli present that contribute to the focal stimuli.  Influence how the person can deal with the focal stimulus. .

Contextual Stimuli .

.  Based on theory or experience of the nurse.Residual Stimuli  Factors whose effect in the current situation is unclear.  No clear data.

 Some adaptive mechanisms are inherited or genetic processes. such as the use of antiseptics to cleanse a wound. the white blood cell defense system against bacteria seeking to invade the body. .  Other mechanisms are learned. Adaptation  Man copes with environmental change through biopsychosocial adaptive mechanisms.

 Acquired are developed through learning and other process. .Coping Mechanisms  Innate or acquired ways of responding to the changing environment.  Innate are genetically determined or common to the species and automatic processes.

Coping Mechanisms  Regulator  Cognator .

Coping Mechanisms  Regulator Automatic responses through neural. . chemical and endocrine coping processes.

Coding. Reinforcement. judgment. Insight Emotion : Defenses are used to seek relief from anxiety.Cognator Subsystem  Perceptual/information processing. Memory Learning : Imitation. learning. and emotion Perceptual: Selective Attention. Make affective appraisal and attachments .

 The health continuum moves from this midpoint to good health . to a midpoint of normal health.level wellness.  According to Roy health can be viewed along a continuum that flows from death and extreme poor health. Health-concept  Health is a state of human functioning whereby the person continually adapts to change. . to peak health. through poor health. to high.

.Adaptation cont’d.

The degree of environmental change. . 2. The state of the person’s coping. Adaptation Level factors of adaptation: 1.

 Environmental change interfaces with the individual’s state of coping. presence of a virus. and industrial pollution.  Environmental changes include snow.  The condition of the person or his state of coping is his adaptation level. .Adaptation Level cont’d. radiation from a nuclear explosion. temperature change.

contextual. In any environment-human interaction. and residual stimuli.  The individual’s adaptation level is determined by the focal. . the environ- mental change is the focal stimulus.  The individual’s adaptation level will determine whether a positive response to internal or external environmental will be elicited .Adaptation Level cont’d.

Adaptation Level cont’d.  Contextual stimuli are all other stimuli of the person’s internal or external world that influence the situation and are measurable or reported by the person.  Residual stimuli are the “makeup” or characteristics of the individual that are present and relevant to the situation but are difficult to measure objectively. .

Adaptation Level cont’d. .

nutrition and elimination. regulation of temperature. Modes of Adaptation Roy identifies four distinct modes or ways of adapting by which man responds to change: 1. and regulation of the endocrine systems. fluid and electrolytes. regulation of senses.Physiological Needs Mode: The physiological adaptive mode relates to the need for physiological integrity as: Exercise and rest. oxygen and circulation. .

Self-Concept Mode  Self-concept defined as “ the composite of believes and feelings that a person holds about him/herself at a given time”.. 2. This view is likened to Talcott Parsons’s view of the human personality as a system. Modes of Adaptation cont’d. .  Roy states that the psychological integrity of the individual is an inner requirement or need.

which Parsons identifies as system adaptation. and pattern- maintenance.Modes of Adaptation cont’d. integration. 2.Self-Concept Mode The personality system has the need to maintain its integrity. goal attainment. .

Body sensation refers to “ how one feels & experiences oneself as a physical being “. 2.Self-Concept Mode • The self-concept encompasses perceptions of the physical and the person self. . Modes of Adaptation cont’d. •The personal self encompasses self consistency. self-ideal and the moral. •The physical-self deals with the body sensation and body image.ethical – spiritual self.

Role Function Mode  Interpersonal interaction satisfies the human’s need to identify the self in relation to others. 3.  The response of others to the self shapes and reshapes one’s behavior .Modes of Adaptation cont’d.

Role Function Mode  Social interaction occurs within the contexts of family.  Behavioral rules or limits that are common within a society are called norms. . and society. will be set that guide one’s actions. groups.  Rules of behavior / limits of behavior. community. Modes of Adaptation cont’d. 3.

Interpersonal Mode  Social integrity for an individual requires more than just the proper performance of roles in social situations. 4. Through interdependence one’s life gains meaning and purpose.  Interdependence is a balance between dependence and independence . Modes of Adaptation cont’d.  The individual acts in ways that will result in satisfying his needs for love and support.

 Furthermore . nursing is a scientific discipline that is practice oriented (Roy 1991)  The model stipulates that a nurse is needed “ when unusual stresses or weakened coping mechanisms make the person’s usual attempts to cope ineffective. . Nursing –concept  Roy (1976) defined nursing as “ a theoretical system of knowledge which prescribes a process of analysis and action related to the care of the ill or potentially ill person.

Nursing –concept  Nursing focuses on the person as a total being who responds to internal and external stimuli ( Roy . quality of life and dying with dignity . 1970)  The goal of nursing is the “ promotion of adaptation in each of the four ( adaptive modes contributing to the person’s health .

and health are linked in the following statements:  The changing environment stimulates the person to make adaptive responses. environment. The person is described as an adaptive system consistently growing and developing within a changing environment ( Andrews and Roy. 1991) . Content of the Model: propositions The metapardigm concepts of person. 1991)  A person’s health can be described as a reflection of this interaction or adaptation ( Andrews and Roy.

1991) . thereby contributing to the person’s health. and nursing are linked the following statements:  The goal of nursing is the promotion of adaptation in each of the four adaptive modes. and dying with dignity ( Andrews and Roy. Content of the Model: propositions cont’d. quality of life. The metapridgm concepts of person. 1991)  The goal of nursing intervention is to maintain and enhance adaptive behaviors and to change ineffective behavior to adaptive ( Andrews and Roy. health .

Content of the Model: propositions cont’d. The linkages of all four metapardigm concepts are presented in this statement:  It is the nurse’s role to promote adaptation in situation of health and illness. thereby promoting adaptation (Andrews and Roy. 1991) . to enhance the interaction of the person with the environment.

identify the focal.  The nurse. and residual stimuli that combine to determine the individual's adaptation level. . Maladaptive behavior as well as adaptive behavior requiring support becomes the focus of the nurse. Nursing activities and nursing process. in her first level assessment. signs that invariably are present when the individual’s biopsycohosocial integrity is threatened.  Second level assessment. observes the for signs of autonomic activity.  The client is the first to be aware of coping failure. contextual.

increasing. This process is referred to nursing diagnosis. decreasing. Nursing activities and nursing process cont’d. and psychological integrity.  The nurse concludes the nursing process with an evaluation of the effectiveness of the nursing intervention in the client goal achievement.  Intervention: Roy developed nursing intervention as attempt to manipulate the environment by removing. .  The second level assessment leads the nurse to identify the adaptation problems. and/or altering stimuli for promoting movement toward peak health and meeting the individual's needs of biological. social.

Roy’s Adaptation Model Interaction Capsulate Acquired Output Input Physiological Environmental Focal Role function Behavioral Changes Contextual Self-concept Responses External & Internal Residual Interdependence Adaptive or Ineffect Adaptation Process Innate Feedback .