3 views

Original Title: 7807139

Uploaded by Izzudin Hussein

7807139

Kinematic

© All Rights Reserved

- Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Plane Mechanisms
- Velocity-Rigid Body Motion
- ISC Physics
- GetTRDoc(1)
- The spins of the photon and of the electron
- Vibration Control of Flexible Mode for a Beam-Type Substrate Transport Robot
- Lesson Plan Ces 420 Sept 13-Jan 14
- BoletimEF.org the Use of Biomechanics in Teaching Aikido
- Book1
- Circular Motion Physics
- s_chapter_02
- Chapter 18
- ENGBOOKLET (1) 2014
- Final
- kinematics.pdf
- Airplane Dynamics Modeling
- 3_Intro Blender Mesh Modeling-Objects
- MCQ Mechanisms
- 5 Velocity Graphical
- ABB-733-WPO Understanding Coriolis Mass Flowmeter

You are on page 1of 45

Chapter 15

Kinematics of Rigid Bodies

Beer and Johnston, 2004

Introduction

Kinematics of rigid bodies: relations

between time and the positions, velocities,

and accelerations of the particles forming

a rigid body.

Classification of rigid body motions:

- translation:

rectilinear translation

curvilinear translation

- rotation about a fixed axis

- general plane motion

- motion about a fixed point

- general motion

Motion of the plate: is it translation or rotation?

Translation

Consider rigid body in translation:

- direction of any straight line inside the

body is constant,

- all particles forming the body move in

parallel lines.

For any two particles in the body,

rB rA rB A

Differentiating with respect to time,

rB rA rB A rA

vB v A

All particles have the same velocity.

Differentiating with respect to time again,

rB rA rB A rA

aB a A

All particles have the same acceleration.

Rotation About a Fixed Axis

When a body rotates about a fixed axis, any

point P in the body travels along a circular

path. The angular position of P is defined by

The change in angular position, d, is called the

angular displacement, with units of either

radians or revolutions. They are related by

1 revolution = 2 radians

Angular velocity, , is obtained by taking the

time derivative of angular displacement:

= d/dt (rad/s) +

Similarly, angular acceleration is

= d2/dt2 = d/dt or = (d/d) + rad/s2

Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Velocity

Consider rotation of rigid body about a

fixed axis AA

Velocity vector v dr dt of the particle P is

tangent to the path with magnitude v ds dt

s BP r sin

ds

v lim r sin r sin

dt t 0 t

dr

v r

dt

k k angular velocity

Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Acceleration

Differentiating to determine the acceleration,

dv d

a r

dt dt

d dr

r

dt dt

d

r v

dt

d

angular acceleration

dt

k k k

vectors,

a r r

r tangential acceleration component

r radial acceleration component

Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Representative Slab

Consider the motion of a representative slab in

a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

v r k r

v r

a r r

k r 2r

normal components,

at k r a t r

a n 2 r a n r 2

Examples

Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rigid Body

About a Fixed Axis

Motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis

is often specified by the type of angular acceleration.

d d

Recall or dt

dt

d d 2 d

2

dt dt d

Uniform Rotation, = 0:

0 t

0 t

0 0t 12 t 2

2 02 2 0

Sample Problem 5.1

velocity of 12 in/s, both directed to the right.

Determine (a) the number of revolutions of the pulley in 2 s,

(b) the velocity and change in position of the load B after 2 s,

and (c) the acceleration of the point D on the rim of the inner

pulley at t = 0.

Sample Problem 5.1

The tangential velocity and acceleration of D are equal to the

velocity and acceleration of C.

v v 12 in. s

D 0 C 0

a

D t aC 9 in. s

vD 0 r0 a D t r

vD 0 12 aD t 9

0 4 rad s 3 rad s 2

r 3 r 3

Apply the relations for uniformly accelerated rotation to

determine velocity and angular position of pulley after 2 s.

0 t 4 rad s 3 rad s 2 2 s 10 rad s

0t 12 t 2 4 rad s 2 s 12 3 rad s 2 2 s 2

14 rad

1 rev

N 14 rad number of revs N 2.23 rev

2 rad

vB r 5 in.10 rad s vB 50 in. s

yB r 5 in.14 rad yB 70 in.

