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Competency Management

Competency & Performance


Management
What are Competencies

Competencies are the human capabilities


and work-related behaviours that provide
a competitive advantage to an
organisation

Any quality or characteristics of a person


which underpins successful performance
The Behavioral Iceberg

Observable
Behavior

Aptitudes
Competencies

Attitudes / Traits

Skills

Knowledge
Types of Competencies

Natural ability that prepares


Aptitude
the person to fulfill the
s
responsibilities

Way of thinking or behaving


Attitudes needed to fulfill the
responsibilities
Acquired ability or experience
Skills needed to fulfill the
responsibilities
Information and understanding
Knowledg needed to fulfill the
e responsibilities
Competency Clusters

Business Knowledge

Customer Focus

Communicatio
n
Result
Focus
Leadership

Proactivity

Innovation

Collaboration

Stamina & Adaptability

Conceptual Thinking
Benefits of Competency Framework

Recruitmen
t&
Job Design Selection Performanc
& Grading e
Manageme
nt

Career Succession
Pathing Planning

Training &
Potential
Developme
Assessmen Reward
nt
t Manageme
Competency Mapping : Flow Chart

Job
Description

Role
Clarification

Competencies
reqd. for the Job

Competencies a
Job Holder has

Competency
Mapping

Bridging the
Competency
Gap
Methods to Identify Competencies

In Basket Exercises
Stress Interviews
Focussed Behavioral Event Interview
Presentation Vision / Strategy Speeches
Leaderless Group Exercises
Role Play
Business Games
Structured Group Discussion
Psychometric Tests
Case Studies
Peer Coaching & Counseling Exercises
Competency Mapping : Competency
Identification Worksheet
Role : Regional Sales Manager
To achieve Sales objectives of approx. Rs.300
Plan, develop & control the regional sales
strategy for a specific range of products
To manage a team of 6 Area Managers and 40
Sales Reps
To ensure efficient regional field force support
systems
Interaction with 80-90 distributors and 5 Clearing
& Forwarding Agents
To establish timely effective communications
Types of Competencies
Behavioral Competency: Behaviors, knowledge, skills, abilities,
and other characteristics that contribute to individual success in
the organization
Can apply to all (or most) jobs in an organization or be
specific to a job family, career level or position
e.g., teamwork and cooperation, communication
Focus on the person

Technical Competency: Specific knowledge and skills needed to be


able to perform ones job effectively
Job specific and relate to success in a given job or job family
e.g., knowledge of accounting principles, knowledge of
human resource law and practice
Focus on the job
Competencies Job
Redesign
Technical competencies
Are part of the job description
Describe what a person needs for the job
Generally a phrase or statement

Behavioral competencies
Are not part of the job description
Behavioral Competencies
Key Characteristics:
Observable and measurable
Relate to the core purpose and values of an
organization
Focus on the person
Contribute to improved employee performance
Contribute to individual success within an organization
Can apply to all (or most) jobs in an organization or be
specific to a job family, career level, or position
Are not part of the job description

Drive organizational performance


Types of Behavioral Competencies

Statewide Competencies

Core Competencies Leadership Competencies


(all employees) (people managers & other leaders)
Customer Service Talent Management
Teamwork and Cooperation Transformers of Government
Results Orientation
Accountability
Judgment and Decision Making

