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A Brief synopsis of:

Terms & Definitions


Duties & Responsibilities
Welding Imperfections
Mechanical Testing
Welding Procedures & Approval
Welder Approval

Any Questions ?*
1) Use a pencil only for the arrow line, but make all
writing in ink
2) Report everything that you can observe

3) Do not forget to compare and sentence your report to


the code provided

4) Do not forget to date & sign your report

5) Make any observations, such as recommendations for


further investigation for crack-like imperfections*
Using the macro photographs and report sheets given to
you, prepare your reports using the sheets given
(20 mins/macro)
Identify indications, then draw a line on the report sheet
smaller macro photograph and number it. Using the boxes
below, identify the number and indicate what you have
identified
Place the size of the indication in the next box on the right,
remembering to divide the dimension from photograph by 10
Use the following slides as guidance!
Macro Inspection Points
1) Use a pencil for the arrow lines, but make all writing
in ink only
2) Do not forget to print your name
3) Do not forget to put the date
4) Do not forget to SIGN the report
5) Make any comments such as recommendations for
further investigation for crack-like imperfections*
09.20

Example Macro Photo

Macro Photo x 10*


NOTE: PHOTOGRAPH IS AT X10 MAGNIFICATION
MATERIAL: LOW CARBON STEEL
8 WELDING PROCESS: [MAG/GMAW]
9
7 1
11 All dimensions in mm
6 2 3
4
10 5 12
# DEFECT SIZE ACCEPT/REJECT
1 Overlap + 2 pores 0.5 max *
2 Laminations/inclusions*
3 Lack of side wall fusion*
4 Overlap*
Linear misalignment
Assess
5 0.4*
6 Lack of inter-run fusion + silica*
7 Gas pore/pipe ? Check penetrant 2.2 * To
8 Lack of side wall fusion + silica*
9 Poor toe blend Sharp 75 *
10 Angular misalignment 5* Specification*
11 EXCESS WELD METAL 4.7*
12 EXCESS PENETRATION 1.4 Sharp*
Continue with Practical Macro Inspection.
(Or as directed by your lecturer/presenter)*
10.45
Materials arriving at the site need to be inspected for
the following:

1) Size
2) Condition
3) Specification*
Rolling Imperfections
Direction of rolling

Cold Laps*

Laminations
Segregation
Plate Inspection
Condition
(Corrosion, Mechanical damage, Laps, Bands and Laminations)

Specification
5L
Size

Other checks may need to be made such as:


distortion tolerance, number of plates and storage*
Pipe Inspection
Condition
(Corrosion, Damage, Wall thickness Ovality, Laminations & Seam)

Specification LP 5

Size
Welded seam

Other checks such as:


distortion, tolerance, number and storage*
General discussion on areas of industry employing
codes or standards*

Discuss the 3 areas of responsibility:

Design
Manufacture
Testing*
The 3 agencies generally identified in a code or standard:*

1) The customer, or client*

2) The manufacturer, or contractor*

3) The 3rd party inspection, or clients representative*

Codes & standards often do not contain all relevant data,


but may refer to other standards*
Interpretation of Drawings &
Weld Symbols
It could be strongly argued that without a thorough
knowledge of weld symbols, a welding inspector
is unable to fully carry out his full scope of work*
Welding Symbols
Most weld symbols contain 5 elements, which are:

1) The arrow line* a. 7 b. 10 5 x 100 (100)


111*
2) The reference line*

3) The symbol*

4) The dimensions*

5) The supplementary information*


1) Convention of the arrow line:
BS. BSEn & AWS
a) Shall touch the joint intersection
b) Shall not be parallel to the drawing
c) Shall point towards a single plate preparation*

*
2) Convention of The reference line:
BS 499 (UK) & AWS A 2.4 (US)
a) Shall touch the arrow line
b) Shall be parallel to the bottom of the drawing*

*
Symbols: BS 499 (UK) & AWS A2.4 (US)
a) Welds this side of joint, go underneath the reference line
b) Welds the other side of the joint, go on top of the reference line
c) Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the
vertical line to the left side of the symbol
d) All CSA dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol

e) All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol


i.e. Number of welds, length of welds, length of any (spaces)*

10 4 x 50 (50)*
Representation of welds done from both sides of
the joint intersection, touched by the arrow head

Fillet weld Double bevel Double J*

Double V Double U
Supplementary Weld Symbols
Toes to be ground
smoothly. (BSEn only)
Site Weld

