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Configure and Manage Virtual Storage

Module 6

2011 VMware Inc. All rights reserved


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Course Introduction Data Protection

Introduction to Virtualization Access & Authentication Control

Virtual Machines Resource Management and Monitoring

VMware vCenter Server High Availability


Configure and Manage Virtual
Networks Scalability

Configure and Manage Virtual Storage Patch Management

Managing Virtual Machines Installing vSphere Components

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage Revision A 6-2

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Importance

Storage options give you the flexibility to set up your storage based
on your cost, performance, and manageability requirements. Shared
storage is useful for disaster recovery, high availability, and moving
virtual machines between hosts.

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Module Lessons

Lesson 1: Storage Concepts


Lesson 2: Configure iSCSI Storage
Lesson 3: Configure NAS/NFS Storage
Lesson 4: Fibre Channel SAN Storage
Lesson 5: VMware vSphere VMFS Datastores
Lesson 6: VMware vSphere Storage Appliance

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Lesson 1:
Storage Concepts

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Learner Objectives

After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


Describe VMware vSphere storage technologies and datastores.
Describe the storage device naming convention.

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Storage Overview

VMware
ESXi
hosts

datastore VMware vSphere VMFS NFS


types

File
system

storage Direct Fibre


FCoE iSCSI NAS
technology Attached Channel

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Storage Protocol Overview

Storage Supports Supports Supports Supports Supports


Protocol boot from VMware vSphere vSphere Raw Device
SAN vSphere High DRS Mapping
vMotion Availability
Fibre
Channel
FCoE

iSCSI

NFS

DAS

(for virtual
machine swap
files)

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Datastore

A datastore is a logical storage


unit that can use disk space on
one physical device, or span
several physical devices.
host host Types of datastores:
VMFS
Network File System (NFS)
Datastores are used to hold
virtual machine files, templates,
and ISO images.

datastore

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VMFS-5

VMFS-5:
Allows concurrent access to
shared storage
Can be dynamically
expanded host host
Uses a 1MB block size,
good for storing large virtual
disk files
Uses subblock addressing,
good for storing small files
Provides on-disk, block-level
locking

VMFS Datastore

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NFS

NFS:
Is storage shared over the
network at the file system
level
Supports NFS version 3 host host
over TCP/IP

NFS Datastore

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Storage Device Naming Conventions

Storage devices are identified in several ways:


SCSI ID Unique SCSI identifier
Canonical name The Network Address Authority (NAA) ID is a
unique LUN identifier, guaranteed to be persistent across reboots.
In addition to NAA IDs, devices can also be identified with mpx or t10
identifiers.
Runtime name Uses the convention vmhbaN:C:T:L. This name is
not persistent through reboots.

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Viewing Storage Maps

HBA

target

LUN

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Physical Storage Considerations

Discuss vSphere storage needs with your storage administration


team, such as:
LUN sizes
I/O bandwidth
Disk cache parameters
Zoning and masking
Identical LUN presentation to each ESXi host
Active-active or active-passive arrays
Export properties for NFS datastores

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Review of Learner Objectives

You should be able to do the following:


Describe vSphere storage technologies and datastores.
Describe the storage device naming convention.

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Lesson 2:
Configure iSCSI Storage

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Learner Objectives

After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


Describe uses of IP storage with ESXi.
Describe iSCSI components and addressing.
Configure iSCSI initiators.

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iSCSI Components

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iSCSI Addressing

iSCSI target name:


iqn.1992-08.com.mycompany:stor1-
47cf3c25
or eui.fedcba9876543210
iSCSI alias: stor1
IP address: 192.168.36.101

iSCSI initiator name:


iqn.1998-01.com.vmware:train1-64ad4c29
or eui.1234567890abcdef
iSCSI alias: train1
IP address: 192.168.36.88

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iSCSI Initiators

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Configuring Software iSCSI

To configure the iSCSI software initiator:


1. Configure a VMkernel port for accessing IP storage.
2. Enable the iSCSI software adapter.
3. Configure the iSCSI IQN name and alias (if required)
4. Configure iSCSI software adapter properties, such as static/dynamic
discovery addresses and iSCSI port binding
5. Configure iSCSI security (Challenge Handshake Authentication
Protocol (CHAP)).

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ESXi Network Configuration for IP Storage

A VMkernel port must be created for ESXi to access software iSCSI.


The same port can be used to access NAS/NFS storage.

To optimize your vSphere networking setup:


Separate iSCSI networks from NAS/NFS networks.
Physical separation is preferred.
If that is not possible, use VLANs.

