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Seismic Considerations &


Power Bushings

Using IEEE Standards

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IEEE 693 - 1997

IEEE Recommended Practice for


Seismic Design of Substations

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IEEE Std 693 - 1997

Electrical Equipment for Sub Stations


Based on IEEE 693-1984
Very major revision
Basically a new standard
Three Qualification Levels
Low, Moderate & High
User determines Qualification Levels

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European Standards

IEC Technical Report 1463

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IEC Technical Report 1463
Covers seismic qualification of power
bushings
Based on static coefficient calculations
Based on cantilever withstand of bushing
Not widely accepted in North America

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IEEE 693-1997
Performance Levels
Selection of performance Level
Requirements for bushings
Test Methods
Qualification of bushings < 161 kV
Qualification of bushings 161 kV

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Performance Levels (ground acceleration)
Low = 0.1 g, horizontal acceleration peak
Moderate = 0.5 g, horizontal acceleration peak
High = 1.0 g, horizontal acceleration peak

Vertical acceleration = 0.8 x horizontal

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Selection of Performance Level
By User of equipment
Expected ground acceleration by
earthquake hazard method or
by seismic exposure maps and site
conditions
Select Performance Level to match the
expected ground acceleration

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General Requirements for Bushings
Bushings as components of larger equipment

Annex D of IEEE 693 - Transformers

Requirements depend on system voltage

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Testing for Seismic Performance Levels

Low: 0.1g, horizontal


Equipment testing not required
Moderate: 0.5 g, horizontal
Testing required (when practical with equipment size)
High: 1.0 g, horizontal
Testing required (when practical with equipment size)

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Qualification of Bushings
Less than 161 kV 161 kV and Higher
Static Pull Test Shake Table test
Force = 2 x weight Time history method
Applied horizontally Test by design family
at top of bushing Test most seismically
Duration = 2 seconds vulnerable family
member
Pass = no damage & no leaking

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Bushing Seismic Considerations
Bushing is not at ground level
Bushing acceleration is amplified by
transformer structure
Bushing acceleration = 2x ground acceleration
Transformer tank:
Amplification factor = 2, or
Super Elevation factor (IEC) = 1.5

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2.0 g

Transformer Tank
Amplification Factor = 2

1.0 g
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Shake Table Testing of Bushings
Method 1
Test at 1/2 level and
Calculate to demonstrate a 2x safety factor

Method 2
Test at full level

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Shake Table Testing of Bushings
1/2 Test + Calculation Method
Only practical method for some large equipment
Good when structure behaves in linear fashion and
is predictable
Not good for bushings because of the non-linearity
of the bushings mechanical system, ie, gasket +
porcelain + spring clamps

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Shake Table Testing of Bushings
Using 1/2 Level Test Method
For large equipment where not practical to
test at full level.
Must demonstrate by calculation that
equipment can withstand forces 2 times as
great as test values

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Example of 1/2 Test Method
(Power Transformer)
Purpose of test: demonstrate that transformer is
qualified for the High Performance Level where
ground acceleration = 1.0 g
Shake Table set-up at 1/2 value = 0.5 g
Use calculations to show that the test results at
0.5 g can be extended to 1.0 g

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Example of 1/2 Test Method
(Transformer Bushings)
Purpose of test:
demonstrate qualification at High Performance Level
ground acceleration = 1.0 g
Bushing acceleration is 2 times ground acceleration
because of tank effect
Bushing must withstand 2 x 1.0 g = 2.0 g
Shake Table set-up at 1/2 value = 1.0 g
Use calculations to show that the test results at 1.0 g
can be extended to 2.0 g

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Shake Table Testing of Bushings
Using Full Test Method (Full Performance Level Test)
Purpose of test:
demonstrate qualification at High Performance Level
ground acceleration = 1.0 g
Bushing acceleration is 2 times ground acceleration
because of tank effect
Bushing must withstand 2 x 1.0 g = 2.0 g
Shake Table set-up at full value = 2.0 g
Bushing directly qualified by Test
Calculations not required

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Shake Table Testing of Bushings
Using Full Test Method (Full Performance Level Test)

Moderate Level (0.5 g)


Bushing tested at 1.0 g

High Level (1.0 g)


Bushing tested at 2.0 g

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Bushing Qualification @
High Level by Direct Testing

2g
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Bushing Qualification @
Moderate Level by Direct Testing

1g
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Shake Table
Test Set-up

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ABB Components USA
Qualify bushings based on IEEE 693-1997
Actual shake table test used for higher
voltage bushings
ABB full line of ANSI/IEEE bushings has
been tested and qualified according to IEEE
693-1997

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ABB Bushing Qualification Summary
Qualified @ High - Static Pull Test
Bushings 25 kV through 138 kV
Qualified @ High - Shake Table
Bushings 161 kV through 196 kV
full test of seismically worse bushing in family
Qualified @ Moderate - Shake Table
Bushings 362 kV
full test of seismically worse bushing in family

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ABB Bushing Qualification Summary
500 kV bushing
not qualified at moderate
passed 0.45 g at flange
equivalent to 0.22 g, ground acceleration
(with tank amplification factor = 2)
failure mode (@ 0.50 g at flange)
slightleak at flange during shake test
re-sealed after test
no worse after second test

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ABB
Components USA

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