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Solid Waste

Management and
Disposal
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The Nature of the Problem


Methods of Waste Disposal
Methods of Waste Reduction
Solid Waste
all the wastes arising from human and
animal activities that are normally solid
and that are discarded as useless or
unwanted
generated from industrial, residential and
commercial activities in a given area
can degrade water quality, soil quality, air
quality, and human health
in the Philippines, solid waste is an
indication of urbanization
Solid Waste
categorize according to:
its origin: domestic, industrial,
commercial, construction or
institutional
its contents: organic material, glass,
metal, plastic, paper, etc.
hazard potential: toxic, non-toxin,
flammable, radioactive, infectious, etc.
sources: sources of solid waste.png
msw.png
Solid Waste
classification:
source-based

type-based
Solid Waste
Source-based
Classification
Residential
refers to wastes from dwellings,
apartments, etc., and consists of leftover
food, vegetable peels, plastic, clothes,
ashes, etc.
Commercial
refers to wastes consisting of leftover
food, glasses, metals, ashes, etc.,
generated from stores, restaurants,
markets, hotels, motels, auto-repair
shops, medical facilities, etc.
Solid Waste

Institutional
mainly consists of paper, plastic, glasses,
etc., generated from educational,
administrative and public buildings such
as schools, colleges, offices, prisons, etc.
Municipal
includes dust, leafy matter, building
debris, treatment plant residual sludge,
etc., generated from various municipal
activities like construction and
demolition, street cleaning, landscaping,
etc.
Solid Waste
Industrial
mainly consists of process wastes, ashes,
demolition and construction wastes, hazardous
wastes, etc., due to industrial activities
Agricultural
mainly consists of spoiled food grains and
vegetables, agricultural remains, litter, etc.,
generated from fields, orchards, vineyards,
farms, etc.
Open areas
includes wastes from areas such as Streets,
alleys, parks, vacant lots, playgrounds,
beaches, highways, recreational areas, etc.
Solid Waste
Type-based
Classification
Garbage
refers to animal and vegetable wastes
resulting from the handling, sale, storage,
preparation, cooking and serving of food
Ashes and Residues
substances remaining from the burning of
wood, coal, charcoal, coke and other
combustible materials for cooking and
heating in houses, institutions and small
industrial establishments
Solid Waste
Combustible and Non-combustible Wastes
consist of wastes generated from households,
institutions, commercial activities, etc., excluding
food wastes and other highly putrescible material
Bulky Wastes
include large household appliances such as
refrigerators, washing machines, furniture, crates,
vehicle parts, tyres, wood, trees and branches
Street Wastes
refer to wastes that are collected from streets,
walkways, alleys, parks and vacant plots, and
include paper, cardboard, plastics, dirt, leaves
and other vegetable matter
Solid Waste
Biodegradable and Non-biodegradable
Wastes
refer to substances consisting of organic matter
such as leftover food, vegetable and fruit peels,
paper, textile, wood, etc., generated from
various household and industrial activities; and
consist of inorganic and recyclable materials
such as plastic, glass, cans, metals, etc.
Dead Animals
those that die naturally or are accidentally
killed on the road
does not include carcasses and animal parts
from slaughter-houses, which are regarded as
industrial wastes
Solid Waste

