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TB 101

Basic Facts on
Tuberculosis
What we should know
The TB Scenario
Defining TB: Cause, Transmission, and
Manifestations
Risk of TB infection
Diagnosing Pulmonary Tuberculosis
TB Treatment and Cure
Preventing transmission
Proper Management of TB cases
TB Burden in the World

1/3 of the World Population is Infected

1 Person is Infected per Second

1.9 Million People Die of TB each Year

Philippines is 1 of the worlds 22 high-burden

countries for Tuberculosis


TB Burden in the
Philippines 22 million reported
infections
TB kills 75 Filipinos per day

TB is the 6th leading cause


of Mortality and Morbidity
Undiagnosed TB cases
remain high in local
communities
What is Tuberculosis?
TUBERCULOSIS is an infectious

disease caused by a micro bacteria

called Tubercle bacilli. It is

airborne. It usually affects the lungs but

may also affect other organs in the body

like the meninges, bones, kidneys etc.


The Tubercle Bacilli
Characteristics:

slow growing

can survive inside


cells of the
human body
Other Names:
exposure to direct
Mycobacterium
sunlight can kill
tuberculosis the bacteria in
sputum
TB germ
How is it transmitted?
The TB Bacilli spreads through

airborne inhalation of droplets of

infection coming from a TB patient

whenever a person coughs or

sneezes, without covering his

mouth.
How does PTB develop?
1. TB bacilli enters the body and

lodges in the lungs (TB

Infection).

2. In the lungs, they multiply and

slowly eat the cells and the

body begins to experience

symptoms (TB Disease)


A person is infected
after inhaling droplets 3. If undiagnosed, lungs cells are
from a person with TB eaten up leading that may

lead death.
What are the signs and symptoms of
TB?
Persistent cough for at least 2 weeks

Chest pains/ Back Pains (breathlessness)


Persistent low grade fever for more than a
month Significant weight loss with or with out
loss of appetite
Hemoptysis (Blood-tinged sputum)
Feeling of weakness (tiredness)
Night Sweats
Who are at risk of getting
TB? who share the same breathing
People

space with someone who has infectious TB


Health workers, specially those working in
long-term facilities (prison, sanitariums,
etc.)

People whose immune systems are


compromised (People with HIV infection,
Pneumonia, Chronic lung disease, etc)
Who are at risk
People exposed to silica and those with jobs that
compromise the respiratory system (mine
workers)

People underweight and malnourished (esp.


Children)

Alcoholics and IV drug users

Others
How is TB diagnosed?
1. Sputum
Microscopy
It shows the TB
bacilli in the
sputum

It is the most
definitive diagnostic
tool of Tuberculosis
How is TB diagnosed?
2. Chest X-Ray

Determines extent
of the lung
damage

Not a very
definitive
diagnostic tool
How is TB cured?
TB can be cured.
DOTS (Directly-Observed Treatment
Short Course) is the recommended
strategy to cure TB.
It ensures the right combination and
dosage of anti-TB drugs.
It ensures regular and complete intake
of anti-TB drugs.
Patient takes drugs every day with the
help of a treatment partner.
With proper treatment
We want to treat patients with DOTS:

1. To make them get well as soon as


possible
2. To make them stop spreading the
disease onto others in the community
3. To avoid complications and multi-drug
resistance (MDR)
How can TB be prevented?
1. BCG vaccination for infants (newborn to 1 year
old). This gives 80-85% protection against
development of complicated TB among children;

2. Hygienic practices like covering the mouth when


coughing and sneezing; and

3. Early diagnosis and treatment of TB infectious


cases to stop transmission
Other Preventive Measures
Maintain open air circulation inside the house

Have enough sleep

Eat nutritious food that boost the immune


system

Avoid smoking, drinking alcohol, and use of


prohibited drugs
What are some misconception about

Misconceptions Facts
TB is mana-mana TB is hawa-hawa
TB results from Pasma TB is due a bacteria known
and naulanan as the Tubercle bacilli
TB is transmitted through TB is transmitted through
sharing utensils with a inhalation of the droplet
person with TB nuclei from a person with
TB
TB is not curable. One TB can be cured. The
should be ashamed of his patients commitment is
disease. important. Everyones
support is important in
fighting TB.
REMINDER

If you experience the


signs and symptoms of
TB, do not be ashamed.
Immediately visit our
clinic for proper diagnosis
and treatment