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You are on page 1of 30

Muhammad Irfan

UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA

General introduction of truss.

Truss types.

3

Why we use triangular pattern in

truss

4

Pratt

Howe

Warren

Parker

Saw tooth

Three Hinged arch

Fink

Fan

Bowstring

5

Howe truss Pratt truss

saw-tooth truss

Fink truss

three-hinged arch

6

gusset plate

purlins

top cord

knee brace

bottom

cord gusset plate

bay

span 7 7

Truss analysis using the method of joints is greatly simplified

if one is able to determine those members which support no

loading (zero-force members)

These zero-force members are used to increase stability of the

truss during construction and to provide support if the applied

loading is changed

8

If only two members form a truss joint and no external load or

support reaction is applied to the joint, the members must be

zero-force members.

If three members form a truss for which two of the members

are collinear, the third member is a zero-force member

provided no external force or support reaction is applied.

9

Frequently the analysis can be simplified by identifying

members that carry no load

two typical cases are found

When only two members form a non-collinear joint and

there is no external force or reaction at that joint, then

both members must be zero-force

P If either TCB or TCD 0,

A B

C then C cannot be in

equilibrium, since

there is no restoring

TCB

C force towards the right.

D

Hence both BC and

CD are zero-load

TCD members here.

E

10

When three members form a truss joint for which two

members are collinear and the third is at an angle to

these, then this third member must be zero-force

in the absence of an external force or reaction from

a support

Here, joint B has only

one force in the vertical

P direction.

A B Hence, this force must

C be zero or B would

move (provided there

are no external

loads/reactions)

D

Also TAB = TBC

B

TAB TBC

E

TBD 11

While zero-force members can be removed in this

configuration, care should be taken

any change in the loading can lead to the member

carrying a load

the stability of the truss can be degraded by

removing the zero-force member

P remove AD and BD to make a

A B triangle

C

This satisfies the statics

requirements

However, this leaves a long CE

D member to carry a compressive

load. This long member is highly

susceptible to failure by

buckling.

E 12

B C

P

E D

A Dx

Ey Dy

FCB C + F = 0: F = 0

x CB

+ Fy = 0: FCD = 0

FCD

A FAE + F = 0: F + 0 = 0, FAE = 0

x AE

13

Example 3-4

Using the method of joints, indicate all the members of the truss shown in the

figure below that have zero force.

A B

C

H

D

G F E

14

SOLUTION A B

Ax

Ax C

H 0

Gx D

G F E

0 0

P

Joint D

y

FDC

+ Fy = 0: FDCsin = 0, FDC = 0

FDE x

D + F = 0: FDE + 0 = 0, FDE = 0

x

FEC

E Joint E

FEF 0 + F = 0: FEF = 0

x

15

A B

Ax

0

Ax C

0

H 0

Gx D

G F E

0 0

y P

FHB Joint H

FHA

+ F = 0: FHB = 0

y

H

FHF

FGA x

Joint G

Gx FGF + Fy = 0: FGA = 0

G

16

The members are joined together by smooth pins. in

cases where bolted or welded joint connections are

used, this assumption is generally satisfactory

provided the center lines of the joining members are

concurrent at a point.

All loading applied on the joints in most situations

such as for bridge and roof trusses this assumption

is true. frequently the in the force analysis the

weight of member is neglected .

Only Axial forces are considered in the members

(compression or tension) no shear and bending are

present in the truss members.

17

b + r = 2j statically determinate

b + r > 2j statically indeterminate

In particular, the degree of indeterminacy is specified by

the difference in the numbers

degree of indeterminacy ( i )=(b + r) - 2j

18 18

b + r < 2j unstable

b + r 2j unstable if truss support reactions

are concurrent or parallel or if some of the components

of the truss form a collapsible mechanism otherwise

stable.

External Unstable

19 19

F

O

D A B E

8 + 3 = 11 < 2(6)

AD, BE, and CF are concurrent at point O

20 20

Example 3-1

Classify each of the trusses in the figure below as stable, unstable, statically

determinate, or statically indeterminate. The trusses are subjected to arbitrary

external loadings that are assumed to be known and can act anywhere on the

trusses.

21 21

SOLUTION

Externally stable, since the reactions are not concurrent or parallel. Since

b = 19,r = 3, j = 11, then b + r = 2j or 22 = 22. Therefore, the truss is

statically determinate.By inspection the truss is internally stable.

The truss is statically indeterminate to the first degree. By inspection

the truss is internally stable.

22 22

Externally stable. Since b = 9, r = 3, j = 6, then b + r = 2j or 12 = 12.

The truss is statically determinate. By inspection the truss is internally

stable.

The truss is internally unstable.

23 23

Method of joints

Method of section

Graphical method of truss analysis

24

If a truss is in equilibrium, then each of its joints must

also be in equilibrium

The method of joints consists of satisfying the

equilibrium conditions for the forces exerted on the

pin at each joint of the truss.

Truss members are all straight two-force members

lying in the same plane

The force system acting at each pin is coplanar and

concurrent (intersecting)

Rotational or moment equilibrium is automatically satisfied

at the joint, only need to satisfy Fx = 0, Fy = 0

25

Draw the free-body diagram.

external reactions at the truss supports)

Draw the sense of unknown forces.

Always assume the unknown member forces acting on the joints

free-body diagram to be in tension (pulling on the pin)

26

Orient the x and y axes such that the forces can be

Apply Fx = 0 and Fy = 0 and solve for the

sense tension or either member in compression

Continue to analyze each of the other joints,

least one known force

27

The Method of Joints

B

500 N

2m

A 45o

Ax = 500 N C

Ay = 500 N 2m Cy = 500 N

Joint B + F = 0:

x

y

500 - FBCsin45o = 0

B 500 N x

FBC = 707.11 N (C)

45o FBC

+ Fy = 0:

FBA

- FBA + FBCcos45o = 0

FBA = 500 N (T)

28

B

500 N

2m

A 45o

Ax = 500 N C

Ay = 500 N 2m Cy = 500 N

Joint A

500 N + F = 0:

x

500 - FAC = 0

500 N FAC FAC = 500 N (T)

500 N

29

30

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