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i Introduction
i Motivation Defined
i Behavior
i Content Theories
Maslow¶s Hierrarcy of Needs Theory
Douglas McGregor- Theory X and Theory Y
Alderfer¶s ERG Theory
McClelland¶s Achievement Motivation Theory
Herzberg¶s Two Factor Theory
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i Content theory of motivation
i Process Theories of Motivation
Equity Theory of Motivation
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
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If you want to build a ship,

don¶t drum up the men to go to the forest

to gather wood, saw it, and nail the planks together.

Instead, teach them the desire for the sea.

Antoine de Saint-
Saint-Exup
Exupééry
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m  

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i Derived from the Latin term á (a moving cause).
i Defined as ³forces acting either on or within a person to
initiate behavior´.
Encyclopedia Britannica

i ³Motivation is an internal state or condition (sometimes


described as a need, desire, or want) that serves to
activate or energize behavior and give it direction´.
Kleinginna, P., Jr., & Kleinginna A. (Motivation & Emotion 1981)

i ³The arousal, direction, & persistence of behavior´.


Franken, R. (Human Motivation 1994)
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i Motivation research has long considered human
motives and needs. However, isolating people's
motivational needs can be a difficult process
because most people are not explicitly aware of
what their motives are.
i In attempting to understand employee motivation,
Abraham Maslow proposed Hierarchy of Needs
based on the assumption that people are
motivated by a series of five universal needs.
These needs are raked, according to the order in
which they influence human behavior, in
hierarchical fashion.
  
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i Suggested that there were two different and


opposing views relating to peoples¶ behaviour at
work. These views have become known as Theory
X and Theory Y .
i Theory X:
‡ people generally dislike work and therefore need to
be coerced into working effectively.
‡ most people dislike taking responsibility and
generally like to carry out tasks that are clearly
defined for them.
‡ people do not like change and are resistant to it.
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i Theory Y:
‡ to people work is as natural as play or rest.
‡ people who are committed to goals can achieve
them through their own self-direction without the
need for coercion or supervision.
‡ most people like to be in control of their own
actions and are naturally creative in solving
problems without having to be told.
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i Therefore a managers who worked from Theory X
are likely to control, make decisions for people who
work for them and closely monitor them, whilst
mangers who operated from Theory Y would
encourage and help their staff to set their own
goals and targets.
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i Clayton Alderfer reworked Maslow's Need
Hierarchy to align it more closely with empirical
research. Alderfer's theory is called the  !

