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GERAK & SIFAT

INTERAKSI LEMPENG
Plate Tectonics
Earths Tectonic Plates
North
American
North American
Eurasian

Arabian

Juan de Caribbean Pacific


Fuca

Cocos Philippine

South African
Nazca American
Indo
Australian
Pacific

Antarctic Scotian
Antarctic
TEKTONIK LEMPENG
DIVERGEN

PERGESERAN
MENDATAR
CONVERGEN

GEODYNAMICS

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Plate Tectonics
Divergent Boundary

Results in the formation of Oceanic Crust


Plate Tectonics
Transform Boundary
Plate Tectonics
Convergent Boundary: Subduction

Melting
Produces
MoreFelsic
Magma
Results in the formation & growth of Continental Crust
and destruction of Oceanic Crust
Plate Tectonics
Convergent Boundary: Collision

Results in the
growth of
Continental
Crust
BASIC PLATE TECTONICS Revised

Earths lithosphere is broken into 12-24 rigid


plates
Plates move about 1-10 cm/yr on the plastic
Asthenosphere
Geology happens where the plates interact
with one another along Divergent, Transform,
Subduction and Collisional Boundaries
Plate Tectonics

What drives
Plate Tectonic
GERAK LEMPENG
DAYA PENGGERAK (Driving Forces)
- Slab Pull
- Push Ridge
- Basal (mantle) Drag

GEODYNAMICS

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What drives plate motions
Forces that drive plate motion
Slab-pull
Cold, dense slabs of subducted oceanic
lithosphere pull the plate towards the
subduction zone
Ridge-push
The higher elevation of spreading centers
result in oceanic lithosphere wanting to move
downhill, away from the ridge
Far less important than slab-pull
Mantle drag and plate resistance
Can act to increase
or decrease plate motion
DAYA PENGGERAK

GEODYNAMICS

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DAYA PENGGERAK

GEODYNAMICS

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DAYA PENGGERAK

PUSH RIDGE

GEODYNAMICS

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Plate Tectonics
Basal / Mantle drag

Internal Heat
3 KEMUNGKINAN
KONVEKSI PADA MANTEL

3 KEMUNGKINAN
KONVEKSI MANTEL
- Pada Astenosfer
- Pada keseluruhan
Mantel
- Timbul dari Batas Inti-
Mantel
(Mantel Plume)

GEODYNAMICS

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What drives plate
motions

Models of plate-mantle convection


Any model must be consistent with observed physical and
chemical properties of the mantle
Horizontal movement of plates causes mantle upwelling
Models Layering at 660 km Explains why basalts erupted at mid-
ocean ridges are different (more evolved, relatively shallow
source) compared to those erupted at hot-spots (more primitive,
deeper source).
What drives
plate motions

Model of Whole-mantle convection


Would mix the entire mantle in the
space of a few hundred million years,
removing heterogeneities
What drives plate motions
Deep-layer model
Lava lamp model
Two layers swell and shrink in a
complex fashion in response to heat
from the Earths interior
KECEPATAN GERAK LEMPENG

GERAK RELATIF LEMPENG


- Paleomagnetisme
- Volkanisme (Seamount, Ice Land)
- Pengukuran Geodetik (GPS)
- Studi Mekanisme Fokus Gempa

GEODYNAMICS

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KECEPATAN GERAK LEMPENG

PENENTUAN UMUR DAN


PERTUMBUHAN SAMUDERA
DARI PALEOMAGNETISME

GEODYNAMICS

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Evidence on Seafloor
PENENTUAN UMUR DAN
PERTUMBUHAN SAMUDERA DARI
PALEOMAGNETISME
Evidence on Seafloor
KECEPATAN
GERAK
LEMPENG

PENENTUAN KECEPATAN
GERAK LEMPENG DARI
SEAMOUNTS

GEODYNAMICS

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GEODYNAMICS

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Evidence on Seafloor

Mantle Plume Hot Spot Tracks


KECEPATAN
GERAK
LEMPENG

PENENTUAN
KECEPATAN DARI
GERAK LEMPENG
(FOKUS GEMPA &
GPS)

GEODYNAMICS

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KECEPATAN GERAK LEMPENG
KECEPATAN GERAK LEMPENG DAN PERTUMBUHAN SAMUDERA

GEODYNAMICS

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Plate Tectonics
Directions of Motion and Plate Velocities Determined by
Mantle Plume Hot Spot Tracks and Age-Dating of Rocks
Plate Tectonics
Directions of Motion and Plate Velocities Determined
by GPS (Global Positioning System) Satellites
Directions of Motion and Plate Velocities Determined by GPS
(Global Positioning System) Satellites
KECEPATAN GERAK LEMPENG
KECEPATAN GERAK RELATIF LEMPENG TEKTONIK

GEODYNAMICS

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TERIMAKASIH

GEODYNAMICS

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