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iSCSI Target-Discovery Methods

Two discovery methods are


supported:
Static
Dynamic (also known as
SendTargets)
The SendTargets response 192.168.36.101:3260
returns iSCSI qualified name and
all available IP addresses.

SendTargets SendTargets
request response

iSCSI target
192.168.36.101:3260

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iSCSI Security: CHAP

iSCSI initiators use CHAP for Software iSCSI properties > General tab
authentication purposes.
By default, CHAP is not
configured.
ESXi supports two types of
CHAP authentication:
Target
Unidirectional
authenticates
Bidirectional host.
Software iSCSI only
ESXi also supports per-target
CHAP authentication.
Software iSCSI only
Host
Different credentials for each authenticates
target target.

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Configuring Hardware iSCSI

To configure the iSCSI hardware initiator:


1. Install the iSCSI hardware adapter.
For independent hardware iSCSI adapters
Verify properly formatted IP address and IQN names.
For dependent hardware iSCSI adapters
Determine the name of the physical NIC associated with adapter so that port
binding is properly configured.
2. Modify the iSCSI name and configure the iSCSI alias.
3. Configure iSCSI target addresses.
4. Configure iSCSI security (CHAP).

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Multipathing with iSCSI Storage

Hardware iSCSI:
Use two or more hardware
iSCSI adapters.
Software or dependent
hardware iSCSI:
Use multiple NICs.
Connect each NIC to a
separate VMkernel port.
Associate VMkernel ports
with iSCSI initiator.

Configure port binding in


the Properties window of
the iSCSI adapter.

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Review of Learner Objectives

You should be able to do the following:


Describe uses of IP storage with ESXi.
Describe iSCSI components and addressing.
Configure iSCSI initiators.

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2011 VMware Inc. All rights reserved


Lesson 3:
Configure NAS/NFS Storage

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Learner Objectives

After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


Describe NFS components and addressing.
Create an NFS datastore.

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NFS Components

NAS device or a directory to share


server with with the ESXi host
storage over the network

ESXi host with VMkernel port


NIC mapped to defined on virtual
virtual switch switch

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Addressing and Access Control with NFS

192.168.81.33

192.168.81.72
VMkernel port
configured with
IP address

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Configuring an NFS Datastore

Create a VMkernel port:


For better performance and security, separate it from the iSCSI
network.
Provide the following information:
NFS server name (or IP address)
Folder on the NFS server, for example, /LUN1 and /LUN2
Whether to mount the NFS file system read-only:
Default is to mount read/write
NFS datastore name

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Viewing IP Storage Information

Hosts and Clusters view > Configuration tab > Storage link

Datastores view > Storage Views tab

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Unmounting/Deleting an NFS Datastore

Click the Storage link in the Configuration tab to unmount an NFS


datastore.
Unmounting an NFS datastore deletes that datastore.

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Multipathing and NFS Storage

active/active
SP A SP B
configuration 0 1 0 1

switch port static or


dynamic link aggregation

spanned, teamed switch ports


(feature may not be available on all switches)

single
switch switch switch or
stacked
switches
cross stack
yes EtherChannel
no
NIC teams with Route
based on IP hash
load-balancing policy vmnic0 vmnic1 vmnic0 vmnic1 allow VMkernel to make
mnic2
routing decisions
ESXi host ESXi host

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Lab 7

In this lab, you will configure access to iSCSI and NFS datastore.
1. Add a VMkernel port group to a standard virtual switch.
2. Configure the iSCSI software adapter.
3. Configure access to NFS datastores.
4. View iSCSI and NFS storage information.

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage Revision A 6-36

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Lab 8

In this lab, you will design a network configuration for an ESXi host,
based on a set of requirements.
1. Analyze the requirements.
2. Design virtual switches and physical connections.

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Review of Learner Objectives

You should be able to do the following:


Describe NFS components and addressing.
Create an NFS datastore.

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage Revision A 6-38

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Lesson 4:
Fibre Channel SAN Storage

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Learner Objectives

After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


Describe uses of Fibre Channel with ESXi.
Describe Fibre Channel components and addressing.
Access Fibre Channel storage.

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Using Fibre Channel with ESXi

ESXi supports:
8Gb Fibre Channel
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE)

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Fibre Channel SAN Components

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Fibre Channel Addressing and Access Control

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Accessing Fibre Channel Storage

Install one or more supported Fibre Channel adapters in the ESXi


host.
The Fibre Channel adapters are recognized by the host during the
boot sequence.

