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PMP Training


Balaji Gadicharla

Day 1 Day 3
Instructor and Participants Introduction Quiz on Day 2 study
Introduction to PMI and PMP Human Resources Management
Project, Program and Portfolio Management Communication Management
Process Areas Risk Management
Integration Management Day 4
Scope Management
Quiz on Day 3 study
Day 2 Procurement Management
Quiz on Day 1 study Stakeholder Management
Time Management Quiz on Day 4 study
Cost Management Day 5
Quality Management
Business Templates
Review of Exam Preparation

Balaji has around 20 years of industry experience

Implemented several projects both in India and the US

Real-life expertise in project management

Teaching project management for the past five years

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Project Management Institute (PMI)

PMI is the worlds largest not-for-profit membership association for the project
management profession. Our professional resources and research empower
more than 700,000 members, credential holders and volunteers in nearly every
country in the world to enhance their careers, improve their organizations
success and further mature the profession.
PMI credentials certify your knowledge and experience in project management
so you can be more confident at work and more competitive in the job market.

Note : The above information is taken from the official PMI website

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Project Management Professional (PMP)

PMIs Project Management Professional (PMP) credential is the most

important industry-recognized certification for project managers.
Globally recognized and demanded, the PMP demonstrates that you
have the experience, education and competency to lead and direct

Note : The above information is taken from the official PMI website

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PMP Certification Overview

For complete details regarding the PMP eligibility requirements, please

view the PMP Handbook on PMI website
PMBOK (Project Management Book of Knowledge) is the book that will
be followed. Currently in fifth edition
This course will meet one of the key requirements of having 35 hours of
project management education to apply for certification
PMP Certification exam consists of

- 175 scored questions

- 25 unscored qustions

Total alloted time for these 200 questions is 4 hours

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PMP Examination Overview

PMP Certification exam consists of

- 175 scored questions

- 25 unscored questions

Total alloted time for these 200 questions is 4 hours

Domain Percentage of Questions

Initiation 13%
Planning 24%
Executive 30%
Monitoring and Control 25%
Closure 8%

TOTAL 100%

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Maintaining PMP certification

As part of PMIs Continuing Certification Requirements (CCR)

program, a PMP credential holder will need to earn 60 Professional
Development Units (PDUs) per three-year period
Each professional development activity yields one PDU for one hour
spent engaged in the activity
Need to report the earned PDUs to PMI

Please refer PMI website for further details

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OK, Lets get started!!!

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What is a Project?

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A project is a

Temporary effort

Create a unique product, service or offering

Can be short term or long term

Definite begin and end

Can have repetitive elements but the result is unique

Ongoing operations like shop floor production or billing and invoicing

of existing customers cannot be considered a project

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Project, Program and Portfolio Management




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Organizational Structure

Type of Organization Type of Organization

Functional Organization Functional Teams work on project
Weak Matrix Organization PM is more a coordinator. No formal Project
PM. managers
Balanced Matrix PM role is recognized but no full authority,
Organization authority. Rolls up to a func manager role and
Strong Matrix Organization PM reporting to Manager of PMs and
not to a functional manager
Projectized Organization PM has all staff working on the project

PMOs Supportive, Controlling and Directive types

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Project Process Groups




Monitoring and Control


1. How does stakeholder risk and influence change while the project progresses?
2. How does the uncertainty in the project change over the period?
3. How does the cost move along the time of the project?

Project Life Cycles Predictive, Incremental and iterative, adaptive

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Project Process Groups
Monitoring and Control

Initiation Planning Execution Closure

Cost, Staff, Work


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Process Group Interaction in a Project

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Knowledge Areas

Project Integration Management

Project Scope Management

Project Time Management

Project Cost Management

Project Quality Management

Project Human Resources Management

Project Communication Management

Project Risk Management

Project Procurement Management

Project Stakeholder Management

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Mapping of Knowledge Areas and Process Groups

Each process
Each group has
process one orhas
group moreaprocesses
set of activities from each of the
The processes areas
are also grouped across knowledge areas
process is tied to one knowledge area and one process group
Each activity in each of the knowledge area has
Each process has
An input
An input
Tools and expertise
and expertise to do
to do that process that activity
An output output

