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ALJ Citation Presentation

By: Shannin Mae Olivarez and Hazel Tolentino


71. Reports by Other WTO Bodies

71.1. The initial citation format for reports by the WTO Secretariat and other WTO
bodies is as follows:

{Issuing body}, {Report Title}, {pinpoint citation}, {document designation}


({date}).

Examples:

325. WTO Secretariat, Quantitative Restrictions: Factual Information on


Notifications Received, 3.8, G/MA/W/114 (May 22, 2015).

326. WTO Secretariat, Trade Policy Review: Norway, 11, WT/TPR/S/269/Rev.1


(November 13, 2012).
71. Reports by Other WTO Bodies
71.2. For subsequent citations, use Supra. Id. may also be used when proper.

Example:

327. Quantitative Restrictions: Factual Information on Notifications Received,


supra note 325.

328. Id.
72. WTO Ministerial Documents
72.1. The initial citation format for WTO ministerial documents is as follows:

{World Trade Organization}, {Title, if any}, {document number} ({year}).

Examples:

329. World Trade Organization, Africa Union Conference of Ministers of Trade,


WT/MIN(11)/9 (2011).

330. World Trade Organization, Communication from the Plurinational State of


Bolivia, the Republic of Cuba, the Republic of Ecuador, the Republic of Nicaragua
and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, WT/MIN(11)/W/4 (2011).
72. WTO Ministerial Documents
72.2. For subsequent citations, use supra. Id. may also be used when proper.

331. Africa Union Conference of Ministers of Trade, supra note 329.

332. Id.
73. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) Panel Decisions
73.1 Initial Citation

{Issuing Body}, {Title}, {case number, if listed} ({document date}),


GATT B.I.S.D. ({annual volume}) {pinpoint citation} ({year of
publication})

B.I.S.D - Basic Instruments and Selected Documents


Example:

Panel Report, European Economic Community - Imposition of Anti-Dumping


Duties on Imports of Cotton Yarn from Brazil, ADP/137 (July 4, 1995), GATT
B.I.S.D. (42nd Supp.) at 55 (1995).

Non-ALJ example:

GATT Panel Report, European Economic Community Imposition of Anti-


Dumping Duties on Imports of Cotton Yarn from Brazil, ADP/137, adopted 30
October 1995, BISD 42S/17

42S - 42nd Supplement/ 17 - Page number

Take note of unadopted and adopted

Use supra. or Id. for subsequent citations


74. Sales Publications
UN agencies materials, other than official documents and records, that are for
sale to the public (e.g. reports, studies, statistics)

Cited like books and other non-periodic materials

Legally found at www.shop.un.org

Use supra. or Id. for subsequent citations

Example:

U.N., FURTHERING THE WORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS: HIGHLIGHTS


OF THE TENURE OF SECRETARY-GENERAL BAN KI-MOON 2007-2016
100 (2016).
General Rules of Usage
T. Order of Citation
T.1. Intention of Citation:

1. attribute non-original ideas

2. provide authorities relevant to the discussion

3. offer sources for further study or research


T.2. Citing multiple authorities

First cite sources to which non-original ideas are attributed or sources that
directly provide support/opposition to the text
T.3. Authorities for support given before authorities for opposition

Support and opposition distinguished by introductory signals (See Section U)


Support - see, see also, cf.

Opposition - contra, but see, but cf.

Example:

JUSTICE EDGARDO L. PARAS, CIVIL CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES


ANNOTATED: PRESCRIPTION; OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS ARTICLES
1106-1457 84 (2016). Contra HECTOR S. DE LEON, THE LAW ON
OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS 50 (2003).
T.4. Support or opposition may be direct, indirect or analogous. Cite all authorities
for support in that aforestated order, before those for the opposition in the same
order.

Example:

339. PARAS, supra note 3, at 84. See also DE LEON, supra note 10, at 30.
Contra TORRES, JR., supra note 12, at 55.

*Supra note: refers to the footnote number (ex.) third footnote = PARAS, supra
note 3)
T.5. Support or opposition may also be given by authorities in their own right, or
when related to other authorities.

T.5.1. Cite first the authorities which support the text in their own right, before
citing those which must be related to other authorities in order to demonstrate
support. Do the same for the authorities in opposition.

Example:

340. COMMENTS AND CASES ON OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS, article


1169. See also COMMENTS AND JURISPRUDENCE ON OBLIGATIONS AND
CONTRACTS, articles 1169-1171. See also AGPALO, supra note 25, at 55.
Compare PARAS, supra note 3, at 84 with STA. MARIA, supra note 100, at 43.
Contra MARK KRISTOPHER TOLENTINO, LAW ON OBLIGATIONS AND
CONTRACTS 101: THE BASIC APPROACH.
T.6. Lastly, cite authorities which are merely intended to provide the reader with
tangential sources for further study, personal analysis, or research.

Example:

341. PARAS, supra note 3, at 120. See generally MARK KRISTOPHER


TOLENTINO, LAW ON OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS 101: THE BASIC
APPROACH, supra note 200.