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Viewing Fibre Channel Storage Information

The Storage Views tab provides


information about all SCSI adapters
and NAS mounts.

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FCoE Adapters

Hardware FCoE Software FCoE*

ESXi host ESXi 5.0 host

Network FC Network Software


driver driver driver FC

Converged NIC
10GBps with FCoE
Network
Ethernet
Adapter support

FCoE switch

Ethernet IP frames FC frames to FC


to LAN devices storage arrays

FC
LAN * New in vSphere 5.0
SAN

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Configuring Software FCoE: Create VMkernel Port

Physical adapter: vmnic2


Connect the VMkernel to physical VMkernel label: FCoE-2
VLAN ID: 20
FCoE NICs that are installed on your IP address: 172.17.12.150
host. Subnet mask: 255.255.255.0

The VLAN ID and Priority class is


discovered during FCoE initialization. VMkernel port
This class is not configured in
vSphere.
Support only one FCoE initiator per
physical NIC.
vmnic2
Each physical NIC must be on its own NIC with
vSwitch. FCoE support

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Configuring Software FCoE: Activate Software FCoE Adapter

Select host -> Configuration tab -> Storage Adapters link -> Add.

The second step is to add


the software FCoE
adapter.

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Multipathing with Fibre Channel

Multipathing allows continued


access to SAN LUNs in the
event of hardware failure. It
also provides load balancing.

(optional)

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Multipathing with Software FCoE

Physical adapter: vmnic2 Physical adapter: vmnic3


VMkernel label: FCoE-2 VMkernel label: FCoE-3
VLAN ID: 20 VLAN ID: 20
IP address: 172.17.12.150 IP address: 172.17.12.151
Subnet mask: VMkernel ports Subnet mask:
255.255.255.0 255.255.255.0

vmnic2 vmnic3

NICs with
FCoE support

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Review of Learner Objectives

You should be able to do the following:


Describe uses of Fibre Channel with ESXi.
Describe Fibre Channel components and addressing.
Access Fibre Channel storage.

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage Revision A 6-51

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Lesson 5:
VMware vSphere VMFS Datastores

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Learner Objectives

After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


Create a VMFS datastore.
Increase the size of a VMFS datastore.
Delete a VMFS datastore.

VMware vSphere: Install, Configure, Manage Revision A 6-53

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Using a VMFS Datastore with ESXi

Use VMFS datastores whenever possible:


VMFS is optimized for storing and accessing large files.
A VMFS can have a maximum volume size of 64TB.
NFS datastores are great for storing virtual machines. But some
functions are not supported.
Use RDMs if your virtual machine:
Is performing SAN snapshotting
Is clustered to a physical machine
Has large amounts of data that you do not want to convert into a virtual disk

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Creating a VMFS Datastore

To create a VMFS datastore, use the Add Storage wizard:


Select the storage type, Disk/LUN.
Select an available LUN.

Specify a datastore name.


Specify the datastore size: use full or partial LUN.

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Viewing VMFS Datastores

Click the Storage link in the Configuration tab

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Browsing Datastore Contents

Right-click the datastore in the hosts Summary tab or click the


Storage link in the Configuration tab.

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Managing Overcommitted Datastores

An overcommitted datastore can occur when there are many


thin-provisioned virtual disks that use close to their maximum
allotted disk space.
Actively monitor your datastore capacity:
Alarms assist through notifications:
Datastore disk overallocation
Virtual machine disk usage
Use reporting to view space usage.
Actively manage your datastore capacity:
Increase datastore capacity when necessary.
Use vSphere Storage vMotion to mitigate space usage issues on a
particular datastore.

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Increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore

Increase a VMFS
datastores size to give it
more space or possibly to
improve performance.
Two ways to dynamically
increase the size of a VMFS
datastore:
Add an extent (LUN).
Expand the datastore
within its extent.

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Comparing Methods for Increasing VMFS Datastore Size

Add an extent to the Expand the datastore


datastore within the extent

Virtual machine power state On On

Add one or more LUNs Increase the size of the


SAN administrator tasks
(extents). LUN.

A datastore can have up to A LUN can be expanded any


Limits
32 LUNs (extents). number of times.

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Before Increasing the Size of a VMFS Datastore

In general, before making any changes to your storage allocation:


Perform a rescan to ensure that your host sees the most current
storage.
Quiesce I/O on all disks involved.
Note the unique identifier (for example, the NAA ID) of the volume
that you want to expand.

