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# ERT 209

HEAT & MASS TRANSFER

Sem 2/ 2010-2011
Prepared by;
School of Bioprocess Engineering
University Malaysia Perlis

17 February 2011

Forced
Convection

Outlines
To examine the methods of calculating convection heat
transfer (particularly, the ways of predicting the value of
convection heat transfer coefficient, h)

Convection heat transfer requires an energy balance
along with an analysis of the fluid dynamics of the
problem concern. So that. The discussion will
consider;

 simple relations of fluid dynamics Important for basic
understanding of
 Boundary layer analysis convection heat
transfer

The region of flow that develops from the leading edge of the plate in which
the effects of viscosity  boundary layer (The y position where the
boundary layer ends and the velocity become 0.99 of the free-stream value)

Initially  the boundary layer development is laminar but at some
critical distance from the leading edge (depending on the flow field & fluid
properties), small disturbance in the flow begin to become amplified, and
a transition process takes place until the flow become turbulent.

occurs when  where 

Flat
plate

For transition between
laminar & turbulence

Tube Laminar flow

Turbulence flow

For transition between
laminar & turbulence

d = Tube diameter

no. (Tube) Other Form: Define the mass velocity as  So that. may also written  . Re. mass flow rate  The Reynolds no.

and useful to present some of the equation that apply in these circumstances (the flow at a sufficiently large distance from the plate will behave as a nonviscous flow system). in some instance the fluid may be treated as such. . or Fundamentally a Dynamic Equation (The Bernoulli equation) Where. Classification of Fluid Flows Inviscid Flow Although no real fluid is inviscid.

To solve convection heat transfer coefficient. h we have to: 1)Identify the type of fluid involve to get the fluid properties 2)State the process .

An ideal gas Where: e = Internal Energy i = Entalpy Gas Where: Air . 1) Type of Fluid # Specify the equation of state of fluid  to calculate pressure drop in compressible flow.

& stagnation properties Where: a: Local velocity of sound For an ideal gas: For air behaving as an ideal gas: . 2) State the Process Example: Reversible Adiabatic Flow through a nozzle The relation involved which is relating the properties at some points in the flow to the Mach no.

0 cm.1: Water flow in a diffuser Water at 20 °C flows at 8 kg/s through the diffuser arrangement shown in Figure. Example 5. . Determine the increase in static pressure between sections 1 and 2.0 cm and the diameter at section 2 is 7. the diameter at section 1 is 3. Assume frictionless flow.

.2: Isentropic Expansion of Air Air at 300 °C and 0.. Example 5. Determine the static temp.7 Mpa pressure is expanded isentropically from a tank until the velocity is 300 m/s.4 for air. pressure and Mach number of the air at the high-velocity condition. ϒ= 1.

Can be solved for many boundary conditions. For development in this chapter. .Laminar Boundary Layer on Flat Plate From the analytical analysis by making a force and momentum balance on the element yield  the momentum equation for the laminar boundary layer with constant properties. we shall satisfied with an approximate analysis that furnishes an easier solution without a loss in physical understanding of process involved.

Laminar Boundary Layer on Flat Consider the boundary layer flow Plate system as shown: The free-stream velocity outside the boundary layer is u∞ and the boundary layer thickness is . We wish to make a momentum-and-force balance on the control volume bounded by the plane 1. 2. The boundary layer thickness. Mass flow rate  Where: So that  . A-A and the solid wall.

Calculate the mass flow that enters the boundary layer between x=20 cm and x= 40 cm. s.3: Mass Flow & Boundary-Layer Thickness Air at 27 °C and 1 atm flows over a flat plate at a speed of 2 m/s. The viscosity of air at 27 ° C is 1. Calculate the boundary-layer thickness at distances of 20 cm and 40 cm from the leading edge of the plate. . Assume unit depth in the z direction.85 x 10-5 kg/ m .Example 5.

The Thermal Boundary layer Exist when temperature gradient are present in the flow. If the fluid properties were constant throughout the flow . an appreciable variation between the wall and free stream condition which is film temp. Tf define as: Used Tf to get the fluid properties from properties fluids table .

The Thermal Boundary layer Consider the system shown  Tw: The temp.6 < Pr < 50 over its entire length Rex Pr > 100 Used the average heat transfer coefficient  . of the wall T∞ : The temp. of the fluid outside the thermal boundary layer : Thickness of the thermal boundary layer Basic: convection/conduction hx: Heat transfer coefficient in term of the distance from the leading edge of the plate Case 1 For the plate heated 0.

The Thermal Boundary layer Case 2 For the plate heated starts at or Where: .

