10 views

Uploaded by Liem Handi Wijaya Susanto

chemical eq

- Equlibrium
- Chapter 7 - Equilibria
- CH1023W13Lab16Keq
- mains 6
- year 12 term 1 chemistry revision
- Tutorial 8-Chemical Equilibrium
- Unit 4 Industrial Chemistry
- 2. LN-CRE2
- Definition of Chemical Equilibrium
- Chemical Equilibrium
- 5 Equilibria
- media_1505143131_918696
- Tutorial-Session-7-2010-Answer
- Chem. Equilibrium
- 20-equilibrium.pdf
- coach
- 5)Self-Aggregation of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Medium and Aqueous-PCCP
- 05493270
- KIITEE Syllabus 2
- Problem Sheet - Thermodynamics

You are on page 1of 30

Syarat-syarat Umum

Kesetimbangan

1. U = U(S,V) untuk setimbang dU = 0,

spontan <0

2. H = H(S,P) untuk setimbang dH = 0,

spontan <0

3. A = A(T,V) untuk setimbang dA = 0,

spontan dA <0

4. G = G(T,P) untuk setimbang dG=0,

spontan dG<0

Equilibrium

Material Equilibrium

1. Chemical Equilibrium

2. Phase Equilibrium

Thermal Equilibrium

Mechanical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium

Reaction

N2O4 (g) 2NO2(g)

Initial

Equilibrium

A

Chemical Equilibrium

Develop the concept of chemical

potential

Chemical potential used to account

for the equilibrium composition of

chemical reaction

6

Outline

1

2

3

4

7

The Gibbs energy minimum

Corresponds to chemical reactions

A

B

d of A turns into B

dnA = -d

dnB = +d

G

r G

p ,T

8

dG A dn A B dnB

A d B d

B A d

dG

B A

d p ,T

That is

rG B A

9

Extent of reaction

Extent of Reaction = Besarnya reaksi

= derajat reaksi

= koordinat reaksi

aA+ bB cC +dD

dA dB di

d

A B i

10

Exergonic and endergonic

reaction

11

The description of

equilibrium

Perfect gas equilibria

G

r B A

B RT ln p B A RT ln p A

pB

r G RT ln pB

pA Q

pA

At equilibrium rG=0

0 r G RT ln K

RT ln K r G

12

13

Example

14

At the specified stage of the reaction

At equilibrium

15

CO2 can be treated as a perfect gas

16

Calculate the equilibrium constant for the ammonia synthesis reaction at 298 K

and show how K is related to the partial pressures of the species at equilibrium

when the overall pressure is low enough for the gases to be treated as perfect.

17

18

The relation between equilibrium constants

Reaction A B C D

aC a D aj j xj

Equilibrium constant K or

a A aB bj

aj j

b

C D xC xD C D bC bD

So, K or K

A B x A xB A B bA bB

K K x K Kb

19

The response of equilibria to the conditions

Response to pressure

0 r G RT ln K

RT ln K r G

therefore

K

0 K is independent of pressure

p T

is independent of the pressure, and its effect

depends on how the pressure is applied.

20

Alternatively,

reaction

A 2B

aB2

K

aA

pB2

p A p

Le Chateliers priciples states that:

disturbance, responds in a way that tends to

minimize the effect of the disturbance

21

A 2B

Initial amount n 0

Change n 2n

At equilibrium 1 n 2n

xA

1 n

1

1 n 2n 1

2n 2

xB

1 n 2n 1

pB2 xB2 p 2 4 2 p p

K

pA p xA p p 1 2

22

4 2 p p

K

1 2

K K 2 4 2 p p

K K 2 4 2 p p

K

2

K 4 p p

1

K 2

K 4 p p

p increase

decrease

23

Predicting the effect of compression

There are ammonia synthesis at equilibrium.

3H 2 N 2 2 NH 3

Decreasing number of gas molecules.

So, Le Chateliers principle predicts that an increase in pressure will favour

the product. The equilibrium constant is

2 2 2

p 2

NH 3 p x 2

NH 3 p p

2

Kx p

K

pN2 p 3

H2 x N 2 xH3 2 p 4 p2

24

The response of equilibria to the conditions

Response to temperature

Endothermic reactions : increased temp favours the products

25

The vant Hoff equation

r G

ln K

RT

Differentiation of two side

d ln K

1 d r G T

d r G T

r H

dT R dT dT T2

d ln K r H d 1 T 1

2 or dT T 2 d 1 T

dT RT 2 dT T

d ln K r H

d 1 T R

26

27

The value of K at different temperatures

d ln K r H

d 1 T R

r H

d ln K d 1 T

R

r H

d 1 T

1 T2

ln K 2 ln K1

R 1 T1

r H 1 1

ln K 2 ln K1

R T2 T1

28

Estimate the equilibrium constant for the synthesis of ammonia at 500 K

from its value at 298 K (6.1 x 105). rH = 2fH(NH3,g) = -92.2 kJ/mol.

29

Practise

For the equilibrium, N2O4(g) 2NO2(g), the degree of dissociation, c , at 298 K is

0.201 at 1.00 bar total pressure. Calculate

(a)rG at this temperature.

(b) K

(c)rG

kJ/mol from 800 K up to 1500 K. The standard reaction Gibbs energy is +22

kJ/mol at 1120 K. Estimate the temperature at which the equilibrium constant

become greater than 1.