 xistence, elatedness, and !rowth.
‡ Existence refers to our concern with basic material
existence requirements; what Maslow called
physiological and safety needs.
‡ Relatedness refers to the desire we have for
maintaining interpersonal relationships; similar to
Maslow's social/love need.
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‡ Growth refers to desire for personal development;
the intrinsic component of Maslow's esteem need,
and self-actualization.
Alderfer's ERG theory differs from Maslow¶s Need
Hierarchy insofar as ERG theory demonstrates:
‡ that more than one need may be operative at the
same time.
‡ does not assume a rigid hierarchy where a lower
need must be substantially satisfied before one
can move on.
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‡ deals with frustration-regression. That is, if a
higher-order need is frustrated, an individual then
seeks to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order
need.
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i David McClelland furthered the idea of Abraham
Maslow¶s Hierarchy of Needs. McClelland's
experimental work identified sets of motivators
present to varying degrees in different people. He
proposed that these needs were socially acquired
or learned, i.e. the extent to which these motivators
are present varies from person to person, and
depends on the individual and his or her
background.
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i McClelland's experiment:- Thematic Apperception
Test (TAT)
‡ consisted of showing individuals a series of
pictures and asking them to give brief descriptions
of what was happening in the pictures.
‡ The responses were analyzed in terms of the
presence or absence of certain themes.
‡ The themes McClelland and his associates were
looking for revolved around the following
motivators: achievement, affiliation and power.
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i According to David McClelland, regardless of
culture or gender, people are driven by three
motives:
‡ achievement
‡ affiliation
‡ power (influence)
i Since McClelland's first experiments, over 1,000
studies relevant to achievement motivation have
been conducted. These studies strongly support
the theory.
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i Achievement (nAch)
The need for achievement is characterized by
‡ the wish to take responsibility for finding solutions
to problems
‡ master complex tasks
‡ set goals
‡ get feedback on level of success
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i Affiliation (nAff)
The need for affiliation is characterized by
‡ desire to belong
‡ an enjoyment of teamwork
‡ a concern about interpersonal relationships
‡ a need reduce uncertainty.
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i Power (nP)
The need for power is characterized by
‡ drive to control and influence others
‡ need to win arguments
‡ need to persuade and prevail.
According to McClelland, the presence of these
motives or drives in an individual indicates a
predisposition to behave in certain ways.
Recognizing which need is dominant in any
particular individual affects the way in which that
person can be motivated.
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Specifically, achievement motivation is defined as
a concern for achieving excellence through
individual efforts. Such individuals:
‡ set challenging goals for themselves
‡ assume personal responsibility for goal
accomplishment
‡ are highly persistent in the pursuit of these goals
‡ take calculated risks to achieve the goals
‡ actively collect and use information for purposes of
feedback.
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i High achievement motivated managers:
‡ are also strongly inclined to be personally involved
in performing their organizational tasks.
‡ However, they may also be reluctant to delegate
authority and responsibility.
‡ Thus, high achievement motivation may be
expected to result in poor performance of high-
level executives in large organizations.
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i Achievement motivation positively related to the
leadership of small task-oriented groups and small
entrepreneurial firms and negatively related to the
effectiveness of high- level managers in complex
organizations or in political situations.
i In areas of management where high levels of
delegation may be required, high achievement
motivated individuals may be unable to give up
their personal involvement with the task.
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i High power motivation:
Power motivation is defined as the concern for
acquiring status and having an impact on others.
‡ McClelland used power motivation as a measure
of social influence behaviors.
‡ Since most management activities require the use
of social influence behaviors and since power
motivation measures an individual's desire to
influence, the power motive is important for
leadership effectiveness.
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i McClelland proposed the Leader Motive Profile
Theory (LMP theory) in which he argued that in
high power motivation, greater than the affiliation
motive, is predictive of leader effectiveness.
i Highly power-motivated individuals obtain great
satisfaction from the exercise of influence.
Consequently, their interest in the exercise of
leadership is sustained.
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i High power motivation is predicted to result in
effective managerial performance in middle and
high-level positions.
However, unless constrained in some manner,
some power-motivated managers may also be
predicted to exercise power in an aggressive
manner for self-aggrandizing purposes, to the
detriment of their organizations.
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Affiliative motivation is defined as a non-conscious
concern for establishing, maintaining, and restoring
close personal relationships with others.
‡ Individuals with high affiliative motivation tend to
be non-assertive, submissive, and dependent on
others.
‡ Such managers are expected to manage on the
basis of personal relationships with subordinates.
This may result in them showing favouritism
toward some.
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i As managers, highly affiliative individuals are
predicted to be reluctant to monitor the behavior of
subordinates, give negative feedback to others, or
discipline their subordinates.
However, when the power motive is higher than
the affiliative motive, individuals are disinclined to
engage in dysfunctional management behaviors
such as submissiveness, reluctance to monitor and
discipline subordinates, and favouritism.
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i Adults are assumed to possess all three
motivations to one degree or another, however,
one of the motives is usually dominant.
Managers need to identify what motivates others
and to create appropriately motivating conditions
for them.
‡ People with achievement motives are motivated by
standards of excellence, delineated roles and
responsibilities and concrete, timely feedback.
‡ Those with affiliation motives are motivated when
they can accomplish things with people they know
and trust.
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i And the power motive is activated when people are
allowed to have an impact, impress those in
power, or beat competitors.
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(

, also known as
the |

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, was derived
from a study designed to test the concept that
people have two sets of needs:
*+ their needs as animals to avoid pain (avoidance of
unpleasantness)
,+ their needs as humans to grow psychologically
(personal growth)
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i Herzberg's study consisted of a series of


interviews that sought to elicit responses to the
questions:
(1) Recall a time when you felt exceptionally good
about your job. Why did you feel that way about
the job? Did this feeling affect your job
performance in any way? Did this feeling have an
impact on your personal relationships or your well-
being?
(2) Recall a time on the job that resulted in
negative feelings? Describe the sequence of
events that resulted in these negative feelings.
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i It appeared, from the research, that the things
making people happy on the job and those making
them unhappy had two separate themes.
i Five factors stood out as strong determiners of job
satisfaction:
‡ achievement
‡ Recognition (for achievement)
‡ work itself
‡ responsibility
‡ advancement
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i The determinants of job   $


 were
found to be:
‡ company policy
‡ administrative policies
‡ supervision
‡ salary
‡ interpersonal relations
‡ working conditions
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i The theme of the satisfiers (motivators) is one


