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# Intro.

## ANN & Fuzzy Systems

Lecture 31
Fuzzy Set Theory (3)
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

Outline
Fuzzy Relation Composition and an Example
Fuzzy Reasoning
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

## Fuzzy Relation Composition

LetRbeafuzzyrelationinXY,andSbeafuzzy
relationinYZ.
TheMaxMincompositionofRandS,RoS,isafuzzy
relationinXZsuchthat
RoSRoS(x,z)={R(x,y)S(y,z)}
=Max.{Min.{R(x,y),S(y,z)}}/(x,z)
TheMaxProductCompositionofRandS,RoS,isa
fuzzyrelationinXZsuchthat
RoSRoS(x,z)={R(x,y)S(y,z)}
=Max.{R(x,y)S(y,z)}/(x,z)
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

## Fuzzy Composition Example

LetthetworelationsRandSbe,respectively:
R y1 y2 y3 S z1 z2
x1 0.4 0.6 0 y1 0.5 0.8
x2 0.9 1 0.1 y2 0.1 1
y1 0 0.6

ThegoalistocomputeRoSusingbothMaxminand
Maxproductcompositionrules.
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

MAX-MIN Composition
0.5 0.8
0 .4 0 . 6 0 0.4 0.6
RoS= 0.9 1 0.1 0.1 1 0.5 1
0 0.6

max{min(0.4,0.5), min(0.6, 0.1), min(0, 0)}
= max{ 0.4, 0.1, 0} = 0.4
max{min(0.4,0.8), min(0.6, 1), min(0, 0.6)}
= max{ 0.4, 0.6, 0} = 0.6
max{min(0.9,0.5), min(1, 0.1), min(0.1, 0)}
= max{ 0.5, 0.1, 0} = 0.5
max{min(0.9,0.8), min(1, 1), min(0.1, 0.6)}
= max{ 0.8, 1, 0.1} = 1
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

MAX-PRODUCT Composition
0.5 0.8
0.4 0.6 0 0.06 0.6
0.9 1 0.1 0.1 1
RoS= 0.45 1
0 0.6

## max{0.40.5, 0.60.1, 00} = max{0.02,0.06,0} = 0.06

max{0.40.8, 0.61, 00.6} = max{0.32, 0.6, 0} = 0.6
max{0.90.5, 10.1, 0.10} = max{0.45, 0.1, 0} = 0.45
max{0.90.8, 11, 0.10.6} = max{0.72, 1, 0.06} = 1
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

Fuzzy Reasoning
Comparingcrisplogicinferenceandfuzzylogicinference

## Crisp Mary is 22 years old

logic Dana is 3 years older than Mary .
Dana is (22 + 3) years old

Translation
Age(Mary)=22
(Age(Dana),Age(Mary))=Age(Dana)Age(Mary)=3
Age(Dana)=Age(Mary)+3=22+3=25
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

Fuzzy Reasoning
Fuzzy Mary is Young
logic Dana is much older than Mary .
Dana is (Young o Much_older)

Translation
Age(Mary) = Young (Young is a fuzzy set)
(Age(Dana),Age(Mary)) = Much_older (a relation)
Age(Dana) = Young o Much_older
a composite relation!
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

## Fuzzy Reasoning (cont'd)

Age(Dana)(x)={young(y)much_older(x,y)}
Theuniverseofdiscourse(support)is"Age"whichmay
bequantifiedintoseveraloverlappingfuzzy(sub)sets:
Young,Midage,Oldwiththefollowingdefinitions:

## (Age) Young Mid-age Old

5 20 35 50 Age
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

## Fuzzy Reasoning (cont'd)

Much_olderisarelationwhichisdefinedas:

1 x y 20,
much_older(x,y)= 1
( x y ) 0 x y 20,
20
0 x y.
muc h_older
(x,y)

40
30
20
x
10

40 y
30
20
10
0
Intro. ANN & Fuzzy Systems

Reasoning Example
For each fixed x, find
Age(Dana)(x)=max(min(young(y),much_older(x,y)):

(x)
Age(Dana)
1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
x