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# Analysis & Design of

Algorithms
(CSCE 321)

## Prof. Amr Goneid

Department of Computer Science, AUC

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 1

Brute Force Algorithms

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 2

Brute Force Algorithms
Brute Force Algorithms
Elementary Sorting Algorithms
Selection Sort
Bubble Sort
Insertion Sort
Brute Force Sequential Search
Brute Force String Matching
Closest Pair Problem
Exhaustive Search
Traveling Salesman Problem
0/1 Knapsack Problem
Assignment problem
Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 3
1. Brute Force Algorithms
Brute Force is a straightforward approach to
solving a problem, usually directly based on
the problems statement and definitions of
the concepts involved
In many cases, Brute Force does not
provide you a very efficient solution
Brute Force may be enough for moderate
size problems with current computers.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 4

2. Elementary Sorting Algorithms

Sorting
Selection Sort
Bubble Sort
Insertion Sort

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 5

Sorting
The Sorting Problem:
Input: A sequence of keys {a1 , a2 , , an}
output: A permutation (re-ordering) of the input,
{a1 , a2 , , an} such that a1 a2 an
Sorting is the most fundamental algorithmic
problem in computer science
Sorting can efficiently solve many problems
Different sorting algorithms have been
developed, each of which rests on a particular
idea.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 6

Some Applications of Sorting
Efficient Searching
Ordering a set so as to permit efficient binary
search.
Uniqueness Testing
Test if the elements of a given collection of
items are all distinct.
Deleting Duplicates
Remove all but one copy of any repeated
elements in a collection.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 7

Some Applications of Sorting
Closest Pair
Given a set of n numbers, find the pair of numbers that
have the smallest difference between them
Median/Selection
Find the kth largest item in set S. Can be used to find the
median of a collection.
Frequency Counting
Find the most frequently occurring element in S, i.e., the
mode.
Prioritizing Events
Sorting the items according to the deadline date.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 8

Types of Sorts
In-Place Sort:
An in-place sort of an array occurs within the
array and uses no external storage or other
arrays
In-place sorts are more efficient in space
utilization
Stable Sorts:
A sort is stable if it preserves the ordering of
elements with the same key.
i.e. If elements e1 and e2 have the same key,
and e1 appears earlier than e2 before sorting,
then e1 is located before e2 after sorting.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 9

Sorting
What will count towards T(n):
Comparisons of array elements
Swaps or shifts of array elements
We compare sorting methods on the
bases of:
1. The time complexity of the algorithm
2. If the algorithm is In-Place and
Stable or not

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 10

Sorting
We examine here 3 elementary sorting
algorithms:
Selection Sort
Bubble Sort
Insertion Sort
These have a complexity of O(n2)

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 11

(a) Selection Sort
The general idea of the selection sort is that for
each slot, find the element that belongs there
Assume elements to be in locations 0..n-1
Let (i) be the start of a sub-array of at least 2
elements, i.e. i = 0 .. n-2
for each i = 0 .. n-2
Find smallest element in sub-array a[i..n-1]
Swap that element with that at the start of the
sub-array (i.e. with a[i]).

How it works
4 3 1 6 2 5

1 3 4 6 2 5

1 2 4 6 3 5

1 2 3 6 4 5

1 2 3 4 6 5

1 2 3 4 5 6

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 13

Demos
http://www.cosc.canterbury.ac.nz/people/mukundan/dsal/SSort.html

http://coderaptors.com/?SelectionSort

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 14

Selection Sort Algorithm
First, let us compute the cost of finding the location of
the minimum element in a subarray a[s..e ]
minimum (a,s,e)
{ m=s; e

for j = s+1 to e
j s 1
if (a[j] a[m]) m = j ;
return m;
} 1comp
Hence, T(s,e) = e s
For an array of size (n) it will cost T(n) = n-1 comparisons

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 15

Selection Sort Algorithm
SelectSort (a[0..n-1 ]) n 2
{
i 0
for i = 0 to n-2 (n 1 i ) comp
{
m = minimum (a , i , n-1) ;
swap (a[i] , a[m]);
}
} 1swap

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 16

Analysis of Selection Sort

n2
Tswap (n) 1swap (n 1)
i 0
n2
n(n 1)
Tcomp (n) n 1 i comp
i 0 2
T (n) 0.5n 0.5n 1 (n )
2 2

Exact algorithm

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 17

Performance of Selection Sort

## The complexity of the selection sort is (n2),

independent of the initial data ordering.
In-Place Sort Yes
Stable Algorithm No

## This technique is satisfactory for small jobs, not

efficient enough for large amounts of data.