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Delete or Unmount a VMFS Datastore
Deleting a VMFS datastore:

Unmounting a VMFS datastore:

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Multipathing Algorithms

Arrays provide different


storage array
features, some offer active-
active storage processors (SP)
and others offer active-passive SP A SP B storage
0 1 0 1 processors
SPs.
vSphere 5 offers native path
selection, load-balancing and
failover mechanisms.
switches
Third-party vendors can create
their own software to be
installed on your ESXi hosts
that will allow the ESXi host to
properly interact with the ESXi
storage arrays it uses. hosts

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Managing Multiple Storage Paths

To modify the number of storage paths to use, select the datastore


to modify and click that datastores Properties link.
Click Manage Paths in the Properties window.

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Configuring Storage Load Balancing

Path selection policies exist for:


Scalability:
Round Robin A multipathing policy that performs load balancing across
paths.
Availability:
MRU and Fixed

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Lab 9

In this lab, you will work with VMFS datastores.


1. Review your shared storage configuration.
2. Change the name of a VMFS datastore.
3. Create a VMFS datastore.
4. Expand a VMFS datastore to consume unused space on a LUN.
5. Remove a VMFS datastore.
6. Extend a VMFS datastore.
Ask your instructor which LUNs contain VMFS datastores that
should not be removed or reformatted.

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Review of Learner Objectives

You should be able to do the following:


Create a VMFS datastore.
Increase the size of a VMFS datastore.
Delete a VMFS datastore.

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Lesson 6:
VMware vSphere Storage Appliance

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Learner Objectives

After this lesson, you should be able to do the following:


Describe the architecture and requirements of the VMware vSphere
Storage Appliance cluster configuration.
Discuss how a VSA cluster handles failures.

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vSphere Storage Appliance: Introduction (1)

Installed, configure and managed via vCenter


Simple manageability
Abstraction From Underlying Hardware

Resilient to server failures

Delivers
High availability Highly available during disk (spindle) failure

Provides Storage framework for vMotion, HA , and DRS

Pools server disk capacity to form shared storage

Creates Shared
Leverages vSphere Thin provisioning for space utilization
Storage

Enables storage scalability

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vSphere Storage Appliance Introduction (2)
VSA VSA VSA

vSphere vSphere vSphere VSA Manager

vSphere Client

NFS NFS NFS NFS exports that can


be mounted by client
ESXi hosts

Enables advanced
features such as
vMotion, HA, DRS

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VSA Cluster Configuration Requirements

VSA cluster
The VSA
Manager is used VSA Cluster IP 10.10.120.200
to install the
VSA cluster. 10.15.20.100
vCenter Server 5.0
VSA Manager VSA Cluster Service
10.15.20.201

VSA Manager 10.10.120.3


NFS Volume IP 10.10.120.5
front end
back end vMotion IP 192.168.1.1
VSA

ESXi host 10.15.20.150

24GB RAM,
8 hard disks,
RAID controller,
Gigabit Ethernet switches

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VSA Manager

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VSA Cluster with 2 ESXi 5.0 Hosts
vCenter Server
VSA Manager VSA Cluster Service

Manage
Volume 2 Volume 1
Volume 1 Volume 2
(Replica) (Replica)
VSA VSA
Datastore 1 Datastore 2

VSA VSA

ESXi-1 ESXi-2

Configure RAID 1+0


on local system disks

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VSA Cluster with 3 ESXi 5.0 Hosts
vCenter Server
VSA Manager

Manage
VSA
VSA VSA
Datastore 2
Datastore 1 Datastore 3

Volume 3
Volume 1
(Replica)
Volume 3 Volume 2

Volume 2 Volume 1 (Replica)


(Replica)

VSA
VSA
VSA
ESXi-1
ESXi-3
ESXi-2

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VSA Resilience

vCenter Server
VSA Manager VSA Cluster Service

Manage

Volume 2 Volume 2 Volume 1


Volume 1
(Replica) (Replica)
VSA VSA
Datastore 1 Datastore 2

VSA VSA

ESXi-1 ESXi-2

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Review of Learner Objectives

You should be able to do the following:


Describe the architecture and requirements of the VMware vSphere
Storage Appliance cluster configuration.
Discuss how a VSA cluster handles failures.

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Key Points

Use VMFS datastores to hold virtual machine files.


NFS datastores are useful as a repository for ISO images.
Shared storage is integral to vSphere features like vMotion, vSphere
High Availability, and DRS.

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