Native Americans and African Americans: The Mixing of America


World Wide Diaspora of Africans

Diaspora ~ definition
 

a scattering; to scatter to disperse; the dispersion of a group of people Any scattering of people with a common origin, background, beliefs,etc.

Diaspora of Africans to the Americas

World ocean currents

Mexican Stone Heads

Mexican Stone Heads date back to 1000 B.C. - to 400 B.C.

Colossal heads found in La Venta, Vera Cruz and San Lorenzo, Mexico

Today’s Black Mexicans

The state of California was named by Spanish explorer Cortes after

Estevan – 1st Black recorded to enter New Mexico & Arizona Territories

Veracruz, Mexico Maroon Leader Gaspar Yanga - 1579

Jamaican Maroon Society : Nanny Town – c. 1730

  

Definition of Miscegenation A mixture of different races. Cohabitation, sexual relations or marriage involving persons of different races. Interbreeding between members of different races.

South American Black Indians

Runaway Slaves

Runaway Slave Ads

Slave Collars & Iron Masks

Slave Punishments

Chief Pontiac 1755 - Summer Home near Belle Isle, Detroit

Jean Baptiste Du Sable - 1779 Fur Trapper – Founder of Chicago

York – 1804 - ’06 Enslaved by Clark Lewis & Clark Expedition

Sacagawea 1803 Joined The Lewis & Clark Expedition to the Pacific Coast

George Bonga – Minnesota Fur trapper 1820

Map of the Five Civilized Tribes

Signing of the 1814 Fort Jackson Treaty

Creek Warrior

Seminole Wars – 1st War 1819 2nd War 1835 1842

Removal Act of 1830

Trail of Tears

Oklahoma Territory

Creek born Seminole Chief Osceola – 1835 Warrior

Seminole Chief Wild Cat

Seminole Chief - John Horse

Governor of California Don Pio Pico - 1845

Black Cowboy Nat Love – Cowpuncher 1869

The cultural absorption of a minority group into the main cultural body  The action of making or becoming like; the state of being like; similarity, resemblance, likeness  The becoming conformed to; conformity with

George Catlin painting of assimilation ~ before photography : 1837-39

The Assimilation of Navajo - Tom Torlino 1886

Tom Torlino two years later… 1888

Assimilation …Before & After

Young Indigenous Girls go to Carlisle Training School

Young men enter Carlisle School

Omaha boys in cadet uniforms – Carlisle, 1880

Chiracahua Apaches Arriving at Carlisle Indian School, 1886

Chiracahua group 4 months later at Carlisle School, 1886

Mrs. Zerviah Mitchell – 7th generation descendent of Wampanoag Chief - Mass.

Mrs. Mitchell’s Granddaughter ~ 1872

Council of 1890’s Oklahoma Settlement

Rufus Buck Gang – executed after a 13 day killing rampage ~ July, 1895

Chickasaw Freedmen

Chickasaw Freedmen file for land allotments

Chickasaw Senate at end of the 1800’s

Four Choctaw Children

Assist. Principal Chief of Cherokee Nation George Lowrey - 1829

Cherokee Elder Swimmer ~ traditionalist

Cherokee ballgame team practice for national tournament

Three ball-players in ball-play dress: George Catlin sketches

Black Indian Ben Pickett 1890s

Bill Pickett: Cowboy

Cherokee Training School

Cherokee Alphabet

Amazing Grace in Cherokee

Mother & daughter of the Cherokee Nation

Cherokee Bill & his mother Ellen Lynch Black Indians

The Seminole Tribe

Seminole Delegation to Washington D. C.

Billy Bowlegs – Seminole

Rebecca Green of St Helena Island, South Carolina

Seminole Family at Chickee dwelling

Members of the Seminole Nation

Outdoor cooking among the Seminoles

Grinding corn

Seminole men in native attire

Two Seminole girls

Seminole women

Ranchos Group Photo

Modern day Seminole Nation members

Yoholo Micco – Eastern Band ca. 1832

Black Soldiers

Chippewa Couple

Sitting Bull – Sioux Nation ~ 1885

Crow Indian of the Yellowtail Family

Kitty Cloud Taylor Ute Indian 1900

Shoshone beading

Four Comrades

Basket Weaver

Three Sac Fox children

Three friends

Black & Indian Cowboys

Black Indian Artist Edmonia Lewis

Seminole Negro Indian Scouts

ST John Bullis – Won the respect of the Black Seminole Negro Scouts

Mrs. Emily Wilson

Texas Ranger Lee Roy Young Jr.

Couple displays photo of Indian Scout Grandfather

Papoose Baby & Mother

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