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Chapter 13

Life Cycle
Nutrition: Mother
& Infant
By Emily and Makayla
Learning Objectives
LO 13.1: Explain why a nutritionally LO 13.5: Identify characteristics of breast
adequate diet is important before and milk that make it ideal food for human
during a pregnancy, and identify the infants, and discuss the introduction of
special nutritional needs of a pregnant solid foods into the diet.
LO: 13.6: List some feeding guidelines that
encourage normal eating behaviors and
LO 13.2: Evaluate the statement that
autonomy in the child.
no level of alcoholic beverage intake is
safe or advisable during pregnancy. LO 13.7: Discuss some relationships
between childhood obesity and chronic
LO 13.3: Describe the impacts of diseases, and develop a healthy eating and
gestational diabetes and preeclampsia activity plan for an obese child of a given
of the health of a pregnant woman and age.
on the fetus.

LO: 13.4: Describe the maternal

nutrition needs for lactation, the impact
of malnutrition on breast milk, and
contraindications to breastfeeding.
Preparing For Pregnancy
LO 13.1
Adequate nutrition before pregnancy establishes
physical readiness and nutrient stores to support
placental and fetal growth

Both underweight and overweight women should strive

for appropriate body weights before pregnancy

Newborns who weigh less than 5 pounds face greater

health risks than normal weight babies
Increased Need for
Pregnancy brings physiological adjustments that demand
increased intakes of energy and nutrients

A balanced nutrient-dense diet is essential for meeting

nutrient needs

Folate and Vitamin B12 play key roles in cell replication

and are needed in large amounts during pregnancy

Folate plays an important role in preventing neural tube

Food Assistance Programs

Food assistance programs such as Special Supplemental

Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
(WIC) can provide nutritious foods for pregnant women
of limited financial means

Participation in WIC during pregnancy can reduce iron

deficiency, infant mortality, low birthweight, and
maternal and newborn medical costs
How Much Weight Should
be Gained During
Appropriate weight gain is essential for a healthy

Appropriate weight gain is influenced by prepregnancy

BMI, maternal nutrient needs, and the number of fetuses
in the pregnancy

Physically fit women can continue physical activity

throughout pregnancy but should choose activities
Teen Pregnancy

Pregnant teenage girls have extraordinarily high nutrient

needs and an increased likelihood of problematic

Adequate nutrition and appropriate weight gain for

pregnant teenagers can substantially improve outcomes
for mothers and infants
Cautions for Pregnant
Smoking during pregnancy delivers toxins to the fetus,
damages DNA, restricts fetal growth, and limits delivery
of oxygen and nutrients and the removal of wastes

Contaminants such as mercury, foodborne illnesses, large

supplemental doses of nutrients, weight-loss diets, and
excessive use of artificial sweeteners and caffeine should
be avoided during pregnancy
Drinking During Pregnancy
LO 13.2
Alcohol crosses the placenta and is directly toxic to the

Alcohol limits oxygen delivery to the fetus, slows cell

division, and reduces the number of cells organs produce
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
The severe birth defects of fetal alcohol syndrome arise
from damage to the fetus by alcohol
Irreversible brain damage

Growth restriction

Mental retardation

Facial and vision abnormalities

Alcohols damaging effects on the fetus are dose

dependent, becoming greater as the dose increases

Abstinence from alcohol in pregnancy is critical to

preventing irreversible damage to the fetus
LO 13.3
If discovered early, many diseases of pregnancy can be
controlled which is why early prenatal care is

Gestational diabetes, hypertension, and preeclampsia are

problems of some pregnancies that must be managed to
minimize associated risks
LO 13.4
The lactating woman needs extra fluid and adequate
energy and nutrients for milk production

Malnutrition diminishes the quantity of the milk without

altering quality

Breastfeeding not advised if the mothers milk is

contaminated with alcohol, drugs, or pollutants

Most ordinary infections such as colds have no effect on

breastfeeding infants, but HIV may be transmitted
through milk
Feeding the Infant
LO 13.5
An infant's birth weight doubles by about 5 months of
age and triples by 1 year

Infants rapid growth and development depend on

adequate nutrient supplies, including water from breast
milk or formula

Breast milk provides all the nutrients a healthy infant

needs for the first 6 months of life