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CEMENT

Group II
Asiatico, Marty
Dotor, Denis Rudolf
Gatchalian, Hazel
CEMENT
are materials that exhibit characteristic properties of
setting and hardening when mixed to a paste with
water. This makes them join rigid masses into coherent
structures. It is powdery bonding material having
adhesive and cohesive properties.
Chemically it is a finely ground mixture of calcium
silicates and aluminates which set to a hard mass
when treated with water. These are called as Hydraulic
Cements (Portland Cement) and those setting in air
are Non Hydraulic cements (Ordinary Lime).
It was first made by Joseph Aspdin in 1824 in
England.
Grades of Portland Cement
33 gradeGeneral Construction likeplastering,
finishing worksetc, wherestrenthisnotrequired.
43 gradeUseful forstructural works,
precastitemsetc, Strength development is faster
than 33 grade.
53gradeUsed for multi-storey buildings, precast
pre-stressed items, bridges, tall structures,etc.
Develops very fast strength andspeeds up
construction.
Case Studies
Using carbonation in terms of strengthening
rather than water

If widely adopted, a new proceed to creation petrify could


significantly revoke hothouse gas emissions, H2O consumption,
assistance residence tellurian warming, furnish a some-more
durable concrete, and save attention time and poignant costs.
The commentary of a new investigate uncover good
intensity for a form of petrify that gains strength by
carbonation, rather than a use of water. Concrete done with this
petrify also appears to softened conflict some of a many
common de-icing ipecac that can lead to disaster and
dramatically revoke a lifespan of roads.
The investigate was published in Construction and Building
Materials, by engineers from Oregon State University, Purdue
University and Solidia Technologies. This work was upheld in
partial by Solidia Technologies, that protected core record from
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
Instead of H2O reacting with cement, this carbonated petrify
reacts with CO dioxide and calcium silicate, pronounced
Jason Weiss, a Miles Lowell and Margaret Watt Edwards
Distinguished Chair in a OSU College of Engineering.
This new product during initial glow looks like required
concrete, though it has properties that should make it final
longer in some applications, Weiss said. In addition, use of it
could revoke CO dioxide emissions, that is an critical idea of a
petrify industry.
Crude petrify was used by a Egyptians to build a pyramids,
softened during a time of a Roman Empire, and reached a
complicated form around 180 years ago. When used to make
petrify a multiple of cement, silt and dejected stone its
one of a many proven building materials in tellurian history.
A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON PARTIAL REPLACEMENT
OF CEMENT WITH SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH, RICE
HUSK ASH & STONE DUST

It has been observed that by the incorporation of SCBA, RHA &


SD as a partial
replacement to cement in plain concrete, increases workability
when compared to
workability with reference to concrete made without
admixtures.
The mix proportion of 6% replacement of cement with SCBA
(2%), RHA (2%) & SD (2%) showed good properties like
Compressive and Tensile strength.
It has been observed that cement replacement using SCBA,
RHA & SD can go up to 8% safely through strength values are
less compared to 2% replacement of cement and is most
economically feasible.
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE
PROPERTIES OF CEMENT CONCRETE MADE
BY REPLACING CEMENT BY SILICA FUME AND
FINE AGGREGATE BY STONE DUST

From the results, it can be concluded that silica fume


and stone dust can be effectively used in concrete, The
inclusion of stone dust has desirable effect on concrete
mechanical properties which is comparable to normal
concrete. The usage of silica fume in concrete as cement
replacement materials will lessen the CO2 being emitted
during its manufacture and acts as a eco-friendly material
reducing the Green house effect, Incorporation of these
materials in concrete helps in making it more economical;
The cost of stone dust is less compared to natural sand.
Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of natural
sand with Stone Dust, as full replacement in concrete is
possible. However, it is advisable to carry out trial casting
with Stone Dust proposed to be used, in order to arrive at
the water content and mix proportion to suit the required
workability levels and strength requirement. Finally the
Stone dust used as Fine Aggregate replacement enables
the large utilisation of waste product, The workability of
fresh concrete can be increased by adding suitable
admixtures.