Abandoned Vehicles
includes automobiles, trucks and trailers that
are abandoned on streets and other public
places
Construction and Demolition Wastes
wastes generated as a result of construction,
refurbishment, repair and demolition of houses,
commercial buildings and other structures
Farm Wastes
wastes result from diverse agricultural
activities such as planting, harvesting,
production of milk, rearing of animals for
slaughter and the operation of feedlots
Solid Waste
Hazardous Wastes
those defined as wastes of industrial, institutional
or consumer origin that are potentially dangerous
either immediately or over a period of time to
human beings and the environment
typical examples are empty containers of solvents,
paints and pesticides, which are frequently mixed
with municipal wastes and become part of the
urban waste stream
Sewage Wastes
solid by-products of sewage treatment
mostly organic and derived from the treatment of
organic sludge separated from both raw and
treated sewages
Summary: summary of type-based classification.png
Hazardous and Toxic
Wastes
Hazardous Waste
wastethat poses substantial or
potential threats topublic healthor
theenvironment
defined under RCRA in 40 CFR 261
where they are divided into two
major categories: characteristic
wastes and listed wastes
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes
categories:
Characteristic Hazardous Wastes are
materials that are known or tested to exhibit one
or more of the following four hazardous traits:
Ignibility - ability of a substance to burn or
ignite, causing fire or combustion
Reactivity - tendency of a substance to
undergo chemical reaction, either by itself or
with other materials, and to release energy
Corrosivity - a measure of how aggressive
water is at corroding pipes and fixtures
Toxicity - the degree to which a substance (a
toxin or poison) can harm humans or animals
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes

Listed Hazardous Wastes


are materials specifically listed
by regulatory authorities as
hazardous wastes which are from
non-specific sources, specific
sources, ordiscarded chemical
products
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes
disposal:
Recycling
many hazardous wastes can be
recycled into new products
Portland cement
another commonly used treatment is
cement basedsolidification and
stabilization
cement is used because it can treat a
range of hazardous wastes by
improving physical characteristics and
decreasing the toxicity and
transmission of contaminants
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes
Incineration, destruction and waste-to-energy
not only reduce the amount of hazardous waste,
but also generate energy from the gases released
in the process
Hazardous waste landfill (sequestering,
isolation, etc.)
a disposal facility or part of a facility where
hazardous waste is placed or on land and which is
not a pile, a land treatment facility, a surface
impoundment, an underground injection well, a salt
dome formation, a salt bed formation, an
underground mine, a cave, or a corrective action
management unit (40 CFR 260.10)
Pyrolysis
Eliminates hazardous wastein an ultra high
temperature electrical arc, in inert conditions to
avoid combustion
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes

Toxic Waste
any material in liquid, solid, or gas form
that can cause harm by being inhaled,
swallowed, or absorbed through the skin
many of todays household products
such as televisions, computers and
phones contain toxic chemicals that can
pollute the air and contaminate soils
and water
disposing of such waste is a major
public health issue
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes

disposal:
Disposal Facilities
usually designed to permanently
contain the waste and prevent the
release of harmful pollutants to the
environment
such as a landfill, surface
impoundment, waste pile, land
treatment unit, or injection well
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes
landfill - a site for the disposal ofwastematerials by
burial and the oldest form ofwaste treatment
surface impoundment - include natural topographic
depressions, man-made excavations and diked areas
that primarily are made of earthen materials and
which hold liquid wastes; surface impoundments.png
waste pile an accumulation of solid waste materials
at a specific
land treatment unit a location in which land is
treated, usually throughbioremediationprocesses,
to reduce thetoxicityof thesoil
injection well - a liquid waste disposal technology;
uses injection wells to place treated or untreated
liquid waste into geologic formations that have no
potential to allow migration of contaminants into
potential potable water aquifers; deep-well
injection.png
Waste Stream
a term to describe the entire life cycle
of the garbage we produce from
putting out the trash and recycling for
pick up to landfilling, energy production
and the reuse of recycled materials
a term that describe the steady flow of
varied waste
the final resting place of toxic and non
toxic wastes
Waste Stream
major components: organic material,
food waste, junked car, worn out
furniture, news paper, magazines,
metal, glass, plastic food and
beverage container, wood, concrete,
bricks, spray paint can, pesticides,
batteries, cleaning solvent, smoke
detector and plastic
Follow the Waste Stream.pdf
Waste Stream
Tour
Methods of Waste
Disposal
Methods of Waste
Disposal

