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CHAPTER 1

SUBSTRUCTURE

1.1 Earthwork
INTRODUCTION
Earthwork: the processes whereby the surface of the
Earthwork: the processes whereby the surface of the
earth is excavated and transported to and compacted
earth is excavated and transported to and compacted
at another location.
at another location.

Earthworks
Earthworks are engineering works created through the
are engineering works created through the
moving or processing of parts of the earth's surface involving
moving or processing of parts of the earth's surface involving
quantities of soil or unformed rock. The earth may be moved
quantities of soil or unformed rock. The earth may be moved
to another location and formed into a desired shape for a
to another location and formed into a desired shape for a
purpose.
purpose.

Much of earthworks involves machine excavation and fill or


Much of earthworks involves machine excavation and fill or
backfill.
backfill.

Scale: ranges from small works (the excavation of ditches


Scale: ranges from small works (the excavation of ditches
and trenches for drainage and pits and trenches for
and trenches for drainage and pits and trenches for
foundations) to the large earthworks (highways and dams).
foundations) to the large earthworks (highways and dams).
INTRODUCTION

carried out at an early stage in a construction project.


carried out at an early stage in a construction project.

completion of the earthworks within the scheduled time is


completion of the earthworks within the scheduled time is
often the key to the completion on time of the whole project
often the key to the completion on time of the whole project

success often depends on:


success often depends on:
o an adequate site investigation and preparing practical
o an adequate site investigation and preparing practical
and satisfactory designs of the earthworks.
and satisfactory designs of the earthworks.
o the choice and efficient use of the correct types and size
o the choice and efficient use of the correct types and size
of plant to meet the particular requirements of the site.
of plant to meet the particular requirements of the site.
o Weather condition
o Weather condition
SCOPE OF EARTHWORKS
Site clearing
Parameters to be checked on before commencing the clearing
Parameters
works; to be checked on before commencing the clearing
works;
marking of the respective area to be cleared and grubbed
marking
checkedofthethecut-off
respective area to be cleared and grubbed
elevations
checked
checked the cut-off
depth andelevations
size of trees to be removed
checked depth and size of treesthe
identified clearly and verified to be removed
existing utilities and
identified clearly
services lines and verified the existing utilities and
services
ensure lines
that monuments, markers and special trees are
ensure that monuments,
properly marked markers and special trees are
for protection.
properly
marks allmarked
trees for
andprotection.
vegetations that are to be
marks all trees
undisturbed and vegetations that are to be
undisturbed
potential hazard such as flammable area, slipping area,
potential
etc. hazard such as flammable area, slipping area,
etc.
terrain, soil condition and foliage
terrain,
ensuresoil
thatcondition and foliage
sub contractor has proper controls of erosion
ensure that
and drainage sub contractor has proper controls of erosion
and drainage protection plan has been approved and the
environment
environment
contractor isprotection planthe
familiar with hasrequirements
been approved and the
contractor is familiar with the requirements
Site clearing

Site Clearing Involves;


Site Clearing Involves;
demolition of existing buildings,
demolition
the grubbingexisting
of buildings,
out bushes and trees,
the grubbing out
disposal works andbushes and trees,
disposal worksofand
the removal top soil to reduce level.
the removal of top soil to reduce level.

Clearing, grubbing, demolishing, breaking up and removing


Clearing, grubbing, demolishing, breaking up and removing
all trees, shrubs, vegetation, butts, structures such as walls,
all trees, shrubs, vegetation, butts, structures such as walls,
fences and other obstruction within the site which have been
fences and other obstruction within the site which have been
designated to be demolished or removed.
designated to be demolished or removed.

All spoils and debris shall be removed and disposed of off-


All spoils and debris shall be removed and disposed of off-
site at an approved certified construction landfill.
site at an approved certified construction landfill.
Site clearing
Cutting and excavation
Most
Most construction projects require the movement of earthwork on
construction projects require the movement of earthwork on
site. This will result in altering the existing elevation to a different or
site. This
finish will result in altering the existing elevation to a different or
elevation.
finish elevation.
ToTodetermine
determine the amount of soil to be moved, the estimator needs
the amount of soil to be moved, the estimator needs
to have a plot plan or topographic survey.
to have a plot plan or topographic survey.
This
This drawing is developed by plotting the readings (elevations)
drawing is developed by plotting the readings (elevations)
obtained from a topographic field survey usually performed by a
obtained
licensedfrom a topographic field survey usually performed by a
land surveyor.
licensed land surveyor.
Types of
Materials

Purposes

Cutting and excavation


Classification of Excavation based on type
of material:
Topsoil excavation
Earth excavation
Rock excavation
Muck excavation - this usually contains
excess water and unsuitable soil
Unclassified excavation - this is any
combination of material types

Cutting and excavation


Classification of Excavation based on it
purposes:
Stripping
Roadway excavation
Drainage or structure excavation
Bridge excavation
Channel excavation
Footing excavation
Borrow excavation
Dredge excavation

Cutting and excavation


Cutting and excavation
Excavation can be either a part of the permanent works
(e.g. cuttings) or a temporary expedient in the construction
of the works (e.g. for foundations and drainage)

The sides of the


excavations are required to
remain stable during their
design life, can be
achieved by:
excavating the material

to a stable slope angle
retaining or supporting

the material.
Cutting and excavation
Cut
Cut and
and Fill
Fill in
in during
during earthworks
earthworks
Engineers
Engineers needneed to
to concern
concern themselves
themselves with
with issues
issues of
of geotechnical
geotechnical engineering
engineering (such
(such
as soil density and strength) and with quantity estimation to ensure that soil
as soil density and strength) and with quantity estimation to ensure that soil volumesvolumes
in
in the
the cuts
cuts match
match those
those of
of the
the fills,
fills, while
while minimizing
minimizing the
the distance
distance of
of movement.
movement.

