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# Defining Temperature

## Most associate temperature of an object

w/ how it feels(hot or cold)
Sensation of touch can often be
misleading
determining temperature requires a
standard definition
In general energy must be added or
removed to change the temp. of an object
Add energy, temp increases; remove
energy temps decrease
Temperature and KE
Temperature = measure of avg.
kinetic energy of particles in a
substance
Temp. increases as a direct result of
added energy (KE T)
Internal energy (U) = Energy
associated w/ both atomic motion (KE)
and PE resulting from distances and
alignment between particles
Examples of Kinetic Energy
(atomic motion)
Thermal Equilibrium
thermal equilibrium state in which two bodies
in physical contact w/ each other have identical
temperatures
Energy ALWAYS transfers from High Temp object
to Low Temp object
Basis for thermometers; energy transferred to or
from thermometer; as a result mercury will rise
or fall; when mercury is stable it has reached
thermal equilibrium
Thermal equilibrium temp. ALWAYS lies between
the two objects initial temperatures
Thermal Expansion
Increasing temp. results in an increasing
volume thermal expansion
In general volumes of solids, liquids and
gases tend to increase with increasing
temps.
Water is a very important exception
Between 0 and 4 water expands b/c of
crystalline structure
As a result ice floats; ponds freeze from top
down;
Conversions
TF=(9/5)TC + 32

TK=TC+273.15

## Scale Ice Point Steam

Point
Fahrenheit 32F 212F
Celsius 0C 100C
Kelvin 273.15K 373.15K
Temperature Conversion
What are the equivalent Celsius and
Kelvin temperatures of 50F?
p. 304 #1
1. A hot copper pan is dropped into a
tub of water. If the waters
temperature rises, what happens to
the temperature of the pan? How
will you know when the water and
copper pan reach thermal
equilibrium.
p. 304 #4

## 4. Which of the following is true for popcorn

kernels and the water molecules inside them
during popping?
a. The temperature of the kernels increase
b. The water molecules are destroyed
c. The KE of the water molecules increases
d. The mass of the water molecules changes
Heat and Energy
Heat = the transfer of energy from one
object to another b/c of the temp.
difference btwn them
net energy transfer will always move from
object of high T to low T
Energy transfer depends on the difference
of the temps of the two objects
Result of microscope collisions
Heat and Greater the temp. difference,
Energy greater the rate of energy
transfer
Transfer of energy alters temp. of
object
When 2 objects are at same T;
amt of energy transferred out =
energy transferred in net
energy transfer is zero and is
called thermal equilibrium
Heat given symbol Q
Unit of energy = Joule, calorie,
kilocalorie, btu (Table 9.3)
Methods of Energy Transfer
1) Conduction transfer of e~ through contact
a) Thermal conductors rapidly transfer e~;
ex. metals
b) Thermal insulators slowly transfer e~ as heat; ex.
Cardboard, ceramic, asbestos, fiberglass
2) Convection transfer of e~ through the
movement of fluids, due to density
3) Radiation all objects reduce their internal e~
by giving off electromagnetic radiation
Conservation of Energy
PE + KE + U = 0
Change in PE + change in KE +
change in internal energy must be
constant
Sample Problem B
An vessel contains water. Paddles that are
propelled by falling masses turn in the water.
This agitation warms the water and increases
its internal energy. The temperature of the
water is then measured, giving an indication
of the waters internal energy increase. If a
total mass of 11.5kg falls 1.3m and all of the
ME is converted to internal energy, by how
much will the internal energy of the water
increase? (Assume no heat is lost to the
surroundings.)
p. 311 #2
A worker drives a 0.500kg spike into a
rail tie with a 2.50kg sledghammer.
The hammer hits the spike with a
speed of 65m/s. If one-third of the
hammers kinetic energy is
converted into the internal energy of
the hammer and spike, how much
does the total internal energy
increase?
p. 311 #3
A 3.0x10-3kg copper penny drops a
distance of 50.0m to the ground. If
65% of the initial potential energy
goes into increasing the internal
energy of the penny, determine the
magnitude of that increase.
p. 311 #4
The amount of internal energy needed
to raise the temperature of 0.25 kg
of water by 0.2C is 209.3J. How fast
must a 0.25 kg baseball travel in
order for its kinetic energy to equal
this internal energy.
Thermal Equilibrium
Temp. is meaningful only when stable
Thermal equilibrium = State in
which two bodies in physical contact
with one another have identical
temperatures
Basis of measuring temperature w/
thermometers
Matter expands w/
temperature
Increasing temp. at a
constant pressure
causes volume of gas
to increase
Decreasing temp will
cause a gas to contract
Specific Heat Capacity
same change in energy will cause different
temp. change in equal masses of different
substances
Examples: Grass vs. Blacktop on hot
summer day
Due to differences in motion of atoms at
microscopic level
Specific heat capacity = energy required to
change the temp. of 1kg of a substance by
1C
Specific Heat Capacity
cp=Q/mT Q=
mcT
Q = energy transferred as heat
Q (+) = energy added; Q (-) = energy
removed
cp = specific heat capacity (J/kgC)
T is (+) = temps increase
T is (-) = temps decrease
Calorimetry
To measure c, must
measure mass, temp
change and energy
transferred
Heat capacity of water is
well known = 4186 J/KgC)
calorimetry = procedure
used to measure energy
transfer from 1 substance
to another
Energy absorbed by water,
must = energy lost by
substance

Qw=-Qx
mcwT=-mcxT
Example
A 0.050 kg metal bolt is heated to an
unknown initial temperature. It is then
dropped into a calorimeter containing
0.15kg of water w/ an initial
temperature of 21.0C. The bolt and the
water then reach a final temperature of
25C. If the metal has a specific heat
capacity of 899J/KgC, find the initial
temperature of the metal.
Latent Heat
Latent Heat
Latent heat =
energy per unit
mass that is
transferred
during a phase
change
phase change = change of a substance
from one state of matter to another
(solid, liquid or gas) at constant
temperature and pressure
Latent Heat
Q = mL
Q = energy absorbed or released
m= mass
L = latent heat
Two Types of Latent Heat
1. Latent Heat of Fusion (solid
liquid) = Lf
2. Latent Heat of Vaporization (liquid
gas) Lv
as w/ specific heat latent heats are unique
Latent Heat
Example
Calculate the amount of energy to
raise 10.0g of ice at -25.0C to steam
at a temperature of 125C.