Tools and
Input to a expertise to do
process that process
Note : Study the handout

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Document Flow Chart

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Project Integration Management

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Integration Management Processes

Develop Project Charter

Develop Project Management Plan

Direct and Manage project work

Monitor and control project work

Perform Integrated Change Control

Close Project or Phase

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output
Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project SOW
Busines Case
Enterprise Environmental
Organizational process
Initiation Develop Project Charter Expert Judgement Project charter
Project Charter
Outputs from other
Enterprise environmental
Develop Project Management Organizational process Expert Judgement
Planning Plan assets Facilitation Techniques Project Management Plan
Project Management Plan
Approved Change Deliverables
Requests Work performance data
Enterprise environmental Expert Judgement Change Requests
factors Project Management Project MAnagement plan
Direct and Manage project Organizational process Information System updates
Execution work assets Meetings Project document updates
Project Management Plan
Schedule forecasts
Cost forecasts
Validated Changes
Work performance
information Expert judgement Change Requests
Enterprise environmental Analytical techniques Work performance reports
factors Project Management Project management plan
Monitoring Monitor and control project Organizational process information system updates
& Ctl work assets Meetings Project document updates
Project Management Plan
Work performance
Change Requests Approved Change Requests
Enterprise environmental Expert Judgement Change log
factors Meetings Project management plan
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Monitoring Perform Integrated Change Organizational process Change Control Tools updates
Integrated Change Control

Integrated Change Control is the process of reviewing all change

requests, approving changes and managing changes to the
deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents and
the project management plan.
Configuration Management System with integrated change control
provides a standardized, effective and efficient way to centrally
manage approved changes and baselines within a project.
Configuration control is focused on the specification of both the
deliverables and the processes while change control is focused on
identifying, documenting and controlling changes to the project and
the product baselines.

Change Requests Corrective, Preventive, Defect Repair

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Sample Project Charter
Project Objectives Project Timeline
Milestone Due Date

Project Business Drivers Project Team

Steering Committee Members

Core Team Members

Key Success Factors

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Project Scope Management

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Scope Management Processes

Plan Scope Management

Collect Requirements

Define Scope

Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Validate Scope

Control Scope

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output
Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project Management Plan
Project charter
Enterprise environmental
Organzational Process Expert Judgement Scope management plan
Planning Plan Scope Management assets Meetings Requirements management plan
Focus groups
Facilitated workshops
Group creativity techniques
Scope management plan Group decision-making techniques
Requirements management Questionnaires and surveys
plan Observations
Stakeholder management Prototypes
plan Benchmarking
Project charter Context diagrams Requirements documentation
Planning Collect Requirements Stakeholder register Document analysis Requirements traceability matrix
Scope management plan
Project Charter
Requirements Expert judgement
documentation Product analysis
Organizational process Alternatives generation Project scope statement
Planning Define Scope assets Facilitated workshops Project document updates
Scope management plan
Project Scope Statement
Enterprise environmental
Create Work Breakdown Organizational Process Decomposition Scope Baseline
Planning Structure (WBS) Assetss Expert Judgement Project Document Updates
Project management plan
Requirements Traceability
Validated Deliverables Accepted Deliverables
Work performance data Change Requests
Monitoring & Inspection Work performance information
Ctl Validate Scope Group decision-making techniques Project Document Updates
Project Management Plan
Work Performance data
Requirements Work Performance information
Documentation Organizational
Page 27 Process Assets
Requirements Traceability Updates
Group Related Techniques

Group Creativity Techniques


Nominal group technique : voting process to prioritize ideas for brainstorming or

the ideas are vetted by a smaller group before being reviewed by larger
Delphi technique

Idea/mind mapping : ideas from brainstorming are placed on single map

Affinity diagram : large number of ideas sorted into groups for analysis

Group Decision Making Techniques

Unanimity : Everyone agrees on single course of action

Majority : more than 50% agree

Plurality : largest block in a group decides though they are not majority


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Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

