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A 3 phase Induction Motor is
Self Starting. When the
supply is connected to the
stator of a 3 phase induction
motor, a rotating magnetic
field is produced, and the
rotor starts rotating and the
induction motor starts. At the
time of starting, the motor slip
is unity, and the starting
The purpose of a starter is
not to just start the motor, but
it performs the two main
functions. They are as follows.
To reduce the heavy
starting current
To provide overload and
under voltage protection.
The torque of the induction
motor is proportional to the
square of the applied
Thus, a greater torque is
exerted by a motor when it
is started on full voltage
than when it is started on the
reduced voltage.
Direct on Line Starter

In this method, the starter is

connected directly to supply
voltage. By this method small
motors up to 5 kW rating is
started to avoid the supply
voltage fluctuation.
So, Induction motors when connected
direct on-line", draw 5 to 7 times the
original full load current.
At this time, they develop only 1.5 to 2.5
times the full-load torque. This sudden
initial drawing of current by an induction
motor leads to heavy undesirable voltage
dip which affects the other electrical
machineries. Hence, any induction
motor, whose rating above 25 kW to 40
kW should not be started direct on-line!
So what are the other
methods of starting an
Squirrel Cage Induction
Three Main Methods of
Starting of Cage
Induction Motor
Star Delta Starter

In this method, the motor runs at

delta connected stator windings.
A star delta is used for a cage motor
designed to run normally on the
delta connected stator winding.
Firstly, the stator winding is connected
in star and then in Delta so that the
starting line current of the motor is
reduced to one-third as compared to
the starting current with the windings
connected in delta. At the starting of an
induction motor when the windings of
the stator are star connected, each
stator phase gets a voltage VL/3. Here
VL is the line voltage.
Since the developed torque is
proportional to the square of the
voltage applied to an induction motor.
When the switch S is in the START
position, the stator windings are
connected in the star as shown
When the speed, about 80 % of its
rated speed, the switch S is
immediately put into the RUN
position. As a result, a stator
winding is in DELTA connection
At the starting of the
induction motor, stator
windings are connected in
star and, therefore, the
voltage across each phase
winding is equal to 1/3
times the line voltage.
Auto Transformer Starter

Used to limit the starting current

of the induction motor.

Suitable for both star and delta

connected motors. In this method,
the starting current is limited by
using a three-phase auto
transformer to reduce the initial
stator applied voltage.
When the handle H of the switch S in
the START position. The primary of
the auto transformer is connected to the
supply line, and the motor is connected
to the secondary of the auto
When the speed of about 80% of its
rated value, the handle H is quickly
moved to the RUN position. Thus, the
auto transformer is disconnected from
the circuit, and the motor is directly
connected to the line and achieve its full
rated voltage. The handle is held in the
RUN position by the under voltage relay.
Slip Ring Induction
Motor Starter Method of
Starting Induction
A star connected rheostat is connected in
series with the rotor via slip-rings as shown
in the fig. Introducing resistance in rotor
current will decrease the starting current
in rotor (and, hence, in stator). Also, it
improves power factor and the torque is
increased. The connected rheostat may
be hand-operated or automatic.
Additional resistance in rotor improves the
starting torque, slip-ring motors can be
started on load.
The external resistance introduced is
only for starting purposes, and is
gradually cut out as the motor gathers
the speed.
Induction Motor
Linear Induction Motor

Abbreviated as LIM, is basically a

special purpose motor that is in
use to achieve rectilinear motion
rather than rotational motion.
Linear Induction Motor
In a traditional electric motor, the
rotor (rotating part) spins inside the
stator (static part); in a linear motor,
the stator is unwrapped and laid out
flat and the "rotor" moves past it in a
straight line.
Linear motors often use
superconducting magnets, which are
cooled to low temperatures to reduce
power consumption.
How Linear Motor Works?
The "stator" is laid out in the form of a
track of flat coils made from aluminum or
copper and is known as the "primary" of a
linear motor.

The "rotor" takes the form of a moving

platform known as the "secondary." When
the current is switched on, the secondary
glides past the primary supported and
propelled by a magnetic field.
Construction of a Linear
Induction Motor
Performance of the
Linear Induction Motor:
Force = (Air gap Power) / 2f(Pole
As we know that for a P pole Induction
Motor, synchronous speed is given as

Ns = 2f/P rps where f = Frequency of

Therefore, for Linear Induction Motor the
speed of travelling flux will be
V = 2f (Pole Pitch) m/s
Rotary Induction VS.
the Linear Induction
the LIM requires a larger air gap
and hence, the magnetising
current is greater and the power
factor and efficiency of the motor
are lower.

In the rotary induction motor the

stator and the rotor area are same
whereas in the LIM the one of the
two is shorter than the other.