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ENGR 214

Chapter 15
Kinematics of Rigid Bodies

All figures taken from Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics,


Beer and Johnston, 2004
Introduction
Kinematics of rigid bodies: relations
between time and the positions, velocities,
and accelerations of the particles forming
a rigid body.
Classification of rigid body motions:
- translation:
rectilinear translation
curvilinear translation
- rotation about a fixed axis
- general plane motion
- motion about a fixed point
- general motion
Motion of the plate: is it translation or rotation?

Curvilinear translation Rotation


Translation
Consider rigid body in translation:
- direction of any straight line inside the
body is constant,
- all particles forming the body move in
parallel lines.
For any two particles in the body,

rB rA rB A
Differentiating with respect to time,

rB rA rB A rA

vB v A
All particles have the same velocity.
Differentiating with respect to time again,
rB rA rB A rA

aB a A
All particles have the same acceleration.
Rotation About a Fixed Axis
When a body rotates about a fixed axis, any
point P in the body travels along a circular
path. The angular position of P is defined by
The change in angular position, d, is called the
angular displacement, with units of either
radians or revolutions. They are related by
1 revolution = 2 radians
Angular velocity, , is obtained by taking the
time derivative of angular displacement:
= d/dt (rad/s) +
Similarly, angular acceleration is
= d2/dt2 = d/dt or = (d/d) + rad/s2
Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Velocity
Consider rotation of rigid body about a
fixed axis AA


Velocity vector v dr dt of the particle P is
tangent to the path with magnitude v ds dt
s BP r sin
ds
v lim r sin r sin
dt t 0 t

The same result is obtained from



dr
v r
dt

k k angular velocity

Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Acceleration
Differentiating to determine the acceleration,

dv d
a r
dt dt

d dr
r
dt dt

d
r v
dt

d
angular acceleration
dt

k k k

Acceleration of P is combination of two


vectors,

a r r

r tangential acceleration component

r radial acceleration component
Rotation About a Fixed Axis: Representative Slab
Consider the motion of a representative slab in
a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation.

Velocity of any point P of the slab,



v r k r
v r

Acceleration of any point P of the slab,



a r r

k r 2r

Resolving the acceleration into tangential and


normal components,

at k r a t r

a n 2 r a n r 2
Examples
Equations Defining the Rotation of a Rigid Body
About a Fixed Axis
Motion of a rigid body rotating around a fixed axis
is often specified by the type of angular acceleration.
d d
Recall or dt
dt
d d 2 d
2
dt dt d

Uniform Rotation, = 0:
0 t

Uniformly Accelerated Rotation, = constant:


0 t
0 0t 12 t 2
2 02 2 0
Sample Problem 5.1

Cable C has a constant acceleration of 9 in/s2 and an initial


velocity of 12 in/s, both directed to the right.
Determine (a) the number of revolutions of the pulley in 2 s,
(b) the velocity and change in position of the load B after 2 s,
and (c) the acceleration of the point D on the rim of the inner
pulley at t = 0.
Sample Problem 5.1
The tangential velocity and acceleration of D are equal to the
velocity and acceleration of C.


v v 12 in. s
D 0 C 0
a
D t aC 9 in. s

vD 0 r0 a D t r
vD 0 12 aD t 9
0 4 rad s 3 rad s 2
r 3 r 3
Apply the relations for uniformly accelerated rotation to
determine velocity and angular position of pulley after 2 s.

0 t 4 rad s 3 rad s 2 2 s 10 rad s

0t 12 t 2 4 rad s 2 s 12 3 rad s 2 2 s 2
14 rad
1 rev
N 14 rad number of revs N 2.23 rev
2 rad

vB r 5 in.10 rad s vB 50 in. s
yB r 5 in.14 rad yB 70 in.
Sample Problem 5.1
Evaluate the initial tangential and normal acceleration
components of D.
aD t aC 9 in. s
aD n rD02 3 in. 4 rad s 2 48 in s2

aD t 9 in. s2 aD n 48 in. s2

Magnitude and direction of the total acceleration,

aD aD t2 aD 2n
92 482 aD 48.8 in. s 2

aD n
tan
aD t
48

9 79.4
General Plane Motion
A combination of translation & rotation
General Plane Motion

Pure translation, followed by rotation about A2 (to move B'1 to B' 2)