Insanitary Methods
Hog Feeding
disposal of garbage into sewers; disposal
of residual refuse
Dumping
refuse dumped in low lying areas
bacterial action over time, decreases
volume of refuse which is gradually
converted into humus
olongapo-dumpsite-leptospirosis-
20131014-3.jpg
Methods of Waste
Disposal

Sanitary Methods
Sanitary landfill/ Controlled
tipping
laying of dry and condensed refuse
in a trench or other prepared area
with intervening earth coverings
modern landfill design: modern
landfill design1.jpg
Methods of Waste
Disposal

Composting
a process in which organic matter of
solid waste is decomposed and
converted to humus and mineral
compounds
compost is the end product of
composting, which used as fertilizer
3 methods:
composting by trenching
open windrow composting
mechanical composting
Methods of Waste
Disposal
3 methods of composting:
Composting by Trenching
relatively simple; the act of burying your organic
waste directly into your garden soil
Open Windrow Composting
organic waste is formed into rows of long piles
called windrows and aerated by turning the
pile periodically by either manual or mechanical
means
Mechanical Composting
process of stabilization is expedited by
mechanical devices of turning the compost
compost manufactured by processing raw
materials
Methods of Waste
Disposal
Manure pits
used in rural households
covered with earth after each days
dumping
Burial
suitable for small settlements/camps
Biogas plant
biogas is produced by the anaerobic
breakdown of solid waste /excreta
Methods of Waste
Disposal
Incineration
awaste treatment processthat involves
thecombustionoforganicsubstances
contained in waste materials
a controlled process in which mixed
garbage is burned at very high
temperatures
used to reduce the volume of waste and
generate electricity
converts the waste into ash, flue gas, and
heat
incinerators are used for this process
Methods of Waste
Disposal
types of incinerators:
Controlled Air Static Hearth
Incinerator
best suited for wastes which do not
require frequent raking or agitation to
ensure that they burn properly
CONTROLLED AIR STATIC HEARTH
INCINERATOR.png
Rotary Kiln Incinerator
allows incineration of almost all types
of waste safely and efficiently
ROTARY KILN INCINERATOR.png
Methods of Waste
Disposal
Fluidized Bed Incinerator
a refractory lined vertical shell
incineration is by the classic
bubbling fluidized bed combustion
process with the sludge being
mixed by the sand and burnt with
the assistance of the combustion
air
does not have any moving parts
within
FLUIDIZED BED INCINERATOR.png
Methods of Waste
Disposal
Thermal Oxidisers
used to treat acidic / vent / off gases produced
by a variety of industries including Oil & Gas,
printing presses, painting operations, food
processing and many more
a direct combustion type and is particularly
used in SRUs (Sulphur Recovery Units) by
incineration of acidic gases
THERMAL OXIDISERS.png
Liquid Waste Incinerators
generally selected for wastes which can be
atomized and sprayed either through a burner
or through a special nozzle and if required, in
combination with compressed air or steam
LIQUID WASTE INCINERATORS.png
Methods of Waste
Disposal

Typical Incineration Process


Methods of Waste

How does incinerators


Disposal

work?
Methods of Waste
Disposal
advantages:
most hygienic method
complete destruction of pathogens
no odor trouble
heat generated may be used for
steam power
clinkers produced may be used for
road construction
less space required
adverse weather condition has no
effect
Methods of Waste
Disposal
disadvantages:
large initial expense
care and attention required otherwise
incomplete combustion will increase air pollution
residues required to be disposed which require
money
large no. of vehicles required for transportation
large amount of air pollution and ash generated
generation of hazardous residues
large impact on surrounding communities that
must deal with unpleasant side effects
loss of potential recyclables
large investment required and long lead time
before operation
Solid Waste
Management
associated with the control of waste
generation, its storage, collection,
transfer and transport, processing
and disposal in a manner that is in
accordance with the best principles
of public health, economics,
engineering, conservation,
aesthetics, public attitude and other
environmental considerations
SWM System
refers to a combination of various
functional elements associated with
the management of solid wastes
when put in place, facilitates the
collection and disposal of solid wastes
in the community at minimal costs,
while preserving public health and
ensuring little or minimal adverse
impact on the environment
SWM System
functional elements:
Waste generation
Waste storage
Waste collection
Transfer and transport
Processing
Recovery and recycle
Waste disposal
SWM
System