The Thermal Boundary layer Constant Heat Flux  To find the distribution of the plate surface temp. and So that  From these equation. can be produce equation .

so that. q w From energy equation of the From energy equation of the boundary layer thermal boundary layer Heat flow. heat capacity. properties be evaluated at film temp. thermal conduction coefficient. 3) Rex at x=xL 4) Nusselt No.6 < Pr < 50 Then  Rex Pr > 100 . 0. The energy Equation of the boundary layer (heat flow. Prandtle no. qw) To determine heat flow. q and heat flux. 2) The properties of fluid at Tf such as kinematic viscosity. q) & the thermal boundary layer (heat flux. it is recommended that the 1) Film temp. q Determine: There is an appreciable variation between wall & free stream condition.

q 5) Heat transfer coefficient. qw . h 6) The average heat transfer coefficient. Heat flux.Heat flow. 7) Heat Flow.

The viscosity of air at 27 ° C is 1.85 x 10-5 kg/ m . Calculate the boundary-layer thickness at distances of 20 cm and 40 cm from the leading edge of the plate. Example 5. Assume unit depth in the z direction and the plate is heated over its entire length to a temp.4: Isothermal Flat Plate Heated Over Entire Length Air at 27 °C and 1 atm flows over a flat plate at a speed of 2 m/s. . s. Calculate the mass flow that enters the boundary layer between x=20 cm and x= 40 cm. Calculate the heat transferred in (a)The first 20 cm of the plate and (b)The first 40 cm of the plate. of 60 ° C.

0 KW heater is constructed of a glass plate with an electrically conducting film that produces a constant heat flux. 1 atm with u∞ = 5 m/s.5: Flat Plate with Constant Heat Flux A 1. . different along the plate and (b)The temperature difference at the trailing edge. The plate is 60 cm by 60 cm and placed in an airstream at 27 °C. Example 5. Calculate (a)The average temp.

. different along the plate and (b)The temperature difference at the trailing edge.6: Plate with Unheated Starting Length A 1. 1 atm with u∞ = 5 m/s.0 KW heater is constructed of a glass plate with an electrically conducting film that produces a constant heat flux. The plate is 60 cm by 60 cm and placed in an airstream at 27 °C. Example 5. Calculate (a)The average temp.

The plate is heated to a uniform temp.2 m/s. of 60 °C. . Calculate the heat lost by the plate.7: Oil Flow Over Heated Flat Plate Engine oil at 20 °C is forced over a 20- cm-square plate at a velocity of 1.Example 5.

D = (shear stress) (Area) . The relation between fluid friction & heat transfer The shear stress at the wall be expressed in term of a friction coefficient. The average of shear stress is a friction coeffiecient Cfx Drag Force. Cf The relation between fluid friction and heat transfer for Laminar flow on a flat plate This is important relation between Where: friction & heat transfer is the drag force (D) which is depends on the average shear stress.

Example 5. Calculate the boundary-layer thickness at distances of 20 cm and 40 cm from the leading edge of the plate. Compute the drag forced exerted on the first 40 cm of the plate using the analogy between fluid friction and heat transfer . s.85 x 10-5 kg/ m .8: Drag Force on a Flat Plate Air at 27 °C and 1 atm flows over a flat plate at a speed of 2 m/s. Calculate the mass flow that enters the boundary layer between x=20 cm and x= 40 cm. of 60 ° C. Assume unit depth in the z direction and the plate is heated over its entire length to a temp. The viscosity of air at 27 ° C is 1.

Turbulent Region 2) Heat transfer (q) from the plate is: Where: . no. Turbulent-boundary-layer heat transfer (q) 1) Determine either the flow is turbulent region or not. Check based on Re.

Turbulent-boundary-layer thickness ( ) The boundary layer thickness measured when 500000>Re<10000000 The boundary layer is fully turbulent from the ledge of the plate The boundary layer follows a laminar growth pattern up to Rcrit= 5 x 105 and turbulent growth thereafter .

Holman 1)5-15 2)5-17 3)5-26 4)5-29 5)5-40 . Assignment 5 (submit: 22 Feb 2011 before 1400) Book: J.P.

distribution . Heat Transfer in Laminar Tube Flow Consider the tube flow system  Aim to calculate the heat transfer under developed flow condition (Laminar Flow) Consider the fluid element derive to get the velocity and temp.

The velocity at the center of the tube  The velocity distribution  The temperature distribution  . the analytical solution give. Heat Transfer in Laminar Tube Flow From the analysis.

temperature different The total energy added (energy balance)  The heat added.Total heat transfer in term of bulk. The total heat transfer  Note: When the statement is made that a fluid enters a tube  used the Bulk Temp. dq can be expressed in term of a bulk temp. to determine fluid properties . different or h.

Tw : The wall temp. is representative of the total energy of the flow at the particular location . Why used Tb? For most tube flow heat transfer problem. that is indicative of the total energy of the flow is an integrated mass energy average temp. the temp. over the entire flow area. h defined by: Where. The Bulk Temperature In tube flow. the topic is the total energy transferred to the fluid . convection heat transfer coefficient. Tb : Bulk temp.  The bulk temp.  At any x position.