Sample Problem 5.1

Evaluate the initial tangential and normal acceleration

components of D.

aD t aC 9 in. s

aD n rD02 3 in. 4 rad s 2 48 in s2

aD t 9 in. s2 aD n 48 in. s2

aD aD t2 aD 2n

92 482 aD 48.8 in. s 2

aD n

tan

aD t

48

9 79.4

General Plane Motion

A combination of translation & rotation

General Plane Motion

Motion of B w.r.t. A is pure rotation, i.e. B draws a circle centered at A

arbitrary reference point A and a rotation about A.

Absolute and Relative Velocity

r r r

For any two points lying on the same rigid body: vB v A vB A

r

Note: vB A r r = distance from A to B

r r r

vB A k rB / A v B v A k rB A

Equation can be represented graphically by a velocity diagram

Absolute and Relative Velocity

Assuming that the velocity vA of end A is known, determine

the velocity vB of end B and the angular velocity

Locus for vB

Locus

for vB/A

vA

vB

vB/A

r r r

vB v A vB A

The direction of vB and vB/A are known. Complete the velocity diagram.

vB

tan vB v A tan

vA

vB A cos

vB A vA

vB A l

l l cos l cos

Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

Selecting point B as the reference point and solving for the velocity vA of end

A and the angular velocity leads to an equivalent velocity triangle.

vA/B has the same magnitude but opposite sense of vB/A. The sense of the

relative velocity is dependent on the choice of reference point.

Angular velocity of the rod in its rotation about B is the same as its rotation

about A. Angular velocity is not dependent on the choice of reference point.

Rolling Motion

Consider a circular disc that rolls without slipping on a flat surface

O1 O2

r

A2

From geometry: s r

A1 s

s = displacement of center

v r& r

Sample Problem 15.2

The double gear rolls on the stationary lower rack; the velocity

of its center is 1.2 m/s.

Determine (a) the angular velocity of the gear, and (b) the

velocities of the upper rack R and point D of the gear.

Sample Problem 15.2

vD/A vB/A

v A ArA

v A 1.2

A 8 rad / s

rA 0.15

For any point P on the gear: vP v A vP A v A k rP A

r r r

For point B: vB v A vB A 1.2 8 0.1 2 m / s

r r

v R vB 2 m / s

r r r r r r r

For point D: vD v A vD A 1.2i 8 0.15 j 1.2i 1.2 j

Sample Problem 15.3

2000 rpm. For the crank position indicated, determine (a) the

angular velocity of the connecting rod BD, and (b) the velocity

of the piston P.

Sample Problem 15.3

vD vB vD B

The velocity vB is obtained from the crank rotation data.

rev min 2 rad

AB 2000 209.4 rad s

min 60 s rev

vB AB AB 3 in. 209.4 rad s

The direction of the absolute velocity vD is horizontal.

The direction of the relative velocity vD B is

Locus for v D

perpendicular to BD.

Sample Problem 15.3

from the vector triangle drawn to scale.

vD B 495.9 in. s

vD B l BD

v D vB vD B

vD B 495.9 in. s

BD

l 8 in.

62.0 rad s

Instantaneous Center of Rotation

For any body undergoing planar motion, there always exists a

point in the plane of motion at which the velocity is

instantaneously zero (if it were rigidly connected to the body).

rotation, or C.

It may or may not lie on the body!

analysis can be simplified because the body appears to rotate

about this point at that instant.

Instantaneous Center of Rotation

To locate the C, we use the fact that the velocity of a point on a

body is always perpendicular to the position vector from C to that

point.

If the velocity at two points A and B are

known, C lies at the intersection of the

perpendiculars to the velocity vectors

through A and B .

are perpendicular to the line AB,

C lies at the intersection of the

line AB with the line joining the

extremities of the velocity

vectors at A and B.

If the velocity vectors are equal & parallel, C is at infinity and the angular

velocity is zero (pure translation)

Instantaneous Center of Rotation

the angular velocity of the body are

known, C is located along the line drawn

perpendicular to vA at A, at a distance

r = vA/ from A. Note that the C lies up and

to the right of A since vA must cause a

clockwise angular velocity about C.

Velocity Analysis using Instantaneous Center

The velocity of any point on a body undergoing general plane

motion can be determined easily if the instantaneous center

is located.

Since the body seems to rotate about

the IC at any instant, the magnitude of

velocity of any arbitrary point is v = r,

where r is the radial distance from the IC

to that point. The velocitys line of action

is perpendicular to its associated radial

line. Note the velocity has a direction

which tends to move the point in a

manner consistent with the angular

rotation direction.