Ground flush

Concave or Convex
111
Weld all round Welding process.
Numerical BS En & BS
Further supplementary information, such as WPS
number, or NDT may be placed in the fish tail*
3) Convention of The reference line:
BS En 22553 or ISO 2553
a) Shall touch the arrow line
b) Shall be parallel to the bottom of the drawing
c) There shall be a further broken line above or beneath
the reference line (Except where the weld is symmetrical)*
or *
Symbols: BSEn 22553. (ISO 2553)
a) Welds this side of joint, go on the unbroken reference line
b) Welds the other side of the joint, go on the broken reference line
c) Symbols with a vertical line component must be drawn with the
vertical line to the left side of the symbol
d) All CSA dimensions are shown to the left of the symbol
e) All linear dimensions are shown on the right of the symbol
i.e. Number of welds, length of welds, length of any spaces
f) All leg lengths shall be preceded by z and throat by a or s*

z 10 4 x 50 (50)*
Weld Symbols on Drawings
BS 499 & AWS A 2.4

8
8

a5 b8 *

5
8
Weld Symbols on Drawings
BS En 22553 (ISO 2553)

z8 or
z8
8

a5 z8 or
a5 z8 *
5
8
Example:
Produce a drawing giving symbols for the welds
given as shown below to the specification given
Weld Drawing BS 499
MMA

Example:
Symbol Drawing

111*
Student Symbols Exercise
Complete a symbols drawing for the welded
joint given below to BS 499 & BSEn 22553

7
10
35 20

15 30

All Fillet weld leg lengths are 10 mm *


All butt welds are MIG welded and all fillet welds with MMA
Solution BS 499 10
a. 30 111
131
a. 20
10

*
a. 7 b 10
111 a. 35
131 a. 15
10
Solution BSEn 22553 z. 10
s. 30 111
131
s. 20
z. 10

*
a. 7 z. 10
s. 35
111
131 s. 15
z. 10
A welding process:*
Special equipment used with method, for producing welds

Heating Protection

Requirements:

To make a sound
weld we need to

Properties
Cleaning
Before continuing with the welding processes section, there are
2 safety related terms that should first be understood*

Duty Cycle relates to the current carrying capacity of all


conductors, based on a 10 minute cycle i.e. 60% duty cycle
means it can carry the specified current for 6 minutes in 10
then must rest for 4. A 100% duty cycle has no rest period
requirement. (Explained fully in the WIS 5 course notes)*
OEL/MEL (Occupational or Maximum Exposure Limit) which
is used in reference to fume exposure such as that caused in arc
welding. The value may be in PPM or mg/m3 depending on a
particulate fume, or a gas. Typical values in EH/40 are*
Fume or gas Exposure Limit Effect on Health
Cadmium 0.025Mg/m3 Extremely toxic
General Welding Fume 5Mg/m3 Low toxicity
Iron 5Mg/m3 Low toxicity
Aluminium 5Mg/m3 Low toxicity
Ozone PPM 0.20 Extremely toxic
Phosgene PPM 0.02 Extremely toxic

Argon No OEL Value Very low toxicity


O2 air content to be
controlled
Constant Current/Amperage Volt Amp Characteristic*
OCV Large change in voltage
=
Volts Smaller change in amperage*
Large
arc gap* Welding Voltage*
Small
arc gap

Amps
Power control Power source.
panel Transformer/R
ectifier
Electrode oven
(Up to 350 C) Holding Oven
(Up to 200 C)
Electrodes
Inverter power
Power return source
cable
Electrode holder
Safety visor Power cable
(With dark lens) *
1) A Transformer/Rectifier (Constant current type)

2) A power and power return cable

3) Electrode holder

4) Electrode (To correct specification)

5) Correct visor & glass, all safety clothing and extraction


1) Amperage 2) Arc Voltage

3) Polarity 4) Speed of Travel

5) Electrode type & 6) Duty Cycles

7) Electrode condition 8) Connections

9) Insulation / extraction 10) Electrode treatments*


1) Slag inclusions

2) Arc strikes

3) Porosity

4) Undercut

Most welding imperfections in MMA are caused by a lack of


welder skill, the incorrect settings of the equipment, or the
incorrect use, and treatment of electrodes*
Advantages: Disadvantages:

1) Field or shop (Portable) 1) High skill factor

2) Range of consumables 2) Short electrode length

3) All positional 3) **Low productivity (OF)