having to do with the relationship the employee
has with his/ her job; job content.
i The theme of the dissatisfiers (hygiene or
maintenance factors) is related to the environment
or context of the job.
i Motivators led to job satisfaction because of a
need for growth and self actualization, and hygiene
factors led to job dissatisfaction because of a need
to avoid unpleasantness.
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i For Herzberg, motivation results from personal


growth and is based on an innate need to grow i.e.
people find satisfaction in work that is interesting
and challenging. A desire to fulfill our potential
drives us to seek growth and provides the
incentive to achieve.
i According to Herzberg, the idea that the work one
does is significant leads, ultimately, to satisfaction
with the the work itself. Employees will be
motivated to do work that they perceive to be
significant.
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i By providing motivators and removing hygiene,
management can facilitate the growth of
employees. This is essential to both the individual
and the organization.Growth makes the employee
more valuable to the organization because of
his/her ability to perform higher order duties.
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m Process theories of motivation «


i How people make choices to work hard or not.
i Choices are based on:
i Individual preferences.
i Available rewards.
i Possible work outcomes.
m Types of process theories:
i Equity theory.
i Expectancy theory.
i Goal-setting theory.
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i The distribution of rewards in organizations has
important behavioral consequences.
i Employees are rarely passive observers of the
events that occur around them at the workplace.
They are observers and, perhaps more
importantly, they evaluate the events they observe.
i It will be useful to use Exchange Theory to try to
understand these evaluative processes.
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i Exchange Theories are based on two
assumptions about human behavior.
1. There is an assumed similarity between the
process through which individual evaluate their
social relationships and their economic
transactions in the market.
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2. It is assumed that people demand fairness in
their social interactions and that information
about the perceived fairness is obtained by
observation of what others get out of the
relationship.
i To summarize, individuals in social
interactions behave in a manner similar to
that posited for the µeconomic man¶ of
classical economics. The assumption is that
individuals are motivated to maximize their
rewards and minimize their costs.
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i Perception: Inputs Compared with Outputs
The major components of exchange relationships
are inputs and outcomes.
‡ Inputs, like investments, are what a person puts
into the relationship.
‡ Outcomes are the things that result from the
exchange.
The relative importance of the inputs and outputs
is a matter of Perception.
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i Equity: the Input/ Output Ratio
Equity is said to exist whenever the ratio of my
outcomes to inputs is equal to the ratio of the other
person's outcomes and inputs.
‡ Employees may exhibit satisfaction on a job that
demands a great deal and for which they receive
very little if, and only if, their co-workers are in
similar positions.
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i Equity theory (J. Stacey Adams, 1965) suggests
that individuals evaluate the ratio of their inputs to
outcomes for a given job in relation to other,
referent employees.
Inequity is assumed or perceived to exist if the
ratios are not equal. As a result of the tension thus
created by this inequity, employees are motivated
to restore equity.
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i Equity Theory:
‡ perceived inequity creates tension in the individual.
‡ the amount of tension is proportional to the
magnitude of the perceived inequity
‡ the tension created in the individual will motivate
him or her to reduce it
‡ the strength of the motivation to reduce inequity is
proportional to the perceived inequity
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i Equity theory suggests that over rewarded
individuals might be motivated to increase their
performance and under rewarded individuals to
decrease their performance in an effort to restore
equity.
i The concept of equity is most often interpreted as
a positive association between an employee's
effort on the job and the pay he/ she receives.
Whoever contributes more is believed to be
entitled to more of the outputs. This may be
referred to as the equity norm.
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i Developed by Edwin Locke.


i Properly set and well-managed task goals can be
highly motivating.
i Motivational effects of task goals:
i Provide direction to people in their work.
i Clarify performance expectations.
i Establish a frame of reference for feedback.
i Provide a foundation for behavioral self-management.
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i In recent years, probably the most popular
motivational theory has been the  

 (also known as the Valence-
Instrumentality- Expectancy Theory). Although
there are a number of theories found with this
general title, they all have their roots in  



#'s 1964 work on motivation.


i Assumption
Vroom's theory assumes that behavior results from
conscious choices among alternatives whose
purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize
painD
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i Key Elements:
‡ Expectancy (E)
‡ Instrumentality (I)
‡ Valence (V)
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(
- . #  .


i   probability: based on perceived effort-


performance relationship, dependent on past experience, self-
confidence, and perceived difficulty of goal
i If I work harder will I produce more?

i  #   probability: based on perceived performance-


reward relationship, dependent on beliefs about incentive
system
i If I produce more, will I get promoted faster?

i : the individuals valuation of the reward. Function of


needs, goals, values
i Do I want a promotion? Is it worth the extra effort
 

i How to use motivation theories


i For self
i For organisation
i Thank you