 . The Bulk Temperature From the analysis. the analytical solution give. The bulk temp  The wall temp  Heat transfer coefficient  Heat transfer coefficient in term of the Nusselt No.

# used for short & smooth tube # the fluid properties are evaluated at mean bulk temp. Used if  Where: Peclet number (Pe) . Heat Transfer in Laminar Tube Flow The relation to used to calculate heat transfer in laminar tube flow (The empirical relation) Fully developed laminar flow in tubes at constant wall temp. # used for long & smooth tube Fully developed laminar flow in tubes at constant wall temp. of the fluid.

. Heat Transfer in Laminar Tube Flow For rough tubes (relation fluid friction and heat transfer). expressed in term of the Stanton Number: Where.

for laminar entrance regions for the case of a fully developed velocity profile used Graph with “inverse Graetz number” . Heat Transfer in Laminar Tube Flow To calculated local and average Nusselt No.

Local & average Nusselt No. for circular tube thermal entrance regions in fully developed laminar flow .

the analysis must take into consideration the effect of the turbulent eddies in the transfer of heat and momentum) . distribution in the flow # to obtain temp. distribution. Turbulent Flow in a Tube Velocity profile for turbulent flow in a tube  To determine heat transfer analytically  should know the temp.

0 or Relation for turbulent heat transfer in smooth tube # from this analytical solution. Turbulent Flow in a Tube From the analysis.  Pr ≈ 1. the analytical solution give. Heat transfer coefficient in term of the Nusselt No. shows that h higher than those observed in experiment Pr 2/3 . Relates the heat transfer rate to the friction loss in tube flow Where.

different are present in the flow also change in the fluid properties between the wall of the tube & the central flow used Note: All the empirical relation here apply to fully developed turbulent flow in tubes . Turbulent Flow in a Tube Correct relation to used to calculate heat transfer in turbulent tube flow (The empirical relation) is: If wide temp.

Turbulent Flow in a Tube More accurate although more complicated. the expression for fully developed turbulent flow in smooth tube is. or All the properties using in this equation based on Tf  .

Turbulent Flow in a Tube For the entrance region (The flow is not developed). used: .

a)Calculated the heat transfer per unit length of tube if a constant-heat-flux condition is maintained at the wall and the wall temp. all along the length of the tube.Example 6. increase over a 3m length of the tube? . b)How much would the bulk temp.. is 20 °C above the air temp.54 cm) at a velocity of 10 m/s.1: Turbulent Heat Transfer in a Tube Air at 2 atm and 200 °C is heated as it flows through a tube with a diameter on 1 in (2.

Calculate the exit water temp. .0 m long and the wall temp.Example 6.54 cm) diameter at a mean flow velocity of 2 cm/s. is constant at 80 °C. if the tube is 3.2: Heating of Water in Laminar Tube Flow Water at 60 °C enters a tube of 1-in (2.

and the value of h at exit . a)Calculate the heat transfer if the exit bulk temp. A constant heat flux is imposed on the tube wall.0 m/s. is 77 °C b)Calculate the exit wall temp. The length of the tube is 10 cm.0 mm diameter smooth tube with a velocity of 3. Example 6.3: Heating of Air in Laminar Tube Flow for Constant Heat Flux Air at 1 atm and 27 °C enters a 5.

is imposed on the tube wall. A constant wall temp.0 m/s. The length of the tube is 10 cm. is 77 °C b)Calculate the exit wall temp. a)Calculate the heat transfer if the exit bulk temp. and the value of h at exit .0 mm diameter smooth tube with a velocity of 3.4: Heating of Air with Isothermal Tube Wall Air at 1 atm and 27 °C enters a 5. Example 6.

. calculate the length of tube necessary to accomplish the heating. of 90 °C.001 is maintained at a constant wall temp.5: Heat Transfer in a Rough Tube A 2. Water enters the tube at 40 °C and leaves at 60 °C.0 cm diameter tube having a relative roughness of 0.Example 6. if the entering velocity is 3 m/s.

Liquid Metal Heat Transfer # Liquid metal  High heat transfer rate because of the higher thermal conductivities of liquid metal. The relation for calculation of h in fully developed turbulent flow of liquid metal in smooth tubes with uniform heat flux at the wall: All properties at the bulk temp. # used in heat exchanger – so can compact design the HE.: . The relation for calculation heat transfer to liquid metal in tubes with constant wall temp.

Liquid Metal Heat Transfer The relation for calculation of h in fully developed turbulent flow of liquid metal in smooth tubes with constant heat flux condition: for: .

Holman 1)6-2 2)6-3 3)6-9 4)6-13 5)6-31 . Assignment 6 (submit: 01 March 2011) Book: J.P.