30

- EqulibriumUploaded byShivam Gupta
- Chapter 7 - EquilibriaUploaded bywilliamshoo
- CH1023W13Lab16KeqUploaded byPablo Bernal
- mains 6Uploaded byamogh kumar
- year 12 term 1 chemistry revisionUploaded byapi-280572108
- Tutorial 8-Chemical EquilibriumUploaded byRemo Nav
- Unit 4 Industrial ChemistryUploaded byYidaZhou
- 2. LN-CRE2Uploaded byj0haNN3s
- Definition of Chemical EquilibriumUploaded byFebbyka Rachmanda
- Chemical EquilibriumUploaded byxanshah
- 5 EquilibriaUploaded byChristopher Thompson
- media_1505143131_918696Uploaded byhappy
- Tutorial-Session-7-2010-AnswerUploaded byKautsar Nurfalaq
- Chem. EquilibriumUploaded byMahesh
- 20-equilibrium.pdfUploaded byLeah Arnaez
- coachUploaded byJinenderKumarJain
- 5)Self-Aggregation of Methylene Blue in Aqueous Medium and Aqueous-PCCPUploaded byJavad Ghasemi
- 05493270Uploaded byRakesh SH
- KIITEE Syllabus 2Uploaded byAnweshaBose
- Problem Sheet - ThermodynamicsUploaded byTing Phin Yuan
- The Equilibrium Constant for Bromothymol BlueUploaded byorjuelabernajhg
- CHM2210 Chapter SummariesUploaded byIngrid Isabel
- AllUploaded byaamirmub
- Lab Report 2Uploaded byAmeerRashid
- j.dyepig.2005.09.024Uploaded byHùng Lê
- Solutions Assign 2 2006Uploaded bydhruv dholaria
- Enrtl-rk Rate Based Dea ModelUploaded bysamandondon
- 142 fall 2008 sylUploaded byjlehman
- Chapter 13 Notes-12Uploaded byrobokrish6
- Kobertz Investigation HighTemp BothEquil Kinetic KEMS STAMS 71TOTHERJUploaded byGhassen Rojbi

- mikrobaUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Hukum Coulomb.docUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Lampiran cUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- tugasUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Viscosity (SI).xlsUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Column ChromatographyUploaded byMd Shahjalal Sagor
- Isolasi Dan Perhitungan BakteriUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Isolasi Dan Perhitungan BakteriUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Isolasi Dan Perhitungan BakteriUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- basitrasinUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- grafik freund 1.docxUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Ch4-3Uploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Grafik Modul 3 (2)Uploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Indikator Mikroorganisme Dan Pengujian Perkiraan Terdekat BakteriUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Indikator Mikroorganisme Dan Pengujian Perkiraan Terdekat BakteriUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Silikon Oil pada Percobaan Muai PanjangUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Muai PanjangUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Metode IsolasiUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Cara KerjaUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- pembagian antibiotikUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- LemakUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Reaksi Antara KMnO4 dengan H2C2O4Uploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Fungsi Medium Mikroba Digunakan UntukUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- isolasi & perhitungan mikrobaUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Klasifikasi Air Menurut PemakainnyaUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Fiksasi Ialah Melekatkan Bakteri Pada Kaca ObjekUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Fiksasi Ialah Melekatkan Bakteri Pada Kaca ObjekUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- Silikon Oil pada percobaan muai panjanUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto
- pewarnaan bakteriUploaded byLiem Handi Wijaya Susanto

- Avoiding PlagiarismUploaded byaffandibimantoro
- Errata ViscoUploaded byLuis Follegatti
- Lecture Note 2Uploaded byZahidi El-Pontiani
- 50 Years of Engine Improvements Sept 2009Uploaded byje_carD23
- Introduction to Numerical Methods in Chemical EngineeringUploaded byAshwini Prince
- 2 -Kingery - Introduction to ceramics.pdfUploaded byAndrea Prado
- Mock Test 5Uploaded byAnonymous 9fE58j
- var_toughdrillUploaded byAndrzej Konopka
- Lamb Et Al La - Adv-Disad ActivityUploaded byCarson
- Biological Treatment WastewaterUploaded byAgentia Imobiliara Interest
- Krane Ch11 10Uploaded byPaschal Catherine
- 2004_Vesper White_Hydrogeol J.pdfUploaded byVisan Madalina
- Science Study GuidesUploaded bymrafranco
- The AlkanesUploaded byTheSmileyOne
- GlycolysisUploaded bymaiang23
- Merzbach Er So LsUploaded byJohn Holman
- US Seal Mfg Catalog 1010Uploaded byJuntas Homocineticas Ever
- A403-14Uploaded byJuan Vicente Reyes Lima
- Kupdf.com Ce Reviewer DesignUploaded byeleonor
- Memo - Ice SkatingUploaded byRafay Ashar
- schmidt_eUploaded byK Srinivasa Sagar
- INTERPRETATION OF B31.3Uploaded byjasminnee
- Working in a Fertilizer ComplexUploaded bySurendar
- NobelBiocare NobelProcera Brochure (en)Uploaded byLojaSwf
- Petrochemicals RSOC 2Uploaded bySarhad Halshoy
- AQA-BYB2-W-MS-JUN06Uploaded byiluvmcr88
- MaxPower CS6X-M Canadian Solar 295Uploaded byJohnWilliams
- MT338 Chap1 Intro to Fluid MechanicsUploaded bycritestach
- Easy heatUploaded bynoormohammedah
- Atomic Structure 11Uploaded byaleena'