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# Viscosities of Gases and

Liquids
The
viscosity of a Newtonian fluid depends
primarily on temperature and to a lesser degree
on pressure.
Flow in Boundary
Layers
Boundary Layer
The part of a moving fluid in which the fluid
motion is influenced by the presence of a solid
boundary.
Boundary Layer
Laminar and Turbulent
Flow in Boundary Layers
Flow in this part of the boundary layer is
essentially laminar.
Actually it is laminar most of the time, but
occasionally eddies from the main portion of the
flow or the outer region of the boundary layer
move very close to the wall, temporarily
disrupting the velocity profile.
Between the zone of fully developed turbulence
and the region of laminar flow is a transition, or
buffer, layer of intermediate character.
Turbulent boundary layer has three zones:
Viscous sublayer
Buffer layer
Turbulent zone
Laminar and Turbulent
Flow in Boundary Layers
Laminar and Turbulent
Flow in Boundary Layers
The
factors that determine the point at which
turbulence appears in a laminar boundary layer
are coordinated by the dimensionless Reynolds
number defined by
Laminar and Turbulent
Flow in Boundary Layers
Transition length for laminar and turbulent flow

## The length of the entrance region of the tube

necessary for the boundary layer to reach the center
of the tube and for fully developed flow to be
established is called the transition length.
Laminar and Turbulent
Flow in Boundary Layers
Near the leading edge of a flat plate
immersed in a fluid of uniform velocity,
the boundary layer is thin, and the flow in
the boundary layer is entirely laminar. As
the layer thickens, however, at distances
farther from the leading edge, a point is
reached when turbulence appears.
Example
Estimate the transition length at the entrance to a
15-mm tube through which 100% glycerol at 60C
is flowing at a velocity of 0.3 m/s. The density of
glycerol is 1240 kg/m3.
Boundary Layer
Separation and Wake
Formation
Boundary-layer separation occurs whenever the
change in velocity of the fluid, either in
magnitude or direction, is too large for the
fluid to adhere to the solid surface. It is most
frequently encountered when there is an abrupt
change in the flow channel, like a sudden
expansion or contraction, a sharp bend, or an
obstruction around which the fluid must flow
Boundary Layer
Separation and Wake
Formation
Separation may also occur from velocity
decrease in a smoothly diverging channel.
Because of the large energy losses resulting from
the formation of a wake, it is often desirable to
minimize or prevent boundary-layer separation. In
some cases this can be done by suction, i.e., by
drawing part of the fluid into the solid surface at
the area of potential separation. Most often,
however, separation is minimized by avoiding
sharp changes in the cross-sectional area of the
flow channel and by streamlining any objects over
which the fluid must flow.