In
Inthe
the past,
past, volume
volume analysis
analysis were
were done
done by
by hand
hand using
using a
a slide
slide rule
rule and
and with
with methods
methods
such
such as
as Simpson's
Simpson's rule.
rule.

Nowadays,
Nowadays, calculations
calculations can
can be
be performed
performed with
with a
a computer
computer and
and specialized
specialized software,
software,
including
including optimisation
optimisation on
on haul
haul cost
cost and
and not
not haul
haul distance.
distance.

Cutting and excavation


Cutting and excavation
Cutting and excavation
Transport and moving

Earthwork transportation is something that projects


Earthwork transportation is something that projects
seldom avoid.
seldom avoid.

Earthwork is expressed in units of volumes (cubic


Earthwork is expressed in units of volumes (cubic
meters in metric). Increases in such volumes require
meters in metric).
additional trucks Increases in such
(or more runs of volumes
the samerequire
truck),
additional trucks
which cost money. (or more runs of the same truck),
which cost money.
It is important for designers to design the project
It is important for designers to design the project
which require very little earthwork.
which require very little earthwork.

Trucks
Trucks or dump trucks are the most necessary
or dump
equipment to trucks are the
transport most necessary
excavated material,
equipment to construction
aggregates and transport material.
excavated material,
aggregates and construction material.
Transport
and moving
Transport and moving
Compaction
Reasons:
Reasons:
Increased bearing capacity
Increased bearing capacity
Increased compressibility
Increased compressibility
Reduce permeability
Reduce permeability
Improve stability
Improve stability
Heavy/highway vs. building foundation compaction
Heavy/highway vs. building foundation compaction
operations
operations
Allpronounced depressions left in the
original ground surface by removal of
objectionable material from within
embankment limits are filled with
acceptable material and compacted to the
density required.
The upper 6 in. of the original ground is
compacted weighing no less than 10 t, or
with other approval compacting equipment.

Compaction
Compacting equipment requirements
vary from contract to contract.
The types of compactors commonly
used are:
Three wheel roller
Smooth drum vibrator roller
Vibratory tamping roller
Static tamping roller or sheepsfoot
Crawler-tread equipment or bulldozer
Mechanical tamps or vibrator.

Compaction
The compactor to be used is
determined by the Contractor and is
dependent upon several factors:
Size of embankment
Type of materials being compacted
Conditions of materials being compacted
Availability of equipments
Contractors preference.

Compaction
Compactor type Material Lift Depth
3 wheel All soils 8 in. max
Smooth Drum All soils 8 in. max
Vibratory
Tamping-Foot Soil or shale Length of tamping
foot
Crawler-Tread rock Refer specifications
Crawler-Tread aggregates 6 in. max
Smooth drum aggregates 6 in. max
Vibratory
Mechanical Tamp or soils 6 in. max
Vibratory
Mechanical tamp or aggregates 4 in. max
Vibratory

Compaction
Compaction
Sloping

Function of the natural angle of repose, density,


Function of the natural angle of repose, density,
surface and subsurface water flow.
surface and subsurface water flow.
Early stabilization of surfaces is critical in construction.
Early stabilization of surfaces is critical in construction.
Eliminate points of concentrated flow using slope
Eliminate points of concentrated flow using slope
drains as outlets.
drains as outlets.
Difficult slopes may require riprap, gabions, or other
Difficult slopes may require riprap, gabions, or other
measures for permanent stabilization .
measures for permanent stabilization .
Slope
Slope stabilization is
stabilization is
important to ensure that
important to ensure that
failure or landslides will not
failure or landslides will not
occur.
occur.
Properly
Properly designed
designed
slope
slope
protection and stabilization
protection and stabilization
has to include two
has to include two
components:
components:

and
a
a vegetational-biological
vegetational-biological
and

a acomponent.
mechanical-structural
mechanical-structural
component.
For maximum
For maximum effect, both
effect, both
components must be
components must be
integrally planned prior to
integrally planned prior to
construction.
construction.
Sloping
Sloping
Sloping
KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL EARTHWORK
OPERATIONS

1. Control surface and subsurface water


1. Control surface and subsurface water
2. Maintain optimum moisture range by drying, mixing ,
2. Maintain optimum moisture range by drying, mixing ,
or wetting
or wetting
3. Identify and monitor cut & fill quantities
3. Identify and monitor cut & fill quantities
4. Good layout (horizontal & vertical control)
4. Good layout (horizontal & vertical control)
5. Minimize handling - minimize stockpiling
5. Minimize handling - minimize stockpiling
KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL EARTHWORK
OPERATIONS

6. Optimize haul lengths


6. Optimize haul lengths
7. Minimize cycle time
7. Minimize cycle time
8. Proper selection and sizing of excavators and haul
8. Proper selection and sizing of excavators and haul
units
units
9. Alternate haul unit wheel paths
9. Alternate haul unit wheel paths
10. Experienced personnel in the field
10. Experienced personnel in the field

To be continue..