CELL DIVISION

MITOSIS
Biology Form 4 SMKBT2

Mitosis
‡ Mitosis is the process in which the nucleus divides to form two new identical nuclei.

Why cells need to divide?
‡ Unicellular organism
± Asexual reproduction

‡ Multicellular organism
± Growth ± Repair ± Replacement

Why produce identical cells?
‡ Somatic cells contains 2 sets of chromosomes, maternal and paternal = diploid, 2n ‡ Gametes (sperm and ovum) have only single set of unpaired chromosomes = haploid, n ‡ Each organisms has its own fixed number of chromosomes, e.g. human has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). ‡ Producing identical cells preserves the

diploid number of chromosomes.

Significance of mitosis
‡ Produces new cells for growth, repair and replace damaged or dead cells. ‡ Forms asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms. ‡ Ensures new cells are identical to parent cells. ‡ Preserves the diploid number of chromosomes of species.

The Cell Cycle
Series of cellular reproductive events in which duplication of cell content and cell division occur in an orderly sequence Interphase

G1 S

Cytokinesis telophase anaphase metaphase prophase

Mitosis

G2

Mitotic (M) phase

Cell Cycle
‡ Consist of 2 major phases: Phase 1: Interphase Phase 2: Mitotic phase (M phase) ‡ Interphase involves preparation for cell division
± It has 3 subphases: G1, S, G2 ± G1, G2: cell growth, produce proteins and organelles, cell differentiation ± S: synthesis of DNA, duplication of chromosomes and replication of DNA

‡ M phase, the cell divides
± Includes mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division)

‡ Chromosomes are duplicated (# doubles) ‡ Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start

Nucleus

Cell membrane

Cytoplasm

Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

‡ Chromosomes condense ‡ Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite end of the cell. ‡ Nuclear membrane disappear ‡ Nucleolus disappear ‡ Spindle fibers form between the poles.
Sister chromatids Centrioles

Spindle fibers

Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

‡ Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers, line up on equator ‡ Each chromatid face opposite poles ‡ End when centromere divides
Centrioles

Spindle fibers

Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

‡ Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell. ‡ Shortening of spindle fibre ‡ Chromatids chromosomes (daughter)
Centrioles

Spindle fibers

Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

‡ Two new nuclei form. ‡ Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods). ‡ 2 sets of chromosomes one at each pole ‡ Spindle fibres disappear ‡ Nucleolus & nuclear membrane are formed ‡ Mitosis ends.
Nuclei Nuclei

Chromatin

Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Photographs from: http://www.bioweb.uncc.edu/biol1110/Stages.htm

‡ Cell membrane moves inward (constrict) around the equator of cell to create two daughter cells ± each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes.

CYTOKINESIS (ANIMAL)

CYTOKINESIS (PLANT)

‡ In plant cells, cytokinesis starts with formation of cell plate at the equator of cell ‡ Cell plate enlarges until it fuses with plasma membrane ‡ New cell wall is produced and separates the two daughter cells

Animal Mitosis -- Review
Interphase Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Interphase

Plant Mitosis -- Review
Interphase Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

Interphase

MITOSIS
ANIMAL Similarities: Two identical cells are formed at the end of a division They produce more cells and cause growth Differences: Centrioles found at each pole during mitosis No centrioles (cortical microtubules) Mainly localized in special regions called meristems to either elongate the tips of stems and roots or expand the girth of the plant Formation of cell plate that grow outwards PLANT

Cells divide everywhere, all the time Formation of cleavage furrow at the equatorial plane

Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis

IPMATC PMATC

REGULATION OF CELL CYCLE
‡ The cell cycle is controlled by genes, therefore controlled the process of mitosis ‡ Each type of cell has its own timing and rate of cell division ‡ Some has frequent division, some only when needed and some do not divide at all

Controlled Mitosis
‡ The ability of cell to divide at its own timing and rate ‡ Enables normal growth and development and maintenance for perpetuity of living things

Uncontrolled Mitosis
‡ If the genes that regulate the cell cycle are damaged or mutated, cell divide uncontrollably ‡ Cause:
± Harmful ray: nuclear radiation, UV ray ± Certain viruses ± Certain carcinogenic chemicals: food additives, benzo ( ) pyrene in cigarette smoke

The Effects of Uncontrolled Mitosis
‡ Unregulated and very fast division increase the number of abnormal cells ‡ Form an abnormal mass ± tumour ‡ Types of tumour: ± Malignant ‡ Invasive by metastasis ‡ Cancer ± Benign ‡ Localize ‡ Does not cause serious problems ‡ Remove by surgery

Brain cancer Breast cancer What is the treatment of cancer?

Mitosis Application: CLONING
‡ The process to produce genetically identical cells / tissues / organisms / population from the mitosis of a single parent cell (clone) ‡ Naturally: asexual reproduction, vegetative propagation (plant) ‡ Artificially: cloning (animal), tissue culture (plant)
Why? ± Increase quantity ± Improve quality ± Ensure uniformity of traits

Animal Cloning
Cloning is carried out by replacing nucleus of an unfertilised egg cell with the nucleus of a diploid cell

Tissue Culture CLONING OF ORCHID

Meristematic tissues are extracted (explant)

Immersed in 1% sodium hypoclorite solution for 5 min

Transferred into sterile nutrient medium, incubate (35 ± 40°C) at optimum pH for a few weeks to produce mass of tissue (callus), transferred into fresh medium for growth, potting

ADVANTAGES OF CLONING
‡ rapid multiplication, mass production in short time ‡ genetically identical, desirable traits inherited and propagated ‡ therapeutic cloning, replace damaged or diseased tissues / organs ‡ fetal cell cloning, early detection of genetic defects ‡ no seeds / difficult to germinate, propagate endangered or rare species

DISADVANTAGES OF CLONING
‡ no genetic variation, susceptible to changes and new diseases, extinction ‡ possibility of mutations, harmful effects of GMF ‡ grow old quickly, shorter lifespan ‡ exclusion of certain species, decrease biodiversity ‡ traits transfer to wild species, creation of superweeds

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