WBS is a deliverable-oriented hierarchical decomposition of the work to

be executed by the project team to accomplish the project objectives
and create the required deliverables, with each descending level of the
WBS representing an increasingly detailed definition of the project
Work package is the lowest level WBS component where the planned
work is contained. A work package can be scheduled, cost estimated,
monitored and controlled.
Decomposition is the subdivision of project deliverables into smaller,
more manageable components until the work and deliverables are
defined to the work package level.
Scope Baseline : Project Scope Statement, WBS, WBS Dictionary

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Quiz from Day 1

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Project Time Management

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Time Management Processes

Plan Schedule Management

Define Activities

Sequence Activities

Estimate Activity Resources

Estimate Activity Durations

Develop Schedule

Control Schedule

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output
Process Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project management plan
Project Charter Expert Judgement
Enterprise environmental factors Analytical techniques
Planning Plan Schedule Management Organizational process updates Meetings Schedule Management Plan
Schedule Management Plan
Scope Baseline Decomposition Activity List
Enterprise Environmental Factors Rolling Wave Planning Activity Attributes
Planning Define Activities Organizational Process Assets Expert Judgment Milestone List
Schedule Management Plan
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Milestone List Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
Project Scope Statement Dependency Determination Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Planning Sequence Activities Organizational Process Assets Applying Leads and Lags Project Document Updates
Schedule Management Plan
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Resource Calendars Expert Judgment
Risk register Alternatives Analysis
Activity Cost Estimates Published Estimating Data Activity Resource Requirements
Enterprise Environmental Factors Bottom-up Estimating Resource Breakdown Structure
Planning Estimate Activity Resources Organizational Process Assets Project Management Software Project Document Updates
Schedule management plan
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Activity Resource Requirements
Resource Calendars Expert Judgment
Project Scope Statement Analogous Estimating
Risk Register Parametric Estimating
Resource breakdown structure Three-point Estimates
Enterprise Environmental Factors Group decision making techniques Activity Duration Estimates
Planning Estimate Activity Durations Organizational Process Assets Reserve Analysis Project Document Updates
Schedule Management plan
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Activity Resource Requirements
Resource Calendars Schedule Network Analysis
Activity Duration Estimates Critical Path Method
Project Scope Statement Critical Chain Method Project Schedule
Risk register Resource Optimization techniques Schedule Baseline
Project staff assignments Modeling techniques Schedule Data
Resource breakdown structure Leads and Lags Project calendars
Enterprise Environmental Factors Schedule Compression Project management plan updates
Planning Develop Schedule Organizational Process Assets Scheduling Tool Project Document Updates
Performance Reviews
Project Management Plan Project Management Software Work Performance information
Project Schedule Resource optimization techniques Schedule forecasts
Schedule data Modeling techniques Change Requests
Project calendars Leads and Lags Project Management Plan Updates
Work Performance data Schedule Compression Project Document Updates
Organizational Process Assets Scheduling Tool Organizational Process Assets Updates
Monitoring & Ctl Control Schedule

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Project Work packages are decomposed into smaller components

called activities that represent the work necessary to complete the
work package.
Work package represents deliverable, where activity represents
actual work
Rolling Wave Planning is a form of progressive elaboration planning
where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in
detail and future work is planned at a higher level of the WBS.

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Sequence Activities
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM): Used in CPM to construct project schedule network
diagram using rectangles (called nodes) to represent activities and using arrows to show logical
relationships. Also called as Activity-on-Node
Four types of relationships: F2F, F2S, S2F, S2S
Dependency determination
Mandatory dependencies (hard logic)
Discretionary dependencies (preferred or soft logic)
External dependencies
Applying leads and lags : Leads allow acceleration of the successor activity. Lags delay the
successor activity
Schedule Network Templates : Used to expedite the preparation of networks of project
activities. Portions of it are called subnetwork or fragmented network. Used when a project
includes identical deliverables (multiple floors of a high-rise buildings)

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Estimate Activity Resources (Man,
machines etc)
Alternatives Analysis : Look at alternative methods of accomplishment
including various levels of resource capability or skills, different size or
type of machines etc.

