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Roles of Insects

By Group six:
Dicky Mahaputra Tarigan
Firda Zulprisna
Naomi Lamtiur Napitupulu
Novita Manalu
Nurul Fauziah
Outline
Economic Importance of Insects
Insects as pests in plant
Insects as vector of diseases in animals and
humans
How to control insects (Biologically,
Physically and Chemically)
Product of insecticides usually used by
farmers
Economic Importance of Insects
Pollinator of Crops
Predator of Pests
Parasites of Pest
Productive Insects
Human food value
Scavangers
Insects of Medical and veterinary importance
Pollinator of Crops
Many plants depend on
insects to transfer pollen
as they forage.
Many insects that
perform this job for
flowering plants, such as
honey bees, butterflies,
flies, wasps, beetles and
even Hemiptera and
thrips.
Predators of Pests
Insect predators can be found throughout plants
Some are useful natural enemies of insect pests
example: lady beetles, ground beetles, rove
beetles, flower bugs and other predatory true
bugs, lacewings, dragonfly, praying mantis and
hover flies.
Some kinds of Predaceous Insects

1
2

3
List of Pests and Predator Insects
Parasites of Pests
Parasitoids are insects with an immature stage
that develops on or in an insect host, and
ultimately kills the host
The most valuable insect parasites belong to
the following groups:
Tachinid Flies (Diptera)
Ichneumonid Wasps (Hymenoptera)
Braconid Wasps (Hymenoptera)
Chalcid Wasps (Hymenoptera)
Examples of Insects as Parasites of Pests

a. Tachinid flies b. whiteflies


Productive Insects
Sericulture : an agro-based industry
Lac Insect : noted for resinous
exudation from the bodies of females
Apiculture : beekeeping is the
maintenance of honey bee colonies
Sericulture Products 1

a. The production of
raw silk from 2
silkworm.
b. Types of Silk worms:
1. Mulberry silkworm
3
2. Tasar Silk worm
3. Muga Silk worm
4. Eri Silk worm
4
Lac Insects

Lac produced when


insects secrete a brown
resinous substance.
important trees needed
for lac encrustation are
the kusum, the Ber,
Palas, Babul and sal
Apiculture

Some honey bee that are useful in collecting honey are:


1. Apis dorsata (rock bee)
2. Apis florea
3. Apis indica

1 2 3
Human Food Value
There are 1,462 recorded species of edible
insects some of them are crickets,
grasshoppers, beetle and moth larvae and
termites.
Insects could be a very nutritious food that rich
of protein, carbohydrates, calories, fat,
calcium, phosporous, etc
Insects are an important food for many
vertebrates, including birds, amphibians,
reptiles, fish and mammals
Servings of insects from various
countries
Scavangers
Large number of
insects thrive on dead
carcasses, left over
organic matter or
excreta and in the
process clean the
environment
.
Medical Uses of Insects
Ethnoentomology studies the relationship
between insects and humans.
Blister Beetles : for being an aphrodisiac, helped
alleviate pain for people experience kidney stones,
urinary tract infections and burns.
Bees : reduce swelling alleviate the pain of people
suffering from rheumatoid arthritis
Silkworms: offer tremendous pain relief for people
with things like back injuries and back pain
Grasshopper : offer pain relief of migrain
ants : can help with arthritis sufferers
Insects as Pest in Plant

