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Motivation and Values

The Motivation Process

Processes that lead people to behave as they do.
Occurs when a need arises a consumer wishes to satisfy.
Utilitarian need: Provides a functional or practical benefit
Hedonic need: An experiential need involving emotional
responses or fantasies
End state that is desired by the consumer.
Degree of arousal due to a discrepancy between the
consumers present state & some ideal state
Focus of most of advertising campaigns
Motivational Direction
Needs Versus Wants:
A manifestation of a need created by personal &
cultural factors
Consumers buy to satisfy a need

Types of Needs
Biogenic needs: Needs necessary to maintain life
Psychogenic needs: Culture-related needs
For example,
Need for Status, Power, Affiliation, etc.
Utilitarian needs: Consumers emphasize the
objective, tangible aspects of products
Hedonic needs: Subjective & experiential needs
(eg. excitement, self-confidence, fantasy, etc.)
Classifying Consumer Needs
Specific Needs and Buying Behavior:
Need for achievement: To attain personal accomplishment
Need for affiliation: To be in the company of others
Need for power: To control ones environment
Need for uniqueness: To assert ones individual identity
Research on tipping = effects of giving mints to customers on tips.
Group 1 included mints with bill, not brought by waiter. Increase tips by 3.3%.
Group 2 included mints with bill, but waiter offer mints themselves.
Tips increase by 14%
Last experiment, waiters brought mints, (after few minutes) returned giving
customers another mint = +23% increase in Tips!

Personalisation & follow up is key component

3 Types of Motivational Conflicts
Approach-Approach Conflict:
A person must choose between two desirable alternatives.
Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: A state of tension occurs when
beliefs (or behaviors) conflict with new information. (i.e. UFO)
Cognitive Dissonance Reduction: Process by which people
are motivated to reduce tension between beliefs or behaviors
Approach-Avoidance Conflict:
Exists when consumers desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the
same time.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict:
Consumers face a choice between two
undesirable alternatives.
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
A hierarchy of biogenic and psychogenic needs that specifies certain levels of motives.
Criticisms of Maslows Hierarchy
Too simplistic:
It is possible for the same product or activity to satisfy
every need.
It is too culture-bound:
The assumptions restricted to Western culture
It emphasizes individual needs over group
Some cultures place more value on group welfare
(belongingness needs) than needs of individual (esteem
Consumer Involvement
A persons perceived relevance of the object based Amazon New
Look website
on his/her inherent needs, values, and interests.
Object: A product or brand

Type of information processing depends

on consumers level of involvement
Simple processing: Only basic features of message are
Elaboration: Incoming information is linked to preexisting
Research shows changing a photograph, moving logo or
reducing number of items returned from a search-
- All increased purchase conversion significantly (Philip
Graves, Consumer.ology, 2010)
Conceptual Involvement
Consumer Involvement
Involvement as a Continuum:
Ranges from disinterest to obsession Recipes against boredom

Inertia (Low involvement consumption):

Consumer lacks motivation to consider alternatives
Flow State (High involvement consumption):
Consumer truly involved with site
Cult Products:
Fierce consumer loyalty & perhaps
worship from those highly involved
Online / Virtual Examples?
The Many Faces of Involvement
Product Involvement:
A consumers level of interest in
a particular product
Message-Response Involvement:
(a.k.a. advertising involvement)
Refers to consumers interest in processing the message
Purchase Situation Involvement:
Differences may occur when buying same product for
different contexts
Facebook referral?
Measuring Involvement
Dimensions of Involvement:
Involvement Profile:
Personal interest in product category
Risk importance
Probability of making a bad purchase
Pleasure value of the product category
How closely the product is related to the self?
Zaichkowskys Personal Involvement Inventory Scale

Segmenting by Involvement Levels:

Involvement is a useful basis for
market segmentation
Strategies to Increase Involvement
Appeal to hedonic needs
using sensory appeals to generate attention
Use novel stimuli
unusual imagery, sudden silences, etc.
Use prominent stimuli
Larger involvement features, more color contrasts
Include celebrity endorsers
Bond with consumers
Maintain an ongoing relationship with consumers
Easier Involvement
A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite
(e.g. Believing in God is preferable to Atheism)
Personal Values:
Belief system of the Individual (see article for more info)
Religion, Politics, Health, Happiness, etc
Core Values:
General set of values uniquely define a culture
Value system: A cultures rankings of the relative importance of
universal values. (American Dream? Irish Field?)
Learning the value systems of ones own culture
Cultural beliefs are taught by socialisation agents (i.e., parents, friends,
and teachers)
Application of Values to
Online Consumer

Distinctions in values for

consumer behavior research
Cultural Values (e.g. security or
Consumption-Specific Values (e.g.
convenient shopping or prompt service)
Product-Specific Values (e.g. ease-of-
use or durability)
Most consumer psych research
related to identification &
measurement of values.
(See VALS exercise)
Measuring Cultural Values
The Rokeach Value Survey
Terminal Values: Desired end states
Instrumental Values: Actions needed to achieve terminal values
The List of Values (LOV) Scale
Developed to isolate values with direct marketing applications
Identifies nine (9) consumer segments based on the values they endorse
Relates each value to differences in consumption

Example: Observe peoples values in everyday life: Coffee.

People who value fun & enjoyment in life want coffee for its rich,
pleasant taste.
People who value a sense of accomplishment use coffee as mild
People who value warm, loving relationships with others want
coffee to share in a social manner.
(Gurel-Atay, Eda. Changes in Social Values in the United States: 1976-2007, Self-Respect is on the Upswing as A
Sense of Belonging Becomes Less Important. Journal of Advertising Research. 2010: 57-67)
The Means-End Chain Model
1. Laddering:
A technique that uncovers consumers associations between
attributes & consequences
2. Means-End value maps:
Show how product attributes are linked to desired end states
3. Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of
Advertising Strategy (MECCAS):
Message Elements
Consumer Benefits
Executional Framework
Leverage Point
Driving Force

(See Handout for sample exercise)

Further Reading
Solomon (2011) Chapter 3
Jin, C. and J. Villegas (2007) Consumer Responses
to Advertising on the Internet: The Effect of
Individual Difference on Ambivalence and
Avoidance. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 258-266.