Published Estimating Data :Using published updated production rates

and unit costs of resources

Bottom-Up Estimating : Used when an activity cannot be estimated with

a reasonable degree of confidence. The activity is decomposed and then
the estimates are aggregated into a total quantity for each of the activitys

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Estimate Activity Durations
Analogous Estimating : Uses parameters such as duration, budget, size, weight
and complexity from a previous project as the basis for estimating the same
parameter for a future project. Less accurate and less expensive.
Parametric Estimating : Uses a statistical relationship between historical data
and other variables to calculate an estimate for activity parameters.
Three point Estimates : Uses three estimates considering uncertainty and risk :
Most likely tm, optimistic to and pessimistic - tp
Beta distribution : Based on PERT and
Expected duration Te= (to + 4 tm + tp )/6
Triangular distribution : Expected duration Te= (to + tm + tp )/3
Reserve Analysis: Includes contingency reserves (also called time reserves or
buffers) into overall project schedule to account for uncertainty. Management
reserve is not included in scheduled baseline but part of overall project duration

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Develop Schedule : Tools
Schedule Network Analysis : Employs various analytical techniques, such
as CPM, critical chain method, what-if analysis and resource leveling to
calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions
of activities.
Critical Path Method (CPM) : Calculates early start and finish dates and late
start and finish dates by performing a forward and backward pass analysis
through the schedule network. They indicate the time periods within which the
activity could be scheduled.
Schedule flexibility is measured by the positive difference between
early and late dates and called total float
Critical paths have zero or negative total float that means no
flexibility. Activities on this path are critical activities.
Free float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without
delaying the early start date of the successor.

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Develop Schedule : Tools
Critical Chain Method : This is a schedule network analysis technique that
modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. This method
adds duration buffers that are non-work schedule activities to manage
Feeding buffers are placed at each point that a chain of dependent
tasks not on the critical chain feeds into the critical chain
Size of each buffer = uncertainty in the duration of the cahin of
dependent tasks leading to that buffer
Buffer placed at the end of critical chain is called Project buffer

Resource Optimization techniques

Resource Leveling : used when shared or critical resources are

available only at certain times. Necessary when resources are
over-allocated. Alters completion date and critical path
Resource Smoothing : adjusts the schedule so that resources do
not exceed predefined limits. Does not alter critical path and hence
completion date

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Develop Schedule : Tools
What-If Scenarios : Simulating different scenarios calculating multiple
project durations with different sets of activity assumptions. Eg Monte Carlo
Analysis : distribution of possible activity durations is defined for each
activity and used to calculate a distribution of possible outcomes of the
Schedule Compression : Shortens the project schedule without changing
the project scope.
Crashing : A schedule compression technique in which cost and
schedule tradeoffs are analyzed to determine how to obtain
compression for the least incremental cost. Ex., approving
overtime, bringing in additional resources etc.
Crashing works where additional resources will shorten the
Fast tracking : This is a technique where activities are performed
in parallel which would otherwise be in sequence.
Both these techniques can increase risk, rework and/or cost.

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Control Schedule : Tools
Performance Reviews : Measure, compare and analyze schedule
performance like start and finish dates, % complete etc.
Utilize Schedule Variance (SV) and Schedule Performance Index (SPI) if
using Earned Value Management (EVM)
Decide if schedule variation requires corrective action