Additional Behavioral Competencies


Communication Initiative
Conflict Management Negotiation and Influence
Creativity and Innovation Professional Development
Cultural Awareness Project Management
Flexibility Teaching Others
Team Leadership
Definition
Competency Analysis is necessary to
identify the knowledge, skills and
process abilities required to perform
the organization's business activities
so that they may be developed and
used as a basis for workforce
practices.
Methodology
Competency analysis begins with identification of the
workforce competencies required to perform the
organizational business activities.
Once the competencies are identified, a mapping
between the targeted vs. actual value of competencies is
required to measure, analyze and predict the future
capability of competencies and take necessary
corrective/preventive action to either enhance or maintain
the current capability.
Identifying the tasks, skills, knowledge and attitude
required to perform various organizational roles can be
used in formulating job description, assessing employees
current level of competency, and activities like planning
career development and coordinating competency
development.
Steps in CA
Step 1:- Plan
1. A plan is developed for analyzing workforce
competencies that typically includes:
the competency analysis activities to be
performed,
the schedule for competency analysis activities,
the individuals or groups responsible for
competency analysis activities,
the resources and effort required, including
access to the staff, and
the process for review and approval of the plan
by all parties affected by competency analysis
activities.
Step2:- Method
2.Examples of methods for workforce
competency analysis include the
following:
Position analysis
Critical incident interviews
Behavioral event interviews
Process analysis and engineering
Task analysis
Knowledge engineering
Analysis of skill needs
Steps in CA Continued
3. The knowledge, skills, and process abilities required to perform
committed work are defined for each workforce competency.
4. Subject matter experts are involved in analyzing the
knowledge, skills, and process abilities required to perform
their committed work.
5. A description of the knowledge, skills, and process abilities is
defined for each workforce competency using a representation
and format that is appropriate for its intended use.
6. Descriptions of workforce competencies are used for guiding
workforce practices at the organizational level and within
units.
Goals of CA
The workforce competencies required to perform
the organisations business activities are defined
and updated.
The work processes used within each workforce
competency are established and maintained.
The organisation tracks its capability in each of its
workforce competencies.
Competency Analysis practices are institutionalized
to ensure they are performed as defined
organisational processes.
Information Sources
Information on an individuals level of capability in a workforce
competency can be obtained from following sources:
Training and other development records
Mentoring or apprenticeship reports
Performance management records
Management assessment of knowledge, skills, and process
abilities
Self-assessment of knowledge, skills, and process abilities
Peer evaluations
Process assessments
Awards and achievements
Professional accomplishments
Assessment centers
Information from the performance of business activities
Benefits of CA
Objective gap analysis of employees competencies
resulting in individual development for an employees
current and future role
Self-development of more than 90% of employees in their
competencies in respective domains, communication skills
and leadership skills
Increased transparency in the job expectations for an
individuals current or future role
Improved employee-organisation fit with employees
having more clarity on their role towards achieving the
companys goals
Significant improvement in overall organisational
competencies with the mandatory competencies check
done at the time
Competency Analysis
Process Diagram
CCI-Continuous Capability Improvement;
OPA-Organizational Performance Alignment
Defining a core
competency
A bundle of skills that enables an organization to
provide a particular benefit to customers.
It is not product or service specific. It contributes
to the development of a range of products and
services. Examples:
Sony- customer benefit is pocket ability and core
competence is miniaturization.
Federal Express- benefit is on time parcel delivery and
core competence is logistics management.
Rosecrans- benefit is freedom from addictive behavior
and core competence is adult and adolescent education.
Carpenters Place- benefit is a changed lifestyle and the
core competency is customized client case management.
Why are core competencies
important?
They are the skill sets that organization
possesses which set it apart from its peers.
They are what make the organization unique.
They are sources of competitive advantage.
They are the building blocks to future
opportunities and earned income ventures.
Organizational
competencies
Functional capabilities and experience a firm
possesses by virtue of the way it integrates and
blends the individual skills of its personnel to
achieve a benefit. Examples :
Workers with knowledge and experience in receiving
and distributing donated goods.
Workers with knowledge and experience in supervising
and maintaining overnight shelters.
Workers with knowledge and experience in controlling
costs.
Workers with knowledge and experience in fund raising.
Table stakes.
Certain competencies are required by all
organizations in order to operate
effectively and carry out their mission.
These fundamental competencies are
called table stakes.
They define the standard level of
competency needed to sustain operations
Fundamental competencies
Marketing-provides the customers and clients
Operations/ production- provides the products
and/or services
Human resources- provides the personnel
Fund raising- provides supplementary income
Administrative- provides essential support
Accounting/ book keeping- provides financial
control
Payroll- Provides paychecks
Marketing skills
Personnel with knowledge and experience in:
The activities needed to identify the client problems and
the product characteristics and service attributes that
can help solve these problems and how to package these
into the product or service offering.
Determining the price for the products and services
offered including discounts, sliding scale fees, etc. and
how payment will be accepted.
Determining how and where the products and services
will be offered and by whom.
Promoting the products and services, communicating with
the prospective clients, and selling.
Production/ operations skills
Personnel with knowledge and experience in:
The production of the product or the delivery of
service to the client.
For organizations that produce or sell a product
this may include purchasing and inventory
management activities.
For distribution, retail, and food service type
organizations this may include procurement and
inventory management.
Human resource skills
Personnel with knowledge and experience
in:
Interviewing prospective employees and managers.
Hiring and indoctrinating employees and managers.
Determining the compensation for employees and
managers and establishing the process to pay
employees and managers.
Determining the employee and manager training
requirements needed to perform their jobs and providing
or making arrangements to provide this training.
Reviewing employee and manager performance and
discharging ineffective personnel.
Administrative skills

