Why do people love? If we are moving towards a place and time is also moving, then it What is evil?

must mean that we never really reach our destination« How do we attain happiness?

Which came first, the chicken or the egg? If reality is what is perceived Who are you? by our senses then could we consider the things that we Is there a god? heaven? hell? do not perceive as real?

What is Philosophy?

Why is there evil and suffering ? Why are you here?

What do philosophers do?


Philosophy in the Philippine Context 

The negative image of a philosopher (pilosopo) could be traced to the influence brought about by the misreadings of Rizal·s novels, Noli and El Fili

Philosophy in the Philippine Context  

Instead of taking the criticisms of Pilosopong Tasyo, What was inculcated in the mind of the Filipinos was the image of a person who is annoying (´makulitµ, ´matanongµ at ´nakakainisµ) Philosophy was taken as a decadent and evil way of thought which should be avoided

Sorting out the mess« 

Philosophy is historically situated Philosophy is not a singular ideology Philosophy is not a stand alone discipline Philosophy does not provide the solution to the problems of the world   

Sorting out the mess« 

There is no such thing as an irrefutable philosophy Philosophy is not intellectual masturbation Not all philosophers are atheists  

Defining Philosophy 

Etymological Definition   

I am not a sophist, I am only a philosopherPythagoras Philo/ philein ² to love + Sophia ² wisdom = philosophy (love of wisdom)

Defining Philosophy 

Nominal Definition Philosophy is the science of all things in their ultimate causes and principles as known by the light of natural reason

Defining Philosophy 

Science ² it is a science in as much as it tries to investigate things (beings and entities) in a methodic organized manner

Defining Philosophy 

It is concerned with all things which can be comprehended by the human mind

e.g. the trees, the sun, heavenly bodies, god, love, death, right and wrong

Defining Philosophy 

In their ultimate causes and principles ² because philosophy is concerned with the ´whyµ as pertaining to the reason / meaning/truth behind things

Defining Philosophy 

Natural Reason ² the only tool that philosophy uses is ´reasonµ It does not use faith in dealing with its investigations but it can possibly reinforce faith (e.g. medieval philosophy) Knowing is different from Believing  

Other definitions« 

Philosophy is a personal towards life and the universe


It is a method of reflective thinking and reasoned inquiry An attempt to gain a view of the big whole 

Other Definitions« 

The logical analysis of language and the clarification of meaning of words and concepts A group of problems as well as theories or solution 

Why study philosophy? 

If philosophy is so good then how come your teacher is not earning much from it? If it is so good then how come the world is as terrible as it is? And if philosophy is so good, why isn·t everyone interested in it?


Philosophy will enable you to systematize all the important knowledge in the domain of reason It will guide you in distinguishing truth from error and help you search for truth It will provide you with the ability to analyze and understand things not only as they are but also with what lies beneath these things


Philosophy will give you insights about your nature as a human being; it will help you understand yourself and others, and in turn helps you improve yourself Philosophy will guide you in your search for meaning and the cause of your existence 

at some point in time, everything must have come from something« 

The first philosophers were the Milesians and the Pre-Socratics What is the ultimate stuff which comprise the universe? Where begin? did everything   


A Brief History Thales Anaximander Anaximenes

A Brief History

Pythagoras Heraclitus Parmenides

A Brief History

Empedocles Leucippus Democritus

The Triumvirate

Socrates Plato Aristotle

Fides et Ratio« 

Marriage of faith and reason St. Thomas· 5 proofs of God·s existence THEOCENTRIC



Enlightenment Period 

How do we know? How do we attain certainty? IDEOCENTRIC  


Anthropocentric? Pastiche? Postmodern? Phenomenological?   

Branches of Philosophy 

Philosophy is generally concerned with three things -the world -the human being -the transcendental realm 


*Metaphysics ² deals with the study of the nature of beings as it tries to answer questions like ´What is being?µ and ´What are the fundamental properties of being?µ


Epistemology ² comes from gk. Episteme which means ´knowledgeµ and Logos ² study

-What is knowledge? How do we know and is knowledge possible?


Ethics- study of morality of human acts. It deals with the axioms in which man would consider his moral activity Cosmology - the science of the nature of the world. How the universe came to be and how the world operates.



Aesthetics ² the philosophical study of art and of value judgments about art, and of beauty in general Rational Psychology ² the study of human beings particularly their existence. Topics such as freedom, love death, responsibility etc. are discussed. 


Social Philosophy / Political Philosophy ² study of man and society (social organizations, government) Logic ² the science and art of valid inferential reasoning. It is the technology of judgment in which thoughts are communicated and he same time validated in its processes 

Current Traditions
Analytic Philosophy ² logic, testability, precision and clarity -close linguistic analyses  Existentialism ² fundamental questions of meaning and choices as they affect individuals  Phenomenology ² ´going back to the things themselvesµ 

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