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Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body

Temperature Regulation

Chapter 24
Nutrition
Nutrient a substance that promotes
normal growth, maintenance, and
repair
Major nutrients carbohydrates,
lipids, and proteins
Other nutrients vitamins and
minerals (and technically speaking,
water)
Nutrition

Figure 24.1
Carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrates (starches) are
found in bread, cereal, flour, pasta, nuts,
and potatoes
Simple carbohydrates (sugars) are found
in soft drinks, candy, fruit, and ice cream
Glucose is the molecule ultimately used
by body cells to make ATP
Neurons and RBCs rely almost entirely
upon glucose to supply their energy needs
Excess glucose is converted to glycogen
or fat and stored
Carbohydrates
The minimum amount of carbohydrates
needed to maintain adequate blood
glucose levels is 100 grams per day
Starchy foods and milk have nutrients
such as vitamins and minerals in
addition to complex carbohydrates
Refined carbohydrate foods (candy and
soft drinks) provide energy sources only
and are referred to as empty calories
Lipids
The most abundant dietary lipids, triglycerides,
are found in both animal and plant foods
Essential fatty acids linoleic and linolenic acid,
found in most vegetables, must be ingested
Dietary fats:
Help the body to absorb vitamins
Are a major energy fuel of hepatocytes and
skeletal muscle
Are a component of myelin sheaths and all cell
membranes
Lipids
Fatty deposits in adipose tissue
provide:
A protective cushion around body
organs
An insulating layer beneath the skin
An easy-to-store concentrated source of
energy
Lipids
Prostaglandins function in:
Smooth muscle contraction
Control of blood pressure
Inflammation
Cholesterol stabilizes membranes
and is a precursor of bile salts and
steroid hormones
Lipids: Dietary
Requirements
Higher for infants and children than for
adults
The American Heart Association suggests
that:
Fats should represent less than 30% of ones
total caloric intake
Saturated fats should be limited to 10% or
less of ones total fat intake
Daily cholesterol intake should not exceed
200 mg
Proteins
Complete proteins that meet all the
bodys amino acid needs are found in
eggs, milk, milk products, meat, and
fish
Incomplete proteins are found in
legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and
vegetables
Proteins
Proteins supply:
Essential amino acids, the building
blocks for nonessential amino acids
Nitrogen for nonprotein nitrogen-
containing substances
Daily intake should be approximately
0.8g/kg of body weight
Proteins: Synthesis and
Hydrolysis
All-or-none rule
All amino acids needed must be present
at the same time for protein synthesis to
occur
Adequacy of caloric intake
Protein will be used as fuel if there is
insufficient carbohydrate or fat available
Proteins: Synthesis and
Hydrolysis
Nitrogen balance
The rate of protein synthesis equals the rate
of breakdown and loss
Positive synthesis exceeds breakdown
(normal in children and tissue repair)
Negative breakdown exceeds synthesis
(e.g., stress, burns, infection, or injury)
Hormonal control
Anabolic hormones accelerate protein
synthesis
Vitamins
Organic compounds needed for growth
and good health
They are crucial in helping the body use
nutrients and often function as
coenzymes
Only vitamins D, K, and B are synthesized
in the body; all others must be ingested
Water-soluble vitamins (B-complex and C)
are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract
B12 additionally requires gastric intrinsic factor
to be absorbed
Vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K)
bind to ingested lipids and are
absorbed with their digestion
products
Vitamins A, C, and E also act in an
antioxidant cascade
Minerals
Seven minerals are required in
moderate amounts
Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur,
sodium, chloride, and magnesium
Dozens are required in trace amounts
Minerals work with nutrients to
ensure proper body functioning
Calcium, phosphorus, and
magnesium salts harden bone
Minerals
Sodium and chloride help maintain
normal osmolarity, water balance,
and are essential in nerve and
muscle function
Uptake and excretion must be
balanced to prevent toxic overload
Metabolism
Metabolism all chemical reactions
necessary to maintain life
Cellular respiration food fuels are
broken down within cells and some of
the energy is captured to produce ATP
Anabolic reactions synthesis of larger
molecules from smaller ones
Catabolic reactions hydrolysis of
complex structures into simpler ones
Metabolism
Enzymes shift the high-energy
phosphate groups of ATP to other
molecules
These phosphorylated molecules are
activated to perform cellular
functions
Stages of Metabolism
Energy-containing nutrients are
processed in three major stages
Digestion breakdown of food; nutrients
are transported to tissues
Anabolism and formation of catabolic
intermediates where nutrients are:
Built into lipids, proteins, and glycogen
Broken down by catabolic pathways to pyruvic
acid and acetyl CoA
Oxidative breakdown nutrients are
catabolized to carbon dioxide, water, and
ATP
Stages of Metabolism

Figure 24.3
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox)
Reactions
Oxidation occurs via the gain of oxygen or
the loss of hydrogen
Whenever one substance is oxidized,
another substance is reduced
Oxidized substances lose energy
Reduced substances gain energy
Coenzymes act as hydrogen (or electron)
acceptors
Two important coenzymes are
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
Mechanisms of ATP Synthesis:
Substrate-Level
Phosphorylation
High-energy
phosphate groups
are transferred
directly from
phosphorylated
substrates to ADP
ATP is
synthesized via
substrate-level
phosphorylation
in glycolysis and
the Krebs cycle
Figure 24.4a
Mechanisms of ATP Synthesis:
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Is carried out by the electron transport
proteins in the cristae of the mitochondria
Nutrient energy is used to pump hydrogen
ions into the intermembrane space
A steep diffusion gradient across the
membrane results
When hydrogen ions flow back across the
membrane through ATP synthase, energy is
captured and attaches phosphate groups to
ADP (to make ATP)
Mechanisms of ATP Synthesis:
Oxidative Phosphorylation