Personnel with knowledge and


experience in:
Invoicing and bill paying.
Facility maintenance and repair
Customer service and phone answering
Tests for core
competency
Organizational competencies must
pass three tests to be considered
core competencies.
It must make a significant contribution to
customer perceived value or to the
financial health of the organization.
It must be unique or performed in a way
that is substantially superior to its peers.
It must be capable of being applied to new
products and services.
Identifying your organizations
core competencies

Not all organizations possess core competencies.


Very small organizations and organizations that
provide standard services that are in high
demand will usually not possess or need core
competencies.
Table stakes are more than adequate for their
success.

The clients using these organizations value


adequacy not uniqueness. Examples are food
pantries, homeless shelters, and soup kitchens.
Identifying your organizations
core competencies

Develop an inventory of your


organizational competencies

Use the core competency tests to


determine the competencies that are core.
Develop an inventory of your
organizational competencies
List your organizations competencies.
Examples:
Workers with knowledge and experience in
providing youth recreational programs.
Workers with knowledge and experience in
supervising and maintaining overnight shelters.
Workers with knowledge and experience in
controlling costs.
Workers with knowledge and experience in fund
raising.
Develop an inventory of your
organizational competencies
Identify the benefit from each competency
Examples:
The customer benefit from experience in
providing youth recreational programs is
constructive youth development.
The benefit from knowledge and
experience in controlling costs is a
reduction in operating expenses.
Develop an inventory of your
organizational competencies
Separate the competency from the product or
service. Examples:
The competency associated with providing youth
recreational programs is youth education. The
purpose of education is to change behavior and that
is what the recreational programs want to achieve.

The competency associated with experience in


controlling costs is financial management. The
purpose of financial management is to control the
financial health of the organization.
Inventory of Competencies
Competency: Workers with knowledge and
experience in providing youth recreational
programs.
Benefit: constructive youth development.
Competency: youth education.

Competency: Workers with knowledge and


experience in
controlling costs.
Benefit: reduction in operating expenses.
Competency: financial management.
Determine the competencies that
are core.
Identify those competencies that meet all of
the following criteria:
They make a significant contribution to customer
perceived value or to the financial health of the
organization.
They are unique or performed in a way that is
substantially superior to your peers.
They are capable of being applied to new products
and services.

These are your organizations core


competencies.
Developing Core
Competencies
Management commitment- developing core
competencies takes time
Focus- define the competencies needed
People with appropriate skills
Train current personnel
Recruit personnel with needed skills
Integration of these skills
Usually a function of management
Institutionalize the activity through processes
and procedures
Thank You