Motion of B w.r.t. A is pure rotation, i.e. B draws a circle centered at A

Any plane motion can be represented as a translation of an


arbitrary reference point A and a rotation about A.
Absolute and Relative Velocity
r r r
For any two points lying on the same rigid body: vB v A vB A

r
Note: vB A r r = distance from A to B
r r r
vB A k rB / A v B v A k rB A
Equation can be represented graphically by a velocity diagram
Absolute and Relative Velocity
Assuming that the velocity vA of end A is known, determine
the velocity vB of end B and the angular velocity
Locus for vB

Locus
for vB/A
vA
vB
vB/A

r r r
vB v A vB A
The direction of vB and vB/A are known. Complete the velocity diagram.
vB
tan vB v A tan
vA
vB A cos
vB A vA
vB A l
l l cos l cos
Absolute and Relative Velocity in Plane Motion

Selecting point B as the reference point and solving for the velocity vA of end
A and the angular velocity leads to an equivalent velocity triangle.
vA/B has the same magnitude but opposite sense of vB/A. The sense of the
relative velocity is dependent on the choice of reference point.
Angular velocity of the rod in its rotation about B is the same as its rotation
about A. Angular velocity is not dependent on the choice of reference point.
Rolling Motion
Consider a circular disc that rolls without slipping on a flat surface

O1 O2
r
A2
From geometry: s r
A1 s
s = displacement of center

v r& r
Sample Problem 15.2

The double gear rolls on the stationary lower rack; the velocity
of its center is 1.2 m/s.
Determine (a) the angular velocity of the gear, and (b) the
velocities of the upper rack R and point D of the gear.
Sample Problem 15.2
vD/A vB/A
v A ArA

v A 1.2
A 8 rad / s
rA 0.15


For any point P on the gear: vP v A vP A v A k rP A
r r r
For point B: vB v A vB A 1.2 8 0.1 2 m / s
r r
v R vB 2 m / s
r r r r r r r
For point D: vD v A vD A 1.2i 8 0.15 j 1.2i 1.2 j
Sample Problem 15.3

The crank AB has a constant clockwise angular velocity of


2000 rpm. For the crank position indicated, determine (a) the
angular velocity of the connecting rod BD, and (b) the velocity
of the piston P.
Sample Problem 15.3


vD vB vD B

The velocity vB is obtained from the crank rotation data.
rev min 2 rad
AB 2000 209.4 rad s
min 60 s rev
vB AB AB 3 in. 209.4 rad s

Locus for vD/B


The direction of the absolute velocity vD is horizontal.

The direction of the relative velocity vD B is
Locus for v D
perpendicular to BD.
Sample Problem 15.3

Determine the velocity magnitudes vD and vD B


from the vector triangle drawn to scale.

vD 523.4 in. s 43.6 ft s


vD B 495.9 in. s

vD B l BD
v D vB vD B
vD B 495.9 in. s
BD
l 8 in.
62.0 rad s
Instantaneous Center of Rotation
For any body undergoing planar motion, there always exists a
point in the plane of motion at which the velocity is
instantaneously zero (if it were rigidly connected to the body).

This point is called the instantaneous center of


rotation, or C.
It may or may not lie on the body!

If the location of this point can be determined, the velocity


analysis can be simplified because the body appears to rotate
about this point at that instant.
Instantaneous Center of Rotation
To locate the C, we use the fact that the velocity of a point on a
body is always perpendicular to the position vector from C to that
point.
If the velocity at two points A and B are
known, C lies at the intersection of the
perpendiculars to the velocity vectors
through A and B .

If the velocity vectors at A and B


are perpendicular to the line AB,
C lies at the intersection of the
line AB with the line joining the
extremities of the velocity
vectors at A and B.

If the velocity vectors are equal & parallel, C is at infinity and the angular
velocity is zero (pure translation)
Instantaneous Center of Rotation

If the velocity vA of a point A on the body and


the angular velocity of the body are
known, C is located along the line drawn
perpendicular to vA at A, at a distance
r = vA/ from A. Note that the C lies up and
to the right of A since vA must cause a
clockwise angular velocity about C.
Velocity Analysis using Instantaneous Center
The velocity of any point on a body undergoing general plane
motion can be determined easily if the instantaneous center
is located.
Since the body seems to rotate about
the IC at any instant, the magnitude of
velocity of any arbitrary point is v = r,
where r is the radial distance from the IC
to that point. The velocitys line of action
is perpendicular to its associated radial
line. Note the velocity has a direction
which tends to move the point in a
manner consistent with the angular
rotation direction.
Velocity Analysis using Instantaneous Center
Instantaneous Center of Rotation

C lies at the intersection of the


perpendiculars to the velocity
vectors through A and B .
vA vA

AC l cos
vA
v B BC l sin
l cos
v A tan

The velocity of any point on the rod can be obtained.