Figure 24.4b
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Since all carbohydrates are transformed
into glucose, it is essentially glucose
metabolism
Oxidation of glucose is shown by the
overall reaction:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATP +
heat
Glucose is catabolized in three pathways
Glycolysis
Krebs cycle
The electron transport chain and oxidative
phosphorylation
Carbohydrate Catabolism

Figure 24.5
Glycolysis
A three-phase pathway in which:
Glucose is oxidized into pyruvic acid
NAD+ is reduced to NADH + H+
ATP is synthesized by substrate-level
phosphorylation
Pyruvic acid:
Moves on to the Krebs cycle in an aerobic
pathway
Is reduced to lactic acid in an anaerobic
environment
Glycolysis

Figure 24.6
Krebs Cycle: Preparatory
Step
Occurs in the mitochondrial matrix
and is fueled by pyruvic acid and
fatty acids
Krebs Cycle: Preparatory
Step
Pyruvic acid is converted to acetyl
CoA in three main steps:
Decarboxylation
Carbon is removed from pyruvic acid
Carbon dioxide is released
Krebs Cycle: Preparatory
Step
Oxidation
Hydrogen atoms are removed from pyruvic
acid
NAD+ is reduced to NADH + H+
Formation of acetyl CoA the resulting
acetic acid is combined with coenzyme
A, a sulfur-containing coenzyme, to form
acetyl CoA
Krebs Cycle
An eight-step cycle in which each acetic
acid is decarboxylated and oxidized,
generating:
Three molecules of NADH + H+
One molecule of FADH2
Two molecules of CO2
One molecule of ATP
For each molecule of glucose entering
glycolysis, two molecules of acetyl CoA
enter the Krebs cycle
PLAY Krebs Cycle
Krebs Cycle

Figure 24.7
Electron Transport Chain
Food (glucose) is oxidized and the released
hydrogens:
Are transported by coenzymes NADH and
FADH2
Enter a chain of proteins bound to metal atoms
(cofactors)
Combine with molecular oxygen to form water
Release energy
The energy released is harnessed to attach
inorganic phosphate groups (Pi) to ADP,
making ATP by oxidative phosphorylation
Mechanism of Oxidative
Phosphorylation

Figure 24.8
Electronic Energy Gradient
The transfer of energy from NADH + H+
and FADH2 to oxygen releases large
amounts of energy
This energy is released in a stepwise
manner through the electron transport
chain
Electronic
The Energy
electrochemical Gradient
proton gradient
across the inner membrane:
Creates a pH gradient
Generates a voltage gradient
These gradients cause H+ to flow back
into the matrix via ATP synthase

PLAY Electron Transport


Electronic Energy Gradient

Figure 24.9
ATP Synthase
The enzyme consists of three parts: a
rotor, a knob, and a rod
Current created by H+ causes the
rotor and rod to rotate
This rotation activates catalytic sites
in the knob where ADP and Pi are
combined to make ATP
Structure of ATP Synthase

Figure 24.10
Summary of ATP Production

Figure 24.11
Glycogenesis and
Glycogenolysis
Glycogenesis
formation of
glycogen when
glucose
supplies exceed
cellular need for
ATP synthesis
Glycogenolysis
breakdown of
glycogen in
response to low
blood glucose

Figure 24.12
Gluconeogenesis
The process of forming sugar from
noncarbohydrate molecules
Takes place mainly in the liver
Protects the body, especially the
brain, from the damaging effects of
hypoglycemia by ensuring ATP
synthesis can continue
Lipid Metabolism
Most products of fat metabolism are
transported in lymph as chylomicrons
Lipids in chylomicrons are hydrolyzed by
plasma enzymes and absorbed by cells
Only neutral fats are routinely oxidized for
energy
Catabolism of fats involves two separate
pathways
Glycerol pathway
Fatty acids pathway
Lipid Metabolism
Glycerol is converted to glyceraldehyde
phosphate
Glyceraldehyde is ultimately converted into
acetyl CoA
Acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle
Fatty acids undergo beta oxidation which
produces:
Two-carbon acetic acid fragments, which
enter the Krebs cycle
Reduced coenzymes, which enter the electron
transport chain
Lipid Metabolism

Figure 24.13
Lipogenesis and Lipolysis
Excess dietary glycerol and fatty
acids undergo lipogenesis to form
triglycerides
Glucose is easily converted into fat
since acetyl CoA is:
An intermediate in glucose catabolism
The starting molecule for the synthesis
of fatty acids
Lipogenesis and Lipolysis
Lipolysis, the breakdown of stored
fat, is essentially lipogenesis in
reverse
Oxaloacetic acid is necessary for the
complete oxidation of fat
Without it, acetyl CoA is converted into
ketones (ketogenesis)
Lipogenesis and Lipolysis

Figure 24.14
Lipid Metabolism:
Synthesis of Structural
Materials
Phospholipids are important
components of myelin and cell
membranes
Lipid Metabolism:
Synthesis of Structural
The liver:
Materials
Synthesizes lipoproteins for transport of
cholesterol and fats
Makes tissue factor, a clotting factor
Synthesizes cholesterol for acetyl CoA
Uses cholesterol to form bile salts
Certain endocrine organs use
cholesterol to synthesize steroid
hormones
Protein Metabolism
Excess dietary protein results in
amino acids being:
Oxidized for energy
Converted into fat for storage
Amino acids must be deaminated
prior to oxidation for energy
Protein Metabolism
Deaminated amino acids are
converted into:
Pyruvic acid
One of the keto acid intermediates of the
Krebs cycle
These events occur as
transamination, oxidative
deamination, and keto acid
modification