Functional Elements
Waste generation
wastes are generated at the start of
any process, and thereafter, at every
stage as raw materials are converted
into goods for consumption
Waste storage
storage is a key functional element
because collection of wastes never
takes place at the source or at the time
of their generation
SWM
System
Waste collection
includes gathering of wastes and hauling
them to the location, where the collection
vehicle is emptied, which may be a transfer
station, a processing plant or a disposal site
different techniques used in waste
collection:
Door-to-Door Collection
collectors move materials from house to
house in the target area to collect
recyclables and sell them to
dealers/junkshops
SWM
System
Stationary Collection this
collection system utilizes MRFs in
barangays that are set up within or
near the targeted collection area for
the temporary storage of segregated
recyclables, which are brought to or
picked up by collectors or junkshop
dealers
Waste Collection by Trucks
garbage truck workers segregate
recyclable materials while collecting
garbage from house to house, and sell
them to the junkshops
SWM
System
Transfer and transport
involves transfer of wastes from smaller
collection vehicles, where necessary to
overcome the problem of narrow access
lanes, to larger ones at transfer stations;
and subsequent transport of the wastes,
usually over long distances, to disposal
sites
Processing
required to alter the physical and chemical
characteristics of wastes for energy and
resource recovery and recycling
SWM
System
Recovery and recycle
includes various techniques, equipment and
facilities used to improve both the efficiency
of disposal system and recovery of usable
material and energy
RA 9003 mandates the establishment of a
Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) in every
barangay or cluster of barangays in barangay-
owned, leased land or any suitable open
space designated by the barangay
the MRF shall be designed to receive, sort,
process and store compostable and recyclable
material efficiently and in an environmentally
sound manner
SWM
System
Waste disposal
the ultimate fate of all solid wastes,
be they residential wastes, semi-
solid wastes from municipal and
industrial treatment plants,
incinerator residues, composts or
other substances that have no
further use to the society

swm functional elements.png


SWM in the Philippines
SWM implementation follows a hierarchy
of options as illustrated by an inverted
triangle - swm hierarchy.png
the most preferred option is waste
avoidance and reduction where the
ultimate goal is to reduce the amount of
materials entering the waste stream
apart from avoidance, achieving this goal
involves product reuse, increased product
durability, reduced material use in
production and decreased consumption
SWM in the Philippines

Waste Avoidance
given little importance in the waste
management programs of LGUs, even
as it is the first preferred option in the
waste management hierarchy
refers to an action to reduce the
amount of waste generated by
households, industry, and all levels of
government
the key to a successful waste avoidance
program is a change in the peoples
attitude
SWM in the Philippines

Reduction
decreasing unnecessary and
wasteful purchases
decreasing the volume of waste
decreasing pollutants
when you reduce the amount of
waste you throw away, you save
landfill space, save raw materials
and natural resources such as
energy and water, and save money
SWM in the Philippines

Reuse
another way of decreasing the amount
of waste you throw away, which in turn
decreases the volume of waste
destined for landfill
Other different initiatives are now
being practiced by various sectors
include Green Procurement,
implementation of the 3Rs and
identification of the Non-
Environmentally Acceptable Products
(NEAP)
SWM in the Philippines

Green Procurement On March 29, 2004,


the Office of the President issued
Executive Order No. 301 establishing a
A Green Procurement Program for All
Departments, Bureaus, Offices, and
Agencies of the Executive Branch of
Government.
Green Procurement is an approach to
procurement in which environmental
impacts play an important role in
purchasing decisions, with procurement
officers concerned about them more than
price and quality.
SWM in the Philippines