4) *Quick electrode change 4) High level of fume

5) Simple equipment 5) Hydrogen control

* Enabling fast changes in material types to be welded


** Comparatively uneconomic with other processes*
Power control Transformer/
panel Rectifier

Power return Inverter


cable power source

Torch Power control


assemblies panel

Power cable
Tungsten
electrodes*
Flow-meter
Tungsten Tungsten
housing electrodes
Fitted ceramic Ceramic
shielding cup shield cup
On/Off switch
Gas lens
Split collet
Gas diffuser
Spare ceramic Torch body
shielding cup *
The tungsten must have
the correct vertex angle*

Grinding is done on a special


jig, and on a dedicated wheel*
Correctly adjusted shielding
with a gas lens will give good
cover without turbulence*

Adjustments to the flow rate


need to made according to
joint design and gas type*
Before welding

After welding*

A fusible insert is pre-formed and placed filler material


that is mainly used in the root of TIG welded pipes*

It is often termed an EB insert after*

The Electric Boat Company of America, who developed it*


1) A Transformer/Rectifier (Constant current type)

2) A power and power return cable

3) An Inert shielding gas. (Argon or Helium)

4) Gas hose, flow-meter, & gas regulator

5) TIG torch head with ground tungsten, collets, ceramics

6) Method of arc ignition (High frequency or lift arc)

7) Correct visor, all safety clothing and good extraction

8) Optional filler rod, to correct specification*


1) Amperage 2) Arc Voltage

3) AC or DC + Polarity 4) Speed of Travel

5) Tungsten type & 6) Duty Cycles

7) Tungsten vertex angle 8) Connections

9) Gas type & flow rate 10) Insulation / extraction

11) Ceramic condition 12) Gas lens fitted*


1) Tungsten inclusions (Low skill, or wrong vertex angle)

2) Surface porosity (Loss of gas shield mainly on site)

3) Crater pipes (Bad weld finish technique i.e. Slope out)

4) Oxidation of S/S weld bead, or root by poor gas cover

Most welding imperfections with TIG are caused by a lack of


welder skill, or incorrect setting of the equipment. i.e. Current,
torch manipulation, welding speed, gas flow rate, etc*
Advantages: Disadvantages:

1) High quality 1) Very high skill factor

2) High control of weld pool 2) Range of consumable

3) All positional 3) Loss of gas shield/site

4) Lowest H2 arc process 4) Low productivity (O/F)

5) Low inter-run cleaning 5) High ozone levels*


Videos
TWI
Welding with covered electrodes
ESAB
TIG Welding Steels & Stainless Steels
Or equivalent (1 hour)*
1) Use a pencil for the arrow lines, but make all written
comments and measurements in ink only
2) Report everything that you can observe

3) Do not forget to compare and sentence your report

5) Do not forget to date & sign your report

6) Make any observations, such as recommendations for


further investigation for crack-like imperfections i.e.
penetrant testing*
Slides 52 - 60
WIS 5 Text Ref Section 23
WTC 7 Text Ref Section 17
The purpose of this session is to practice the reporting format
required by CSWIP in the practical plate examination part of the
CSWIP 3.1 Welding Inspectors exam

Remember, the responsibilities of a welding inspector are:

Observe
Report
Compare*.
To observe welding imperfections you are required to have good
close vision acuity
A close vision acuity test will be given to you before your exam to
establish if your vision meets the minimum standard required

Its not just the project that must meet the standard!!
You will also require a thorough knowledge of welding
imperfections and their likely location, causes and implications*
After you have observed an imperfection and determined its
type, you must be able to take measurements and complete a
report *

The first report should be in the form of a repair map of the


weld. (i.e. All observations are Identified Sized and Located)
Should the imperfection be a defect and require repair, it will
need to be accurately found and re-identified*

The report map form used in CSWIP will look like the
following:*
Page 1 of 3 VISUAL INSPECTION PLATE REPORT
Name [Block capitals]__________________________ Signature ___________________________ Test piece identification

Code/Specification used ________________________ Welding process _____________________ Joint type__________________

Welding position ______________________________________ Length & thickness of plate____________________ Date___________________________

Weld Face
M
E
A
S A
U
R
E

F
R
O
M

T
H
I
S

D
A
T
U
M

E
D
G
E
All CSWIP 3.1 candidates should use there nominated
pipe code for all your visual inspection practice, as this
will help them become conversant with the specification
Practice this up and till the end of the day, or as directed
by your course lecturer*