Velocity Analysis using Instantaneous Center

Instantaneous Center of Rotation

perpendiculars to the velocity

vectors through A and B .

vA vA

AC l cos

vA

v B BC l sin

l cos

v A tan

Sample Problem 15.4, using instantaneous center

The double gear rolls on the stationary lower rack; the velocity

of its center is 1.2 m/s.

Determine (a) the angular velocity of the gear, and (b) the

velocities of the upper rack R and point D of the gear.

Sample Problem 15.4

Point C is in contact with the stationary lower rack

and, instantaneously, has zero velocity. It must be the

location of the instantaneous center of rotation.

v A 1.2

v A rA 8rad s

rA 0.15

vR vB rB 8 0.25

vR 2 m s i

rD 0.15 2 0.2121 m

vD rD 8 0.2121

vD 1.697 m s

vD 1.2i 1.2 j m s

Sample Problem 15.5 using instantaneous center

Crank-slider mechanism

2000 rpm. For the crank position indicated, determine (a) the

angular velocity of the connecting rod BD, and (b) the velocity

of the piston P.

Sample Problem 15.5

vB AB AB BD BC

BD

vB vD BD CD

BC

Absolute and Relative Acceleration

Absolute acceleration of point B: aB a A aB A

Relative acceleration a B A includes tangential and normal components:

aB A r

t

B A

a

n

r 2

Absolute and Relative Acceleration

Given a A and v A , determine a B and .

aB a A aB A

n

a A aB A aB A t

Vector result depends on sense of a A and the

relative magnitudes of a A and a B A n

Must also know angular velocity .

Absolute and Relative Acceleration

Sample Problem 15.6

to the right of 1.2 m/s and 3 m/s2, respectively. The lower rack

is stationary.

Determine (a) the angular acceleration of the gear, and (b) the

acceleration of points B, C, and D.

Sample Problem 15.6

v A 1.2

vA r 8 rad / s

r 0.15

aA 3

aA r 20 rad / s 2

r 0.15

r r r r r r

aB a A a B A aC a A aC A

r r r r r r

3i r ( j ) ri

2

3i r ( j ) r ( i )

2

r r r r r r

3i (8) (0.1) j (20)(0.1)i

2

3i (8) (0.15) j (20)(0.15)i

2

r r r

5i 6.4 j 9.6 j

r r r

aD a A aD A

r r r

3i r (i ) rj

2

r r r

3i (8) (0.15)i (20)(0.15) j

2

r r

12.6i 3 j

Sample Problem 15.7

angular velocity of 2000 rpm.

For the crank position shown, determine the angular

acceleration of the connecting rod BD and the acceleration

of point D.

Sample Problem 15.7

aD aB aD B

aB aD

B t

aD

B n

AB 0

ft 209.4rad s 10,962ft s 2

2

aB r 2

AB

3

12

Sample Problem 15.7

Draw acceleration diagram:

aD aB aD B

aB aD

B t

a D B n

aD B n BD BD2

12

8 ft 62.0 rad s 2 2563 ft s 2

aD B t BD BD 128 ft BD 0.667 BD

Drawn to scale

Sample Problem 15.8

Four-bar mechanism

In the position shown, crank AB has a constant angular velocity

1 = 20 rad/s counterclockwise. Determine the angular

velocities and angular accelerations of the connecting rod BD

and crank DE.

Sample Problem 15.8

vB vD Velocities

vD vB vD B

vB 1 ( AB)

Velocity diagram

vD/B vB

vD/B

r vD

vD B BD ( BD)

Shown here not to scale

r

vD DE ( DE )

BD 29.33 rad s k DE 11.29 rad s k

Sample

a Problem 15.8

D/B t aD/E t

Accelerations

aD aB aD B

aD/B n

aD/E n

Acceleration diagram

aB

r aD/E n

aB AB

2

( AB )

r aB

D B BD ( BD)

a

n

2

r aD/B n

D E n DE ( DE )

a 2

aD/E t

r

aD E DE ( DE )