(b) Bubble Sort

## The general idea is to compare adjacent elements

and swap if necessary
Assume elements to be in locations 0..n-1
Let (i) be the index of the last element in a sub-
array of at least 2 elements, i.e. i = n-1 .. 1
Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 19
Bubble Sort Algorithm
for each i = n-11
Compare adjacent elements aj and aj+1 , j = 0..i-1 and
swap them if aj > aj+1

## This will bubble the largest element in the sub-array

a[0..i] to location (i).

How it works
4 3 1 2

3 4 1 2

3 1 4 2

3 1 2 4

1 3 2 4

1 2 3 4

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 21

Demos
http://www.cosc.canterbury.ac.nz/people/mukundan/dsal/BSort.html

http://coderaptors.com/?BubbleSort

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 22

Bubble Sort Algorithm
BubbleSort (a[ 0..n-1])
1

{ i n 1

## for i = n-1 down to 1 i 1

for j = 0 to i-1 j0

}
1comp 1swap

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 23

Analysis of Bubble Sort

## Worst case when the array is inversely sorted:

i 1
n(n 1) n 1
Tcomp (n) 1comp i
1

i n 1 j 0 i 1 2
n(n 1)
Similarly Tswap
2
Hence T (n) n 2 n O(n 2 )

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 24

Bubble Sort (a variant)
void bubbleSort (itemType a[ ], int n)
{ int i , j; bool swapped;
for (i = n-1; i >= 1; i--)
{ swapped = false;
for (j = 0; j < i; j++ )
{ if (a[j] > a[j+1] )
{ swap(a[j] , a[j+1]); swapped = true; }
}
if (!swapped) return;
}
}
Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 25
Performance of Bubble Sort

## The worst case complexity of the bubble sort is

when the array is inversely sorted: O(n2).
The variant has a best case when the array is
already sorted in ascending order: (n). Outer
loop works for only i = n-1 and there will be no
swaps.
In-Place Sort Yes
Stable Algorithm Yes
For small jobs, not efficient enough for large
amounts of data.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 26

(c) Insertion Sort
The general idea of the insertion sort is that
for each element, find the slot where it
belongs.
Performs successive scans through the data.
When an element is out of sequence (less
than its predecessor), it is pulled out and then
inserted where it should belong.
Array elements have to be shifted to the right
to make space for the insertion.
Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 27
How it works
2 7 1 5 8 6 3 4

1 2 7 5 8 6 3 4

1 2 5 7 8 6 3 4

1 2 5 6 7 8 3 4

1 2 3 5 6 7 8 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 28

Demos
http://www.cosc.canterbury.ac.nz/people/mukundan/dsal/ISort.html

http://coderaptors.com/?InsertionSort

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 29

Insertion Sort Algorithm
InsertSort (a[0..n-1 ]) n 1
{ for i =1 to n-1
{ i 1
j = pointer to element ai; 1comp
v = copy of ai; Best 1 time
while( j > 0 && aj-1 > v) Worst i times
{ move data right: aj aj-1
move pointer left: j-- } 1shift
Insert v at last (j) location: aj v;
}
}
Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 30
Analysis of Insertion Sort

## Worst case when the array is inversely sorted, while

loop iterates (i) times:

n 1 n 1
1 2
i 1

Tcomp ( n ) i 1comp i ( n n )
i 1 2
1 2
Similarly Tshift ( n ) ( n n )
2
Hence T ( n ) ( n 2 n ) O( n 2 )

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 31

Analysis of Insertion Sort

## Best case when the array is already sorted in

ascending order,while loop works zero times

n 1
T ( n ) 1comp ( n 1 ) ( n )
i 1

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 32

Performance of Insertion Sort

## The worst case complexity of the insertion sort

is when the array is inversely sorted: O(n2).
Best case when the array is already sorted in
ascending order: (n). While loop will not
execute and there will be no data movement.
In-Place Sort Yes
Stable Algorithm Yes
For modest jobs, not efficient enough for large
amounts of data.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 33

3. Brute Force Sequential Search

## Find whether a search key is present in an array

// Search key K in A[0..n - 1]
Worst case:
ALGORITHM SequentialSearch( A[ 0..n ], K )
A[ n ] K T(n) = O(n)
i 0 comparisons
while A[ i ] K do
i i 1
if i n return i
else return - 1

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 34

4. Brute Force String Matching

## Pattern: a string of m characters to search for

Text: a (longer) string of n characters to search in
Problem: find a substring in the text that matches
the pattern
Example: Pattern NOT,
text NOBODY_NOTICED_HIM
Typical Applications
find function in the text editor, e.g., MS-Word,