Pests in the broad sense are all forms of


disturbance both in humans, livestock and
plants
The concept of the emergence of pests can be
classified into three groups:
The existence of a new land clearing process
where there are structural changes in an
ecoystem
Introduction of new plants to a location
In addition, changes in human perception can
also determine the status of pests
Insect behavior as a pest
The type of damage to the plant by insect pests
is very closely related to the type of mouth tool
of the insect pest itself.
There are several types of insect mouth tools,
namely:
The type of mouth tool is biting-chewing
The type of mouth piercing tool sucks
Type of mouth sharpening tool suck
Type of mouth hook-sucking tool
Other types of mouth tools are licking to suck
the example of house flies, and the type of
mouth tool to suck the example of mosquitoes
and butterflies.
The behavior of insects in damaging
plants can be grouped as follows:
Insects that damage the stems or twigs of
plants by hollowing, bending, breaking or
injuring it.
example : Lophobaris piperis
Insects that damage the leaves or bud the plant
leaves by eating or sucking the liquid.
example : Oryctes rhinoceros
Lophobaris piperis Oryctes rhinoceros
Insects that damage fruits or flowers by eating, sucking or
boring.
example: Helicoverpa armigera
Insects that attack plant roots
example : Gryllus bimaculatus
Insects that attack plant growing points
example : Atherigona exigua
Insects as plant disease vectors, such as bacteria, fungi and
viruses
example: Cerotoma variegate
Destructive insects or farmers or grain in storage
(warehouse pest)
example : Ephestia cautella
Helicoverpa armigera Atherigona exigua
Pest eradication can be done in various
ways
Insecticide
Intercropping
Crop rotation
Predator / parasite
Insects as vectors (Spread of Disease)

In 2003, Dengue Fever struck various regions in


Indonesia, including Medan.
Dengue fever is caused by a type of virus,
dengue virus.
This virus can enter into the human body through
a kind of mosquito. The mosquito that acts as a
dengue virus vector is Aedes aegypti.
This is one example of the role of insects as
vectors.
Dog Flea ( Ctenocephalides canis)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Siphonaptera
Family: Pulicidae
Genus: Ctenocephalide
Species: C. canis
Fleas can act as vector to
transmit tapeworms
Black Flies (Simulium spp)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Simuliidae
Genus: Simulium
Spesies: Simulium spp

As a vector for transmitting


oncosersiasis disease
(Onchocerca volvulus)
House Fly (Musca domestica)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Muscidae
Genus: Musca
Species: M. domestica

Act as vector those causing


typhoid, cholera,salmonellosis,
bacillary dysentery, etc.
Horse Flies (Tabanus spp)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Tabanidae
Genus: Tabanus
Spesies: Tabanus spp
As a vector in the
transmission of anthrax
Anopheles Mosquito
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Family: Culicidae
Genus: Anopheles
Spesies: A. Gambiae
act as vectors in the
transmission of malaria
Green leafhopper ( Nephotettix
nigropictus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Family: Cicadellidae
Genus: Nephotettix
Species: N. Nigropictus
As a virus vector of tungro /
waika disease.
(Rice Tungro Bacilliform Virus
(RTBV) and Rice Tungro
Spherical Virus (RTSV)).
Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata
lugens)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Family: Delphacidae
Genus: Nilaparvata
Species: N. lugens
as a vector for rice grassy
stunt virus (RGSV)
Renault & Ammar (1989) and also Matthews (1991)
have reported from 15,000 plant hopper that has
been found, 49 spesies included as vector or virus
transfer.

Leafhopper comes from several genus namely


Graminella, Recelia, Cicadulina, Circulifer,
Nesoclutha, Orosius, Psammotettix, Micrutalis,
Dalbulus, Aconurella, Macrosteles, Aceratagallia,
Agallia, Agalliopsis, Endria, Elymana, Laodelphax,
Tarophagus, Toya, Sogatella, Peregrinus,
Ribautodelphax, Muellerianella, Unkanodes.
Psammotettix alienus (Wheat Dwarf Virus) on
Hordeum vulgare (wheat ).
The results of the data are clearly different
when compared with the ability of Javesella
pellucida as FLSV (Festuca leaf streak virus)
vector.
In this case, Lundsgaard (1999) reported that
only adult stages are capable of acting as
vectors, while larval stages fail as vectors.
The Ways of Controlling Pest

Consists of physical or mechanical, chemical


and biological approaches

The combination of two or more of these


approaches in order to control pest insects is
known as Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

Efforts to control pests by applying several


control techniques combined in one unit to
prevent damage and incur losses economically as
well as environmental damage
Basic Principles of Integrated Pest
Management

1. The cultivation of healthy plants


2. Utilizing natural enemies
3. Observation and regular monitoring
4. Farmers as experts of Integrated Pest
Management
Integrated Pest Control Components

Physical or Mechanical Approach


Biological Approach
Chemical Approach
Physical or Mechanical Approach

Planting in Unison
Crop Rotation
Planting Resistant Varieties by Rotation
Biological Approach