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Project Cost Management

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Cost Management Processes

Plan Cost Management

Estimate Costs

Determine Budget

Control Costs

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output

Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project Management Plan
Project Charter
Enterprise environmental
Organizational Process Expert Judgement
Assets Analytical techniques
Planning Plan Cost Management Meetings Cost management plan
Cost management plan Expert Judgment
Human Resource Analogous Estimating
management Plan Parametric Estimating
Scope Baseline Bottom-up Estimating
Project Schedule Three-point Estimates
Risk Register Reserve Analysis
Enterprise Environmental Cost of Quality
Factors Project Management Software
Organizational Process Vendor Bid Analysis Activity Cost Estimates
Assets Group decision-making Basis of Estimates
Planning Estimate Costs techniques Project Document Updates
Cost management plan
Scope Baseline
Activity Cost Estimates
Basis of Estimates
Project Schedule
Resource Calendars Cost Aggregation
Risk register Reserve Analysis
Agreements Expert Judgment Cost Performance Baseline
Organizational Process Historical Relationships Project Funding Requirements
Planning Determine Budget Assets Funding Limit Reconciliation
Project Document Updates
Work Performance information
Project Management Plan Earned Value Management Cost Forecasts
Forecasting Organizational Process Assets
Project Funding To-Complete Performance Updates
Requirements Index (TCPI) Change Requests
Work Performance data Performance Reviews Project Management Plan
Monitoring Organizational Process Reserve Analysis Updates
& Ctl Control Costs Assets Project Management Software Page
44 Document Updates
Determine Budget : Tools

Reserve Analysis

Contingency reserves are allowances for unplanned but

potentially required changes due to realized risks
Management reserves are budgets reserved for unplanned
changes to project scope and cost. These are not part of
cost baseline but may be included in the total budget for
the project. They are not part of EVM calculations

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Determine Budgets : Outputs

Cost Performance Baseline: This is an authorized time-phased

budget at completion (BAC) used to measure, monitor and control
overall cost performance of the project. Represented by an S-curve.
In EVM, the cost performance baseline is referred to as
Performance Measurement Baseline (PMB)

Project Budget
Management reserve
Cost Baseline
Cumulative Values

Funding requirements


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Control Costs: Tools
Earned Value Management : integrates project scope, cost and
schedule measures to help the project management team assess and
measure project performance and progress. Forms an integrated
baseline against which performance can be measured
Planned Value (PV) : total PV is called performance
measurement baseline (PMB) or Budget at Completion
(BAC). This is the authorized budget for the work
Earned Value (EV) : value of work performed

Actual Cost (AC) : cost of work performed

Schedule Variance (SV) : EV - PV

Cost Variance (CV) : EV - AC

Schedule Performance Index (SPI) : EV/PV (if >1, more work

completed than planned and vice versa)
Cost Performance Index (CPI) : EV/AC (if >1, cost underrun
of performance to date and vice versa)
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Earned Value, Planned Value and Actual Cost


Management reserve EAC

Cumulative Values

Planned Value (PV)

Actual Costs (AC)

Budget At

Earned Value (EV)


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Control Costs: Tools
Forecasting : Develop a forecast for Estimate at Completion (EAC) that
may differ from Budget at Completion (BAC). Typically based on actual
EAC = Estimate at Completion which takes into account Estimate to
Complete (ETC) the remaining work
EAC = AC + bottom-up Estimate to Complete (ETC)
EAC = BAC/cumulative CPI = BAC/ (EV/AC)
EAC = AC + [(BAC EV) / cumulative CPI x cumulative SPI)]
To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI) : calculated projection of cost
performance that must be achieved on the remaining work to meet BAC or
TCPI = Work remaining / Funds Remaining
= (BAC EV) / (EAC AC)

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Project Quality Management

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Quality Management Processes

Plan Quality Management

Perform Quality Assurance

Control Quality

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output

Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project management
plan Cost-Benefit Analysis
Stakeholder Register Cost of Quality
Risk Register Seven basic quality tools
Requirements Benchmarking
documentation Design of Experiments Quality Management Plan
Enterprise Statistical Sampling Quality Metrics
Environmental Factors Additional quality planning Quality Checklists
Organizational Process tools Process Improvement Plan
Planning Plan Quality Management Assets Meetings Project Document Updates
Quality Management
Process Improvement Organizational Process Assets
Plan Updates
Quality Metrics Quality management and Change Requests
Project documents Control Tools Project Management Plan
Quality Control Quality Audits Updates
Execution Perform Quality Assurance Measurements Process Analysis Project Document Updates
Project Management
Plan Quality Control Measurements
Quality Metrics Validated Changes
Quality Checklists Validated Deliverables
Work Performance Data Work performance information
Approved Change Change Requests
Requests Seven basic quality tools Project Management Plan
Deliverables Statistical Sampling Updates
Project documents Inspection Project Documents Updates
Monitoring Organizational Process Approved Change Requests Organizational Process Assets
& Ctl Control Quality Assets Review Updates