Accelerations cannot be determined using C.


Sample Problem 15.4, using instantaneous center

The double gear rolls on the stationary lower rack; the velocity
of its center is 1.2 m/s.
Determine (a) the angular velocity of the gear, and (b) the
velocities of the upper rack R and point D of the gear.
Sample Problem 15.4
Point C is in contact with the stationary lower rack
and, instantaneously, has zero velocity. It must be the
location of the instantaneous center of rotation.

v A 1.2
v A rA 8rad s
rA 0.15

vR vB rB 8 0.25

vR 2 m s i
rD 0.15 2 0.2121 m
vD rD 8 0.2121

vD 1.697 m s

vD 1.2i 1.2 j m s

Sample Problem 15.5 using instantaneous center

Crank-slider mechanism

The crank AB has a constant clockwise angular velocity of


2000 rpm. For the crank position indicated, determine (a) the
angular velocity of the connecting rod BD, and (b) the velocity
of the piston P.
Sample Problem 15.5

C is at the intersection of the perpendiculars to the velocities through B and D.

vB AB AB BD BC

BD
vB vD BD CD
BC
Absolute and Relative Acceleration


Absolute acceleration of point B: aB a A aB A

Relative acceleration a B A includes tangential and normal components:

aB A r
t
B A
a
n
r 2
Absolute and Relative Acceleration


Given a A and v A , determine a B and .

aB a A aB A


n
a A aB A aB A t

Vector result depends on sense of a A and the

relative magnitudes of a A and a B A n
Must also know angular velocity .
Absolute and Relative Acceleration

Draw acceleration diagram to scale:


Sample Problem 15.6

The center of the double gear has a velocity and acceleration


to the right of 1.2 m/s and 3 m/s2, respectively. The lower rack
is stationary.
Determine (a) the angular acceleration of the gear, and (b) the
acceleration of points B, C, and D.
Sample Problem 15.6
v A 1.2
vA r 8 rad / s
r 0.15
aA 3
aA r 20 rad / s 2
r 0.15

r r r r r r
aB a A a B A aC a A aC A
r r r r r r
3i r ( j ) ri
2
3i r ( j ) r ( i )
2
r r r r r r
3i (8) (0.1) j (20)(0.1)i
2
3i (8) (0.15) j (20)(0.15)i
2

r r r
5i 6.4 j 9.6 j
r r r
aD a A aD A
r r r
3i r (i ) rj
2

r r r
3i (8) (0.15)i (20)(0.15) j
2

r r
12.6i 3 j
Sample Problem 15.7

Crank AG of the engine system has a constant clockwise


angular velocity of 2000 rpm.
For the crank position shown, determine the angular
acceleration of the connecting rod BD and the acceleration
of point D.
Sample Problem 15.7


aD aB aD B


aB aD
B t

aD
B n

AB 2000 rpm 209.4rad s constant


AB 0
ft 209.4rad s 10,962ft s 2
2
aB r 2
AB
3
12

From Sample Problem 15.3, BD = 62.0 rad/s, = 13.95o.


Sample Problem 15.7
Draw acceleration diagram:

aD aB aD B


aB aD
B t
a D B n
aD B n BD BD2
12
8 ft 62.0 rad s 2 2563 ft s 2

aD B t BD BD 128 ft BD 0.667 BD

Drawn to scale
Sample Problem 15.8

Four-bar mechanism
In the position shown, crank AB has a constant angular velocity
1 = 20 rad/s counterclockwise. Determine the angular
velocities and angular accelerations of the connecting rod BD
and crank DE.
Sample Problem 15.8
vB vD Velocities

vD vB vD B

vB 1 ( AB)

Velocity diagram
vD/B vB

vD/B
r vD
vD B BD ( BD)
Shown here not to scale
r
vD DE ( DE )

BD 29.33 rad s k DE 11.29 rad s k
Sample
a Problem 15.8
D/B t aD/E t
Accelerations

aD aB aD B
aD/B n

aD/E n
Acceleration diagram
aB
r aD/E n
aB AB
2
( AB )
r aB
D B BD ( BD)
a
n
2

r aD/B n
D E n DE ( DE )
a 2

aD/E t
r
aD E DE ( DE )
t


2
BD 645 rad s k

2
DE 809 rad s k

Shown here not to scale