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 35

Brute Force String Matching

Brute-force algorithm
Step 1 Align pattern at beginning of text
Step 2 Moving from left to right, compare each character of
pattern to the corresponding character in text until
all characters are found to match (successful search);

or
a mismatch is detected

Step 3 While pattern is not found and the text is not yet
exhausted, realign pattern one position to the right and
repeat Step 2

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 36

Brute Force String Matching

## T[0..n-1]: Text string P[0..m-1]: Pattern string

ALGORITHM BFStringMa tch( T [ 0..n 1 ], P [ 0..m 1 ])
for i 0 to n-m do
j0
while j m and P [ j ] T [ i j ]
j j1
if j m return i
return -1

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 37

5. Closest Pair Problem

Problem:
Find the two closest points in a set of n points (in the two
dimensional Cartesian plane).

Brute-force algorithm
Compute the distance between
every pair of distinct points
Return the indexes of the points for
which the distance is the smallest.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 38

Closest Pair Problem

## n-1 n n-1 n-1

T( n ) cost for sqrt
1 (n-i)
i 1 j i 1
i
i 1
n(n-1)/2
i 1
O(n 2
)

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 39

Closest Pair Problem
The Hamming distance between two strings of equal length
is defined as the number of positions at which the
corresponding symbols are different. It is named after Richard
Hamming (19151998), a prominent American scientist.
Suppose that the points in the problem of closest
pairs are strings and hence the distance between
two of such strings is now measured by the
Hamming Distance. Write an algorithm to find the
closest pair of strings in an array of strings and find
the number of comparisons done by this algorithm.

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 40

6. Exhaustive Search
A brute-force approach to combinatorial problem
Generate each and every element of the problems domain
Then compare and select the desirable element that
satisfies the set constraints
Involve combinatorial objects such as permutations,
combinations, and subsets of a given set
The time efficiency is usually bad usually the
complexity grows exponentially with the input size
Three examples
Traveling salesman problem
Knapsack problem
Assignment problem

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 41

(a)Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)
Given n cities with known distances between each pair, find the
shortest tour that passes through all the cities exactly once
before returning to the starting city
Alternatively: Find shortest Hamiltonian circuit in a weighted
connected graph (The circuit problem is named after Sir
William Rowan Hamilton) 2
Example: a b
5 3
8 4

c 7 d

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 42

Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)

## Hamiltonian Circuit Cost

abcda 2+3+7+5 = 17 Optimal
abdca 2+4+7+8 = 21
acbda 8+3+4+5 = 20
acdba 8+7+4+2 = 21

## Number of candidate circuits = (n-1)!

Very High complexity O(n!)

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 43

(b) 0/1 Knapsack Problem

Given n items:
weights: w1 w2 wn
values: v1 v2 v n
a knapsack of capacity W
Find most valuable subset of the items that fit into the knapsack

## Example: Knapsack capacity W=16

item weight value (\$)
1 2 20
2 5 30
3 10 50
4 5 10

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 44

0/1 Knapsack Problem

## Subset Total weight Total value

{ } 0 \$00
{1} 2 \$20
{2}
{3}
5
10
\$30
\$50
Generates 2n
{4} 5 \$10 possible
{1,2} 7 \$50
{1,3} 12 \$70 subsets,
{1,4} 7 \$30
{2,3} 15 \$80 Optimal T(n) = O(2n)
{2,4} 10 \$40
{3,4} 15 \$60
{1,2,3} 17 not feasible
{1,2,4} 12 \$60
{1,3,4} 17 not feasible
{2,3,4} 20 not feasible
{1,2,3,4} 22 not feasible

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 45

(c) Assignment Problem by Exhaustive Search

## There are n people who need to be assigned to n jobs, one person

per job. The cost of assigning person i to job j is C[i,j]. Find an
assignment that minimizes the total cost.

## Job 1 Job 2 Job 3 Job 4

Person 1 9 2 7 8
Person 2 6 4 3 7
Person 3 5 8 1 8
Person 4 7 6 9 4

Algorithmic Plan:
Generate all legitimate assignments, compute their costs, and select the
cheapest one.
How many assignments are there? n!
Pose the problem as one about a cost matrix:

## Prof. Amr Goneid, AUC 46

Assignment Problem by Exhaustive Search

9 2 7 8
6 4 3 7
C
5 8 1 8
T(n) = # of
7 6 9 4 assignments = O(n!)

## Assignment (col.#s) Total Cost

1, 2, 3, 4 9+4+1+4=18
1, 2, 4, 3 9+4+8+9=30
1, 3, 2, 4 9+3+8+4=24
1, 3, 4, 2 9+3+8+6=26
1, 4, 2, 3 9+7+8+9=33
1, 4, 3, 2 9+7+1+6=23
etc.