Current initiatives by the private sector


Uniliver Philippines has a project named
Project Eliminate, which was created to
target ZERO LANDFILL in their plant and
offices.
They reached their target in 2004 and the
company has maintained it since then,
concentrating on the following goals:
Reduce/Avoid
Reuse
Recycle
SWM in the Philippines

Reduce / Avoid
Through Total Productive
Maintenance (TPM), they improved
their process and reduced their waste
by 80%. Furthermore, as plastic is
made from oil, they developed a
process to use the residual packaging
waste as a co-fuel for cement
manufacture.
SWM in the Philippines
Reuse Sort all recyclable which cannot
be avoided and develop processes to
treat the waste that cannot be recycled.

Recycle A lot of our landfill can be


recycled directly. Teams were put in place
to improve sorting in the production lines.
Now, they sell carton and plastic to
recyclers and as a result, their garbage
was reduced by 50%. (Source: e-copy file
of Uniliver Philippines)
SWM in the Philippines
Non-Environmentally Acceptable Packaging (NEAP)
materials
Section 5 of Rule XII of the RA9003 IRR stipulates that:
The Commission should decide on the basis of a set of
criteria, which products orpackaging are non-
environmentally acceptable. Provided, that this criteria
is regularlyreviewed to ensure its appropriateness and
accuracy, in light of scientific and technicalprogress,
and of the experience gained in this area.Prohibiting
non-environmentally acceptable products, any decision
to prohibit certainpackaging types and products must
be supported by available scientific,
environmental,technical and economic information and
technical studies through, but not limited to lifecycle
assessment and economic analysis.Provided that the
Commission consults representatives from affected
industries and subject to public notice and hearing.
SWM in the Philippines
A Technical Working Committee within
the National Solid Waste Management
Commission was created to identify
NEAP materials. The committee
identified the following products that
are due for assessment:
a. Plastic Packaging (Sando Bags,
Polystyrene, Laminates, Sachets)
including Food Containers and Baby
Products with Pthalates Core Members:
DOH-FDA, PPIA, PIP, PPCP, DTI-BPS, NGO,
Academe (Ateneo, UP, Mapua, La Salle)
SWM in the Philippines
b. Electronic Goods (Includes Cellphone,
Cellphone Batteries and Accessories) Core
Members: PAIA/EAPI, DTI-BPS, DENR-EMB,
PPIA, NGO, Academe (UP, Mapua, La Salle)
c. Products with Heavy Metals DOH-FDA,
DTI-BPS, DENR-EMB, NGO, Academe (UP,
Mapua), NGO, Academe (Ateneo, UP,
Mapua, La Salle), Private Sector
d. Construction Materials DPWH, DTI-BPS,
FPI, PCEPSDI, PPCP, Academe (UP
Engineering, Mapua, La Salle)
SWM in the Philippines