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Costs of Quality

Cost of Conformance

Prevention Costs

- Training, document processes, equipment, time to do right

Appraisal Costs

- Testing, destructive testing loss, inspections

Cost of Nonconformance


- Rework, scrap

- Liabilities, warranty work, lost business

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Perform Quality Control : Tools

Seven Basic Quality Tools

Cause and Effect diagrams : also called Ishikawa or fishbone
Flow Charts

Check sheets

Pareto Diagrams : based on 80/20 principle, where 80% of

problems happen due to 20% of the causes

Control Charts

Scatter Diagram

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Perform Quality Assurance : Tools


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Quiz from Day 2

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Project Human Resources Management

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Human Resources Management Processes

Plan Human Resource Management

Acquire Project Team

Develop Project Team

Manage Project Team

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output

Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project Management
Activity Resource
Requirements Organization Charts and
Enterprise Position Descriptions
Environmental Networking
Factors Organizational Theory
Plan Human Resource Organizational Expert judgement Human Resource
Planning Management Process Assets Meetings management plan
Human Resource
management Plan Pre-Assignment
Enterprise Negotiation
Environmental Acquisition Project Staff Assignments
Factors Virtual Teams Resource Calendars
Organizational Multi-criteria decision Project Management Plan
Execution Acquire Project Team Process Assets analysis Updates
Interpersonal Skills
Team-Building Activities
Project Staff Ground Rules
Assignments Co-Location Team Performance
Human Resource Recognition and Awards Assessments
management Plan Personnel assessment Enterprise Environmental
Execution Develop Project Team Resource Calendars tools Factors Updates
Human Resource
Management Plan
Project Staff
Assignments Enterprise Environmental
Team Performance Factors Updates
Assessments Observation and Organizational
Page 59 Process
Develop Human Resource Plan : Tools

Org Charts

Hierarchical : like WBS, there is Organizational Breakdown

Structure (OBS)
Text Oriented formats

Matrix-Based Charts : A responsibility assignment matrix

(RAM) is used to illustrate the connections between work
packages or activities and project team members. Example
of RAM is RACI (next slide)

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Business Business Manage IT Develope
TASKS Sponsor Head Manager r IT Head Analyst r Tester

Project charter A C C R C I I I

Budget A C I R I I I I

Requirements Gathering I C C C C R C C
Solution Design and
Architecture I C C C C R C C

Build I I I I C C R C

Test I I I I I C C R

Go-Live I A C C C R R C

R=Responsible, A=Accountable, C=Consulted, I=Informed

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Develop Project Team: Tools : Team
building activities
Different stages of team building
Forming : Team members meet and understand about the project
and their roles and responsibilities
Storming : Team begins to address project work, PM approach and
technical decisions
Norming : Members begin to work together and adjust their work
habits to support the team. The team learns to trust each other
Performing : The team works as a well-organized unit

Adjourning : The team completes the work and moves on from the

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Develop Project Team: Tools : Colocation

Also called Tight matrix

Involves keeping all key team members in one physical location
Good strategy but virtual teams can still bring more skilled
resources, reduced costs, less travel and relocation expenses

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Manage Project Team: Tools : Conflict
Smooth/Accommodate : emphasizing areas of agreement rather
than areas of difference
Collaborate/Problem Solve
Effective inter-personal skills that a PM should have :
Effective Decision-making

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Project Communications Management

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Communications Management Processes

Plan Communications Management

Manage Communications

Control Communications

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output

Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Stakeholder Register
Project Management Communication
Plan Requirements Analysis
Enterprise Communication
Environmental Technology
Factors Communication Models Communications
Plan Communications Organizational Communication Methods Management Plan
Planning Management Process Assets Meetings Project Document Updates
Management Plan
Work Performance Communication Project communications
Reports Technology Project documents updates
Organizational Communication Models Project Management Plan
Process Assets Communication Methods updates
Enterprise Information management Organizational Process
Environmental systems Assets Updates
Execution Manage Communications Factors Performance reporting
Project Management
Plan Work Performance
Project Information
communications Organizational Process
Work Performance Assets Updates
data Information management Change Requests
Issue Log systems Project Management Plan
Monitorin Organizational Expert judgement Updates
g & Ctl Control Communications Process Assets Meetings Project Documents updates

