Learning Principles

Types of Learning
‡ Signal Learning
± Simplest level of learning

‡ Stimulus-Response Learning
± Developing a voluntary response to a specific stimulus or combination of stimulus

‡ Chaining
± Acquisition of a series of related conditioned responses or stimulus-response connections

Types of Learning
‡ Verbal Association
± A type of chaining and is easily recognized in the process of learning terminology

‡ Discrimination Learning
± Learned through forming large numbers of stimulus-response or verbal chains

‡ Concept Learning
± Learning how to classify stimuli into groups represented by a common concept

Types of Learning
‡ Rule Learning
± Rule can be considered a chain of concepts or a relationship between concepts

‡ Problem Solving
± Requirements:
‡ Learner must have a clear idea of the problem or goal being sought; ‡ and must be able to recall and apply previously learned rules that relate to the situation

Kolb¶s Theory of Experiential Learning
‡ Four stage cycle:
± Immediate concrete experience ± Person makes observations and reflections ± Development of abstract theory (develop ideas on how to proceed) ± Person actively experiments with actions to test them out

Kolb¶s Theory (needed abilities)
‡ Concrete Experience (CE) abilities: Learning from actual experience ‡ Reflective Observation (RO) abilities: Learning by observing others ‡ Abstract Conceptualization (AC) abilities: Creating theories to explain what is seen ‡ Active Experimentation (AE): Using theories to solve problems

Kolb¶s Learning Styles
‡ Converger
± Learns by AC and AE ± Person is good at decision making and problem solving and likes dealing with technical work rather than interpersonal relationships

‡ Diverger
± Requires CE and RO ± Person excels in imagination and awareness of meaning ± He or she is feeling oriented and people oriented and likes working in groups

Kolb¶s Learning Styles
‡ Accommodator
± Relies heavily on CE and AE ± Actively accomplishes things often using trial-anderror methods to solve problems ± This person might be impatient with other people ± Acts on intuition and is a risk taker

‡ Assimilator
± Emphasizes AC and RO ± Strength of this person is inductive reasoning, creating theoretical models, and integrating ideas ± Prefers to play with idea than to actively apply them ± Concerned with ideas than people

Gregorc Cognitive Styles Model

‡ Hypothesized that perception and ordering affects how the person learns (mediation abilities) ‡ Perception is the way one grasps incoming stimuli (abstractness to concreteness) ‡ Ordering is the way one arranges and systematizes incoming stimuli (sequence to randomness)

Gregorc Cognitive Styles Model
‡ Concrete sequential learners
± Like highly structured, quiet learning environments and do not like being interrupted ± Focus on details, like concrete learning materials, especially those that are visual, and they may interpret words literally

‡ Concrete Random learners
± Learners of this type are intuitive, use trial-anderror methods and look for alternatives ± Order new information mentally into a threedimensional pattern

Gregorc Cognitive Styles Model
‡ Abstract sequential
± Learners are holistic thinkers who seek understanding of incoming information ± Need consistency in the learning environment and do not like interruptions ± Have good verbal skills and are logical and rational

‡ Abstract random
± Learners think holistically and benefit greatly from visual stimuli ± Like busy, unstructured learning environments and are often focused on personal relationships

Field Independence / Dependence Model
‡ By Herman Witkin ‡ Field-Independent Style
± Items are perceived relatively independently of their surrounding field ± More analytical (sees parts more than the whole)

‡ Field-Dependent Style
± Style in which a person has difficulty perceiving items aside from their surrounding field ± Is more global (sees whole more than the parts) ± Girls are more field dependent than men and boys

Field Independence / Dependence Model Field Dependent Field Independent
Mathematical reasoning may be strong More difficulty with mathematical reasoning Analyzes the elements of a situation Analyzes the whole picture; less able to analyze the elements Does not perceive details More people oriented Attitudes guided by authority figures or peer group See themselves as others see them

Recognizes and recalls details More task oriented Forms attitudes independently

More pronounced self-identify

Adult Learning
‡ Malcolm Knowles introduced Andragogy ‡ Model of learning:
± Adults are motivated to learn information for which they understand the purpose and see practical applications ± They want to take some control of their learning process and be self-directed ± Want their life experience to be considered in the learning situation and also want to learn from others¶ experiences

Andragogy vs. Pedagogy
Area of Concern Need to know Self-Concept Pedagogy Learn what the teacher wants them to learn Andragogy Need to know why they need to learn something

Perception of being Feel responsible for their own dependent on the teacher learning for learning

Role of Experience The teacher¶s experience, Adults learn from each other¶s not the children¶s is what experience counts Readiness to learn Must be ready when the Ready to learn when they feel teacher says they must or the need to know they will not be promoted Life-centered or taskorientation; primarily internally motivated, with some external motivation

Orientation to Subject-centered learning Motivation orientation; externally motivated

Adult Learning
‡ Nature: joyful, inherently self-directed, totally and uniquely different from learning in children ‡ Teachers will be less of a disseminator of information and director of the learning process and more of a facilitator ‡ Teacher¶s role: guide, coach, mentor, challenger, motivator

Learning Theories
‡ Behaviorist Theories ‡ Cognitive Learning Theories ‡ Social Learning Theory (Social Cognitive Theory)
± Adult Learning

Learning propositions
‡ Behaviors which are rewarded (reinforced) are more likely to occur ‡ Sheer repetition without indications of improvement or any kind of reinforcement is a poor way to learn ‡ Threat and punishment have variable and uncertain effects upon learning ‡ Reward (reinforcement) to be most effective in learning, must follow almost immediately after the desired behavior and be clearly connected with that behavior in the mind of the learner

Learning propositions
‡ Forgetting proceeds rapidly at first ± then more slowly; recall shortly after learning reduces the amount forgotten ‡ Learning from reading is facilitated more by time spent recalling what has been read than by rereading ‡ When children or adults experience too much frustration, their behavior ceases to be integrated, purposeful, and rational. ‡ No school subjects are markedly superior to others for µstrengthening mental powers¶

Learning propositions
‡ What is learned is most likely to be available for use if it is learned in a situation much like that in which it is to be used and immediately preceding the time when it is needed ‡ Children (adults even more) « remember new information which confirms their previous attitudes better than they remember new information which runs counter to their previous attitudes ‡ Adults need to know why they need to learn something before undertaking to learn it

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