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Engr.

Muhammad Irfan

UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA
General introduction of truss.

Truss types.

Zero Force Members in truss.

Assumption for truss analysis.

Determinacy and stability of truss.

Methods Used for Truss analysis.

Procedure for Numerical problems.

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Why we use triangular pattern in
truss

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Pratt
Howe
Warren
Parker
Saw tooth
Three Hinged arch
Fink
Fan
Bowstring

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Howe truss Pratt truss

howe truss Warren truss

saw-tooth truss
Fink truss

three-hinged arch
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gusset plate

Roof Trusses roof


purlins

top cord

knee brace
bottom
cord gusset plate
bay
span 7 7
Truss analysis using the method of joints is greatly simplified
if one is able to determine those members which support no
loading (zero-force members)
These zero-force members are used to increase stability of the
truss during construction and to provide support if the applied
loading is changed

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If only two members form a truss joint and no external load or
support reaction is applied to the joint, the members must be
zero-force members.
If three members form a truss for which two of the members
are collinear, the third member is a zero-force member
provided no external force or support reaction is applied.

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Frequently the analysis can be simplified by identifying
members that carry no load
two typical cases are found
When only two members form a non-collinear joint and
there is no external force or reaction at that joint, then
both members must be zero-force
P If either TCB or TCD 0,
A B
C then C cannot be in
equilibrium, since
there is no restoring
TCB
C force towards the right.
D
Hence both BC and
CD are zero-load
TCD members here.
E
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When three members form a truss joint for which two
members are collinear and the third is at an angle to
these, then this third member must be zero-force
in the absence of an external force or reaction from
a support
Here, joint B has only
one force in the vertical
P direction.
A B Hence, this force must
C be zero or B would
move (provided there
are no external
loads/reactions)
D
Also TAB = TBC
B

TAB TBC
E

TBD 11
While zero-force members can be removed in this
configuration, care should be taken
any change in the loading can lead to the member
carrying a load
the stability of the truss can be degraded by
removing the zero-force member

You may think that we can


P remove AD and BD to make a
A B triangle
C
This satisfies the statics
requirements
However, this leaves a long CE
D member to carry a compressive
load. This long member is highly
susceptible to failure by
buckling.
E 12
B C
P

E D
A Dx

Ey Dy

FCB C + F = 0: F = 0
x CB

+ Fy = 0: FCD = 0
FCD

FAB + Fy = 0: FABsin = 0, FAB = 0



A FAE + F = 0: F + 0 = 0, FAE = 0
x AE
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Example 3-4

Using the method of joints, indicate all the members of the truss shown in the
figure below that have zero force.

A B

C
H

D
G F E

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SOLUTION A B
Ax
Ax C
H 0
Gx D
G F E
0 0
P
Joint D
y
FDC
+ Fy = 0: FDCsin = 0, FDC = 0

FDE x
D + F = 0: FDE + 0 = 0, FDE = 0
x

FEC

E Joint E
FEF 0 + F = 0: FEF = 0
x

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A B
Ax
0
Ax C
0
H 0
Gx D
G F E
0 0
y P

FHB Joint H
FHA
+ F = 0: FHB = 0
y
H
FHF

FGA x
Joint G

Gx FGF + Fy = 0: FGA = 0
G

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The members are joined together by smooth pins. in
cases where bolted or welded joint connections are
used, this assumption is generally satisfactory
provided the center lines of the joining members are
concurrent at a point.
All loading applied on the joints in most situations
such as for bridge and roof trusses this assumption
is true. frequently the in the force analysis the
weight of member is neglected .
Only Axial forces are considered in the members
(compression or tension) no shear and bending are
present in the truss members.

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b + r = 2j statically determinate
b + r > 2j statically indeterminate
In particular, the degree of indeterminacy is specified by
the difference in the numbers
degree of indeterminacy ( i )=(b + r) - 2j

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b + r < 2j unstable
b + r 2j unstable if truss support reactions
are concurrent or parallel or if some of the components
of the truss form a collapsible mechanism otherwise
stable.

External Unstable

Unstable-parallel reactions Unstable-concurrent reactions

19 19
F

O
D A B E

8 + 3 = 11 < 2(6)
AD, BE, and CF are concurrent at point O

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Example 3-1

Classify each of the trusses in the figure below as stable, unstable, statically
determinate, or statically indeterminate. The trusses are subjected to arbitrary
external loadings that are assumed to be known and can act anywhere on the
trusses.

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SOLUTION

Externally stable, since the reactions are not concurrent or parallel. Since
b = 19,r = 3, j = 11, then b + r = 2j or 22 = 22. Therefore, the truss is
statically determinate.By inspection the truss is internally stable.

Externally stable. Since b = 15, r = 4, j = 9, then b + r > 2j or 19 > 18.


The truss is statically indeterminate to the first degree. By inspection
the truss is internally stable.

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Externally stable. Since b = 9, r = 3, j = 6, then b + r = 2j or 12 = 12.
The truss is statically determinate. By inspection the truss is internally
stable.

Externally stable. Since b = 12, r = 3, j = 8, then b + r < 2j or 15 <16.


The truss is internally unstable.

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Method of joints
Method of section
Graphical method of truss analysis

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If a truss is in equilibrium, then each of its joints must
also be in equilibrium
The method of joints consists of satisfying the
equilibrium conditions for the forces exerted on the
pin at each joint of the truss.
Truss members are all straight two-force members
lying in the same plane
The force system acting at each pin is coplanar and
concurrent (intersecting)
Rotational or moment equilibrium is automatically satisfied
at the joint, only need to satisfy Fx = 0, Fy = 0

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Draw the free-body diagram.

Solve the geometry of truss (angles)

Select the joint having at least one known force and at

most two unknown forces (may need to first determine


external reactions at the truss supports)
Draw the sense of unknown forces.
Always assume the unknown member forces acting on the joints
free-body diagram to be in tension (pulling on the pin)

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Orient the x and y axes such that the forces can be

easily resolved into their x and y components.


Apply Fx = 0 and Fy = 0 and solve for the

unknown member forces and verify their correct


sense tension or either member in compression
Continue to analyze each of the other joints,

choosing ones having at most two unknowns and at


least one known force

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The Method of Joints
B
500 N

2m

A 45o
Ax = 500 N C

Ay = 500 N 2m Cy = 500 N

Joint B + F = 0:
x
y
500 - FBCsin45o = 0
B 500 N x
FBC = 707.11 N (C)
45o FBC
+ Fy = 0:
FBA
- FBA + FBCcos45o = 0
FBA = 500 N (T)
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B
500 N

2m

A 45o
Ax = 500 N C

Ay = 500 N 2m Cy = 500 N

Joint A

500 N + F = 0:
x

500 - FAC = 0
500 N FAC FAC = 500 N (T)

500 N
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