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Factors affecting choice of communication

Urgency of the need

Availability of technology

Ease of Use

Project Environment

Sensitivity and confidentiality of the information

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Communication Management
Sequence of steps in basic communication model

Encode-> Transmit -> Decode -> Acknowledge -> Feedback

Communication Methods
- Interactive
- Push
- Pull
Techniques for effective communication management
- Sender-Receiver models
- Choice of media
- Writing style
- Meeting management techniques
- Presentation techniques
- Facilitation techniques
- Listening techniques

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Sample Communication Plan
Weekly Status Report sent out by Project Manager by Friday EOB

Weekly Status Meetings every Tuesday at a specified time

Steering Committee meetings once a month

Adhoc meetings to address items that came out during weekly status
Minutes of all meetings where action items have been identified and
decisions made

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Sample Communication Plan
Weekly Status Report sent out by Project Manager by Friday EOB

Weekly Status Meetings every Tuesday at a specified time

Steering Committee meetings once a month

Adhoc meetings to address items that came out during weekly status
Minutes of all meetings where action items have been identified and
decisions made

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Sample Status Report
Project Deliverables Project Timeline
Milestone Due Date Status

Project Accomplishments Last Week Project Activities Next Week

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Sample Project Plan

Sl. No Activity Owner Planned Start Date Planned End Date Actual Start Date Actual End Date % Complete Comments

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Project Risk Management

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Risk Management Processes

Plan Risk Management

Identify Risks

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis

Plan Risk Responses

Control Risks

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output
Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project Management Plan
Project Charter
Stakeholder register
Enterprise Environmental Expert Judgement
Factors Analytical techniques
Organizational Process Meetings
Planning Plan Risk Management Assets Risk Management Plan
Risk Management Plan
Cost Management Plan
Schedule Management Plan
Quality Management Plan
Human Resource
management plan
Scope baseline
Activity Cost Estimates
Activity Duration Estimates
Stakeholder Register Documentation Reviews
Project Documents Information Gathering Techniques
Procurement documents Checklist Analysis
Enterprise Environmental Assumptions Analysis
Factors Diagramming Techniques
Organizational Process SWOT Analysis
Planning Identify Risks Assets Expert Judgment Risk Register

Risk Management Plan Risk Probability and Impact

Scope baseline Assessment
Risk Register Probability and Impact Matrix
Enterprise Environmental Risk Data Quality Assessment
Factors Risk Categorization
Organizational Process Risk Urgency Assessment
Planning Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis Assets Expert Judgment Project Document Updates
Risk Management Plan
Cost Management Plan
Schedule Management Plan
Risk Register Data Gathering and
Enterprise Environmental Representation Techniques
Factors Quantitative Risk Analysis and
Perform Quantitative Risk Organizational Process Modeling Techniques
Planning Analysis Assets Expert Judgment Project Document Updates
Strategies for Negative Risks or
Strategies for Positive Risk or
Opportunities Project Management Plan Updates
Risk Register Contingent Response Strategies Project Document Updates
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Planning Plan Risk Responses Risk Management Plan Expert Judgment
Risks : Overview
Project risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a
positive or negative effect on one or more project objectives such as
scope, schedule, cost and quality.
Risk appetite : degree of uncertainty an entity is willing to take

Risk tolerance : volume of risk that an entity can withstand

Risk threshold : level of impact at which stakeholder will have

specific interest
Risk Breakdown Structure (RBS) : helps the project team to look at
many sources from which project risk may arise.
eg Beta Distribution, triangular distribution etc. In these, x-
axis represents values of time/cost and y-axis represents the
relative likelihood. These are also tools for Quantitative Risk

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Identify Risks : Tools
Diagramming Techniques