Laws governing SWM


The Ecological Solid Waste
Management Act (RA 9003)
in 2001, Republic Act 9003 (RA 9003),
otherwise known as the Ecological
Solid Waste Management Act of 2000,
was enacted into law declaring the
policy of the government to adopt a
systematic, comprehensive, and
ecological solid waste management
program in the country
SWM in the Philippines
The ecological solid waste management
(ESWM) policy is based on the management
of waste in the following hierarchy:
Source reduction (avoidance) and
minimization of waste generated at source
Reuse, recycling and resource recovery of
wastes at the barangay level
Efficient collection, proper transfer, and
transport of wastes by city/municipality
Efficient management of residuals and of
final disposal sites and/or any other
related technologies for the
destruction/reuse of residuals
SWM in the Philippines
Provided in RA 9003 and its IRR are mandates and
schedules of implementation to be undertaken by
provincial, city/municipal, and barangay governments
within their jurisdiction. The most important of these
include:
Creation of a Solid Waste Management (SWM) Board
(city/municipal and provincial levels)
Creation of a SWM Committee (barangay level)
Submission of a 10-year SWM Plan (city/municipal
levels)
Establishment of Materials Recovery Facilities (MRF)
per barangay or cluster of barangays and
city/municipal centralized MRF
Closure of open dumpsites and conversion into
controlled dumpsites by 2004 (city/municipal levels)
Banning of controlled dumpsites by 2006
(city/municipal levels)
SWM in the Philippines
Republic Act No. 6969 (Toxic Substances
and Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Act of
1990)
the act calls for the regulation of and restriction
on the importation, manufacture, processing,
sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical
substances and mixtures that pose risk and/or
injury to health and to the natural environment
Republic Act No. 7160 (Local Government
Code (LGC) of 1991)
the act devolved certain powers to the local
governments units, including enforcement of
laws and cleanliness and sanitation, solid waste
management, and other environmental matters
SWM in the Philippines
Republic Act No. 8749 (Clean Air Act of 1999)
the act directs all government agencies to adopt the
integrated air quality framework as a blueprint for
compliance
among its salient provisions are the polluters must pay
principle, and the prohibition of the use of the incineration
method, which is defined as the burning of municipal,
biomedical and hazardous waste or the process, which
emits poisonous and toxic fumes
the act further mandates LGUs to promote, encourage,
and implement segregation, recycling and composting
within their jurisdiction
it also required the phasing out of incinerators by July
2003
SWM in the Philippines

Republic Act No. 9275 (Philippine Clean


Water Act of 2004)
the act provides for the protection,
preservation, revival of quality of fresh,
brackish and marine waters of the country to
pursue economic growth
Republic Act No. 9512 (Environmental
Awareness and Education Act of 2008)
the act promotes environmental awareness
through environmental education. It integrates
environmental education in the school curricula
at all levels, public or private, barangay day care
and pre-school, and non-formal, vocational, and
indigenous learning.
SWM in the Philippines

Republic Act 9513 (Renewable Energy Act


of 2008)
the act promotes the development, utilization
and commercialization of renewable energy
and for other purposes
Republic Act (RA) 9729 (Climate Change
Act of 2009)
the act declares as a Philippine policy the
adoption of the ultimate objective of the
UNFCC convention, which is the stabilization of
greenhouse gas concentration in the
atmosphere at a level that would prevent
dangerous anthropogenic interference with the
climate system
SWM in the Philippines

Presidential Decree No. 856 (Code of


Sanitation of the Philippines)
the decree prescribes sanitation requirements for
hospitals, markets, ports, airports, vessels, aircraft,
food establishments, buildings, and other
establishments
Refuse collection and disposal system in cities and
municipalities are described in Chapter XVIII of the
law
Presidential Decree No. 1160
the law vests authority in Barangay Captains
(Barangay Chairmen) to enforce pollution and
environmental control laws. It also deputizes the
Barangay Councilman and Barangay Zone
Chairman as peace officers
SWM in the Philippines

Presidential Decree No. 1586


(Environmental Impact Assessment Law)
approved on June 11, 1978, the law establishes
and institutionalizes an environmental impact
system where projects to be undertaken would
be reconciled with the requirements of
environmental quality
this requires proponents of critical projects and
projects located in critical areas to secure an
environmental compliance certificate (ECC) from
the President or his duly authorized
representative
the inclusion of the construction of Sanitary
Landfills (SLF) as a critical project was done later
SWM in the Philippines
Executive Order (EO) No. 774
issued on December 26, 2008 the order calls for the
reorganization of the Presidential Task Force on
Climate Change (PTFCC), headed by the President,
with all cabinet members as members of the Task
Force
created 13 Task Groups that included solid waste
management.
The Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and
Management Act of 2010
in relation to Climate Change program, the law
supports the 3 Rs of SWM in promoting to consumers
avoidance of using the disposable and unnecessary
products in order to avoid or reduce the solid wastes
generated by households, commercials, institutional,
industries and all levels of stakeholders
Reported by:
Abellana, Angel Allyne
Calunsag, Gladylaine
Lape, Angelie M.
GE 5-1