t

2

BD 645 rad s k

2

DE 809 rad s k

Shown here not to scale

- Displacement, Velocity and Acceleration Analysis of Plane MechanismsUploaded byHimmatSingh
- Velocity-Rigid Body MotionUploaded byDirajen PM
- ISC PhysicsUploaded bysamrounder
- GetTRDoc(1)Uploaded byShamsuzzaman Khan
- The spins of the photon and of the electronUploaded byBernard SCHAEFFER
- Vibration Control of Flexible Mode for a Beam-Type Substrate Transport RobotUploaded byAurel GS
- Lesson Plan Ces 420 Sept 13-Jan 14Uploaded byredz00
- BoletimEF.org the Use of Biomechanics in Teaching AikidoUploaded byDavidFuertes
- Book1Uploaded bykhairi_mohammad
- Circular Motion PhysicsUploaded bydhion13
- s_chapter_02Uploaded by정구영
- Chapter 18Uploaded byGabriela Sequeira
- ENGBOOKLET (1) 2014Uploaded bysurya_kotni
- FinalUploaded byanon-46641
- kinematics.pdfUploaded byMate Šušnjar
- Airplane Dynamics ModelingUploaded byysape
- 3_Intro Blender Mesh Modeling-ObjectsUploaded byamiry1373
- MCQ MechanismsUploaded bytvkbhanuprakash
- 5 Velocity GraphicalUploaded byMurat Güler
- ABB-733-WPO Understanding Coriolis Mass FlowmeterUploaded bycarlosmandopinto
- Moment of InertiaUploaded byJoel Joel
- velocitydiagrams00maccrich[1]Uploaded bynanu143
- Mech 2 IntroUploaded byAdriel John
- Report 1.Uploaded byTenzin Singey
- 2Review-Mechanical-systems.docUploaded byRaturi Deepankar
- Aakash test3.pdfUploaded byOm Jethwani
- 2013Z, Kinematics Third Look, Aae203F03suppUploaded byAnatoli Krasilnikov
- ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALSUploaded byMohamed Kilany
- PH105S15Ex2StudyGuideUploaded byDaniel Zahn
- UPSEE SyllabusUploaded bymohit gupta

- How to Bypass Blocked Internet Connection in Universiti Teknologi PetronasUploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- 0. WiringUploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- Internal Forced Convection Question ONLYUploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- sUploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- StudentsHandbook2015Undergraduates.pdfUploaded byolel
- 2. Test 1 revUploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- Logbook Week 3Uploaded byClementz WS
- Project AssignmentUploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- _Test2MayUploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- Bernoulli Chapter 3Uploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- Rubiks CubeUploaded bybilligee
- 787 Ground Wireless SystemUploaded byIzzudin Hussein
- Insect 2009 EngUploaded byIzzudin Hussein

- Lax Milgram Theorem - Universität BaselUploaded bykarthikvs88
- Helmholtz EquationUploaded byAbdul Naser Rafi'i Attamimi
- Chapter 2 LabUploaded bykikilee16
- Fluid MechanicsUploaded byRegineDagumanFuellas
- Gregg BradenUploaded byPatrick Kwan Wai Ho
- Aieee 2005 MathUploaded bychakradhar_jalla
- 6707721 Ability and Intelligibility Way Finding and Environmental Cognition in the Designed EnvironmentUploaded bynandalalv
- 2_ch03_LQ_e_blankUploaded byCHAN
- numerical-examples.pdfUploaded byPrayas Subedi
- physics M1 SolutionsUploaded byjude
- Mohr Circles and Conic SectionsUploaded byabd_hafidz_1
- PC1431 MasteringPhysics Assignment 6Uploaded bystpmoment
- Chapter 3Uploaded byfadhali
- complexUploaded byFabián Lemos
- ch-12 herons formulaUploaded byapi-286106888
- Special Relativity and Minkowski Spaces (2)Uploaded bygraviton6
- Maths2Uploaded byTech Master
- 2 Cartesian System Wsh2Uploaded bySander Grath
- Solid ModelingUploaded byVijay Singh
- 239995090-Module-19-Motion-Along-a-Straight-Line-1.pdfUploaded byHakim Latiffi
- Stereo Image Processing Using OpencvUploaded byIv Sjsn
- ma691_ch1.pdfUploaded byham.karim
- DCP ES 5Uploaded byrockingjoe
- Blasjo - The How And Why Of Constructions In Classical Geometry.pdfUploaded byΧάρης Φραντζικινάκης
- Trigonometric Equations I.pptUploaded byaman kumar
- 9_math_sp_1Uploaded byAyush Singhal
- 03 HyperbolaUploaded byHimanshu Gupta
- Mathematics Part-3 of 4 (1)Uploaded bySankalp Akash Singh
- STEP IUploaded byhmphry
- Geographic PerspectiveUploaded byvskywokervs