Cause and Effect Diagrams : also called Ishikawa or

fishbone diagrams
System or process flow charts

Influence diagrams : graphical representation of situations

showing casual influences
SWOT analysis : Strength and Weakness are internal; Opportunities
and Threats are external
Probability-Impact (PI) Matrix : This is a grid of probability of each
risk happening and its impact on project objectives. Small
probabilities can also have high impact and vice-versa

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Quantitative Risk Analysis : Techniques
Sensitivity Analysis : helps to determine which risks have the most
impact on the project

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Quantitative Risk Analysis : Techniques
Expected Monetary Value (EMV) analysis : statistical concept that
calculates average outcome when the future includes scenarios that
may or may not happen

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Quantitative Risk Analysis : Techniques
Modeling and Simulation : translates the specified detailed
uncertainties of the project into their potential impact on project
objectives. Typically uses Monte Carlo Simulation

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Plan Risk Responses : Tools
Strategies for Negative Risks





Strategies for Positive Risks





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Quiz from Day 3

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Project Procurement Management

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Procurement Management Processes

Plan Procurements

Conduct Procurements

Control Procurements

Close Procurements

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output
Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project Management
Risk Register
Activity Resource Procurement Management Plan
Project Schedule Procurement Statements of
Activity Cost Estimates Work
Stakeholder register Procurement Documents
Enterprise Make-or-Buy Analysis Source Selection Criteria
Environmental Factors Expert Judgment Make-or-Buy Decisions
Organizational Process Market research Change Requests
Planning Plan Procurements Assets Meetings Project documents updates
Management Plan
Source Selection
Criteria Bidder Conferences
Seller Proposals Proposal Evaluation Selected sellers
Project documents Techniques Agreements
Make-or-Buy Decisions Independent Estimates Resource Calendars
Procurement statement Expert Judgment Change Requests
of work Advertising Project Management Plan
Organizational Process Analytical techniques Updates
Execution Conduct Procurements Assets Procurement Negotiations Project Documents Updates
Project Management
Plan Contract Change Control
Procurement System
Documents Procurement Performance Work Performance Information
Agreements Reviews Change Requests
Approved Change Inspections and Audits Project Management Plan
Requests Performance Reporting Updates
Work Performance Payment Systems Project
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Monitoring Reports Claims Administration Organizational Process Assets
Contracts : Types

Fixed-Price Contracts

Firm Fixed Price Contracts (FFP)

Fixed Price Incentive Fee Contracts (FFIF)

Fixed Price with Economic Price Adjustment Contracts (FP-EPA)

Cost Reimbursable Contracts

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF)

Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF)

Cost Plus Award Fee Contracts (CPAF)

Time and Material (T&M) : this is a hybrid of fixed-price and cost


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Project Stakeholder Management

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Stakeholder Management Processes

Identify stakeholders

Plan stakeholder management

Manage stakeholder engagement

Control stakeholder engagement

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Processes : Inputs -> Tools -> Output
Group Process Inputs Tools Output
Project Charter
Factors Stakeholder Analysis
Organizational Expert Judgment
Initiation Identify stakeholders Process Assets Meetings Stakeholder Register

Project Management
Stakeholder register
environmental factors Expert judgement Stakeholder management
Plan stakeholder Organizational Meetings plan
Planning management process assets Analytical techniques Project documents updates

Stakeholder Issue log

management plan Change requests
Communications Project management plan
management plan updates
Change log Communication methods Project documents updates
Manage stakeholder Organizational Interpersonal skills Organizational process
Execution engagement process assets Management skills assets updates

Work performance
Project management Change requests
plan Information management Project management plan
Issue log systems Page 90
Stakeholder Analysis

Technique of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative

and qualitative information to determine whose interests should be
taken into account throughout the project
Classification Models

Power/Interest Grid : interest = level of concern on the

project outcome
Power/Influence Grid : influence = involvement

Influence/Impact Grid : impact = ability to affect changes to

the project s planning or execution
Salience Model : classify based on their power (ability to
impose their will), urgency and legitimacy (their
involvement is appropriate)

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Power/Interest Grid

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Engagement Level of stakeholders

Classification of engagement levels






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Quiz from Day 4

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Thanks for your attention!

Sigmora Technologies

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