Predators
Parasitoid
Bacteria
Mushrooms
Virus
Nematodes
Chemical Approach

Use of Insecticides
Formulation
1. Emulsifiable Concentrates
2. Wettable Powder
3. Soluble Powder
4. Granule or Pelleted Formulation
5. Oil Formulation
Chemical Approach

Chemical Structure
1. Inorganic insecticides
2. Organic insecticides
Examples of the Ways of Controlling Pest

Nilaparvata lugens

Symptoms of an attack
1.Leaves and stems of hollow plants
2.The leaves and stems then dry and
eventually die

The Ways of Controlling Pest


1. Arrangement of cropping pattern, ie by
planting simultaneously or with crop rotation.
Crop rotation is done to break the life cycle of
planthopper by planting crops or land left for 1
till 2 months.
2. Biological control by using natural enemies of
aphis, eg spider predator Lycosa
pseudoannulata, Microvelia douglasi and
Cyrtorhinuss lividipenis, Paederuss fuscipes,
Ophinea nigrofasciata, and Synarmonia
octomaculata.
3. Chemical control by using insecticides, done
if other ways are not possible to do. The use of
insecticides is cultivated in such a way as to be
effective, efficient, and safe for the
environment.
2. Leptocorisa acuta

Symptoms of an attack
1. Sucking the grains of rice that is still
liquid
2. Seeds that have been smoked will
become empty, rather empty, or clay
3. The skin of the seeds will be blackish.
4. Leptocorisa acuta, (nymph) is more
active than adult (imago), but adult
animals can damage more great because
of their longer life.
5. Leptocorisa acuta, adult can also eat
the seeds. Seeds that have hardened,
namely by removing enzymes that can
digest carbohydrates
Factors that support the pest population are as follows:
- Rice fields are very close to forestry
- The population of weeds around the rice fields is quite high
- Planting not simultaneously

The Way of Controlling:


1. Planting crops simultaneously
2. Clean the rice fields from all sorts of grass that grows around the fields
so as not to become a breeding ground for the pest
3. Capturing the sage in the morning by using fishing net
4. Arrest using frog carcasses, rice fields, or with algae
5. Conducting biological control by releasing natural predators changes to
spider and planting mushrooms that can infect the pest
6. Controlling chemicals, e.g. by using insecticides.
3. Mites

Symptoms of an attack:
1. Mites (small lice) may be found
in a leaf down to suck the leaf.
2. In the leaf-infested lice will
occur small patches then the leaves
will become yellow and then fall.

The Way of Controlling:


This pest can be overcome by
collecting leaves that are attacked
by pests in a place and burned.
INSECTICIDES
Insecticide is any toxic substance that is used
to kill insects
Used primarily to control pests that
infest cultivated plants or to eliminate disease-
carrying insects in specific areas.
Insecticides Products Usually used by
Farmers
a. Agrimec 18 EC
. Active ingredients:
Abamektin
. Usability: to control
Thrips on peppers,
aphids on apples, pod
borer on legumes and
other insect pests
Insecticides Products Usually used by
Farmers
b. Decis
Active ingredients:
Deltametrin
Usability: Eradicate
caterpillars, grayak
caterpillars, white lice,
grasshoppers, papilio
caterpillars
Insecticides Products Usually used by
Farmers
c. Confidor
Active ingredients:
Imidakloprid
Usability: Eradicate
Aphis Sp., Thrips,
Cotton Planthopper,
Green leafhoppers, etc.
Insecticides Products Usually used by
Farmers
d. Curater
Active ingredients:
Carbofuran
Usability: Control of thrips
(vector of spotted wilt
disease) and suppression
of Meloidogyne spp.
nematodes on Oriental
tobacco in the Western Cape;
control of American bollworm
on tobacco as well as limited
control of black maize beetle
and millipede on potato.
Insecticides Products Usually used by
Farmers
d. Dursban
Active ingredients:
Klorpirifos
Usability: Controlling
stem borer, Jontrot,
Worm, Uret on plant
roots such as: Chili
Plants, Tomatoes,
Cabbage. Potatoes,
Peanuts, and Beans.